• genomes
  • In addition, comparisons of the two genomes will help to understand the evolutionary forces that mold nematode genomes. (plos.org)
  • It addresses major themes--including the history of evolution, evolutionary processes, adaptation, and evolution as an explanatory framework--at levels of biological organization ranging from genomes to ecological communities. (oup.com)
  • Scientists using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, which sequenced one thousand individuals from 26 human populations, found that "a typical [individual] genome differs from the reference human genome at 4.1 million to 5.0 million sites … affecting 20 million bases of sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2017[update], the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP), which lists SNP and other variants, listed 324 million variants found in sequenced human genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLOS Biology
  • In a study appearing early online Aug. 11 in PLOS Biology , Duke researchers have mapped the evolutionary turning point that transformed the pathogenic form of Cryptococcus from an organism of many sexes to one with only two. (duke.edu)
  • species
  • The study of genomics is made possible by the creation of genome assemblies: strings of sequences that represent the DNA content of a species, or an individual within a species. (washington.edu)
  • In many species there is a heterogametic sex (e.g. (biologged.com)
  • He and an international team of researchers focused on the last common ancestor of the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and its nearest sibling species, a non-pathogen called Cryptococcus amylolentus. (duke.edu)
  • 1998
  • A parallel project was conducted outside government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid, with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other cases of obligate parthenogenesis (or gynogenesis) are found among polyploids and hybrids where the chromosomes cannot pair for meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or one of the polar bodies may fuse with the egg cell at some stage during its maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes, and any other physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex-specific Differences in Mouse DMRT1 Expression Are Both Cell Type- and Stage-dependent during Gonad Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A difference of 1 in 1,000 amounts to approximately 3 million nucleotide differences, because the human genome has about 3 billion nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Here, we examine Z-chromosome molecular markers within and between Chinese and Australian populations. (cambridge.org)
  • Alleles occur at different frequencies in different human populations, with populations that are more geographically and ancestrally remote tending to differ more, a phenomenon known as isolation-by-distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • implications
  • My human genomics work has also included detecting admixture between ancient hominins, quantifying the effects of SNP ascertainment bias, and examining the public health implications of GC-biased gene conversion. (upenn.edu)
  • diploid
  • Haploid individuals, however, are usually non-viable, and parthenogenetic offspring usually have the diploid chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the mechanism involved in restoring the diploid number of chromosomes, parthenogenetic offspring may have anywhere between all and half of the mother's alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • This is because in asexual reproduction a successful genotype can spread quickly without being modified by sex or wasting resources on male offspring who won't give birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoformans
  • For example, chromosome 1 of C. neoformans contained pieces of four different chromosomes from C. amylolentus, providing evidence of multiple translocations, some within the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • tritici, plant pathogen (2011) Puccinia triticina 1-1 BBBD Race 1, pathogen of wheat() Rhodotorula graminis strain WP1, plant symbiont (2010) Sporobolomyces roseus, associated with plants () Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans JEC21, human pathogen (2005, other strains unpubl. (wikipedia.org)
  • centromeres
  • Surprisingly, they've shown that these crucial translocations occurred at the centromeres, the twisty ties that hold together chromosomes at the center of an x-shaped pair. (duke.edu)
  • telomeres
  • No interstitial telomeres on autosomes but remarkable amplification of telomeric repeats on the W sex chromosome in the sand lizard ( Lacerta agilis ) Matsubara et al. (sexchrlab.org)
  • Cryptococcus
  • Duke scientists say Cryptococcus swapped chromosome arms at the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • Some members of Cryptococcus, a family of fungus linked to human disease, can have tens of thousands of different mating types. (duke.edu)
  • mutations
  • This mathematical model illustrates how evolutionary fitness depends on the independence of phenotypic variation from random changes (that is, mutations). (wikipedia.org)
  • New findings show that each human has on average 60 new mutations compared to their parents. (wikipedia.org)