• sequence
  • Expansions are apparently dependent on the property of the repeat array to form hairpins, since DSB repair of a CAA 87 repeat induces only contractions of the repeat sequence. (embopress.org)
  • The name "satellite DNA" refers to the phenomenon that repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all RU variants examined, tandem repeats of the CGCAC:GTGCG sequence motif were also found adjacent to a C:G mononucleotide repeat within one of the repetitive pyrimidine:purine divergent domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many satellite repeat arrays and TAGs seem to undergo concerted evolution by sequence homogenization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • codons
  • Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • myoglobin
  • Although the first microsatellite was characterised in 1984 at the University of Leicester by Weller, Jeffreys and colleagues as a polymorphic GGAT repeat in the human myoglobin gene, the term "microsatellite" was introduced later, in 1989, by Litt and Luty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • disorders
  • These disorders are characterized by autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance (with the exception of spino-bulbar muscular atrophy, which shows X-linked inheritance), midlife onset, a progressive course, and a correlation of the number of CAG repeats with the severity of disease and the age at onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRS disorders typically have large and variable repeat expansions that result in multiple tissue dysfunction or degeneration. (cancer-basics.com)
  • Some of these strategies have the potential for future use in gene therapy for trinucleotide repeat disorders. (lidsen.com)
  • however, they are extremely useful in such fields as forensic DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis, which can be used to search for genes involved in a wide range of disorders. (bmj.com)
  • phenotype
  • Thus, the phenotype of traits linked to genes found in either chloroplasts or mitochondria are determined exclusively by the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • repetitive
  • A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1-6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent layer of bulk DNA from accompanying "satellite" layers of repetitive DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • humans
  • Nevertheless, even focusing as intended upon microsatellites and their relevance to humans, it should become clear that most of these questions remain ones that will require consideration, even if only in passing. (bmj.com)
  • phylogenetic
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • approaches
  • Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic Approaches for Improvement of Understudied Grasses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • diseases
  • There is a widely held expectation that genomic studies will lead to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and to new insights in many fields of biology, including human evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying trinucleotide repeats as the basis of disease has brought clarity to our understanding of a complex set of inherited neurological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As more repeat expansion diseases have been discovered, several categories have been established to group them based upon similar characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the causative genes are widely expressed in all of the known polyglutamine diseases, each disease displays an extremely selective pattern of neurodegeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • locus
  • Overexpression of Mre11p or Rad50p suppresses the inhibition of DSB repair by CAG 98 and significantly increases the average size of expansions found at the recipient locus. (embopress.org)
  • We propose that successive intrastrand deletions generated the initial repeat structure, and gene conversions increased the size of each tandem repeat locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • disease
  • The second, related DNA-triplet repeat disease, fragile X-E syndrome, was also identified on the X chromosome, but was found to be the result of an expanded CGG repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-four percent of FECD subjects and 5% of control individuals harbor more than 50 trinucleotide repeats, which was considered as the disease threshold. (arvojournals.org)
  • 4 , 5 So far, many genes have been attributed to cause this disease, thereby revealing its genetic complexity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transcription factor 4 ( TCF4 ), that encodes for E2-2 protein, a group of E protein transcription factors known for cellular growth and differentiation, is one such gene that has been associated with this disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response. (auburn.edu)
  • deletions
  • We have found that the gain of novel LCRs is frequently associated with repeat expansion whereas the loss of LCRs is more often due to accumulation of amino acid substitutions as opposed to deletions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A bias toward deletions at homopolymers and insertions at (AT) n microsatellites suggests a different mechanism for mismatch generation at these sites. (g3journal.org)