• horizontal gene tra
  • Comparative genomics focusing on the abpA gene locus provides evidence of horizontal gene transfer. (springer.com)
  • From evolutionary perspective, the finding of the UBact-proteasome system in gram-negtive bacteria suggests that either the Pup/UBact-proteasome systems evolved in bacteria prior to the split into gram positive and negative clades over 3000 million years ago or, that these systems were acquired by different bacterial lineages through horizontal gene transfer(s) from a third, yet unknown, organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin genes are often transferred through horizontal gene transfer and are associated with pathogenic bacteria, having been found on plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This movement of genes can occur through Horizontal Gene Transfer, or HGT, effectively scramblingthe information on which biologists rely to reconstruct the phylogeny of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as are transformation and transduction although these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. (mdpi.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Bacteria use quorum sensing to optimize gene expression to accommodate for local bacterial density and diffusion rates. (asm.org)
  • The local concentration of pheromone is used by bacteria as an indication of bacterial density and local diffusion rates. (asm.org)
  • CAGEF provides typing services for isolated bacteria using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), 16S rRNA, and species-specific gene sequencing. (utoronto.ca)
  • Genome instability does occur in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation-proteasome components neighboring the UBact and Pup loci in these Nitrospirae bacteria show weak similarity and are probably not entirely redundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • PATRIC Data Release Policy Bacillus Bartonella Borrelia Brucella Burkholderia Campylobacter Chlamydophila Clostridium Coxiella Ehrlichia Escherichia Francisella Helicobacter Lysteria Mycobacterium Rickettsia Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus Vibrio Yersinia Other Bacteria Protein Family Sorter: Compares protein families across closely related or diverse groups of genomes, visualizes them using interactive heatmaps, and generates multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees for an individual families. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if two distantly related bacteria have exchanged a gene, a phylogenetic tree including those species will show them to be closely related even though most other genes have diverged substantially. (wikipedia.org)
  • The locus also includes the genes for the proteins that attach themselves to the surface of F− bacteria and initiate conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several proteins coded for in the tra or trb locus seem to open a channel between the bacteria and it is thought that the traD enzyme, located at the base of the pilus, initiates membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that lateral gene transfer to humans from bacteria may play a role in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable contributions include the discovery of the bacterial virus λ, the transfer of genes between bacteria by specialized transduction, the development of replica plating, and the discovery of the bacterial fertility factor F (F plasmid). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Out of twelve intact α/β-gliadin genes detected from their sequences, nine were expressed, although their patterns of expression were distinct. (nih.gov)
  • High-frequency inter- and intramolecular recombination is detected within the higher plant mitochondrial genome at large repeated sequences that can be readily identified by physical mapping ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The discovery that the RNA guided bacterial endonuclease Cas9 can be harnessed to target and manipulate user-defined genomic sequences has greatly influenced the field of genome engineering. (springer.com)
  • Segal DJ, Dreier B, Beerli RR, Barbas CF 3rd (1999) Toward controlling gene expression at will: selection and design of zinc finger domains recognizing each of the 5′-GNN-3′ DNA target sequences. (springer.com)
  • Genome sequencing and BLAST searches using N-terminal sequences, protein size, and key words identified the gene associated with each ABP. (springer.com)
  • We use high-throughput Sanger and Next-Gen targeted amplicon sequencing to determine variants and compare these against the species-approriate pubMLST database or against available gene sequences to determine relationships. (utoronto.ca)
  • There are hotspots in the genome where DNA sequences are prone to gaps and breaks after inhibition of DNA synthesis such as in the aforementioned checkpoint arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure characterizes isolates of microbial species using the DNA sequences of internal fragments of multiple housekeeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each housekeeping gene, the different sequences present within a bacterial species are assigned as distinct alleles and, for each isolate, the alleles at each of the loci define the allelic profile or sequence type (ST). The first MLST scheme to be developed was for Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each of these housekeeping genes, the different sequences are assigned as alleles and the alleles at the loci provide an allelic profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene most commonly used for constructing phylogenetic relationships in microorganisms is the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, as its sequences tend to be conserved among members with close phylogenetic distances, yet variable enough that differences can be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Duplication of all adjacent genes within the same BAC clone took place before or after allotetrapolyploidization, but duplication of certain genes occurred before diploid differentiation of wheat species. (nih.gov)
  • This diverse microbial community is defined as the 'microbiota,' and the collective genomes of all microbial species and their environment is termed the 'microbiome' ( Marchesi and Ravel, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To prevent interception of quorum-sensing signals by neighboring strains, the genomes of single species often encode strain-specific signal/receptor pairs. (asm.org)
  • These interactions often result in enzymatic activity and/or intra- and inter-species signaling functions that help to maintain a relatively stable collection of bacterial species comprising the oral microbiome. (springer.com)
  • The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin was named for its ubiquitous presence among eukaryotes, while UBact ('Ubiquitin bacterial') is very limited in occurrence among the vast number of bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • PafA, (ii) C-terminal sequence that ends exclusively with glutamine or glutamate across bacterial species, (iii) short size (similar to that of ubiquitin) and, (iv) high sequence conservation across tremendous evolutionary distance (a characteristic also in common with ubiquitin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent annotations across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus both the number and type of housekeeping genes interrogated by MLST may differ from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus determining the phylogenetic history of a species can not be done conclusively by determining evolutionary trees for single genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic loci
  • By fusing this dCas9 to eGFP, we and others could show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be further expanded to label and trace genomic loci in living cells. (springer.com)
  • Chen B, Gilbert LA, Cimini BA, Schnitzbauer J, Zhang W, Li GW, Park J, Blackburn EH, Weissman JS, Qi LS et al (2013) Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system. (springer.com)
  • The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci in yeast. (harvard.edu)
  • proteins
  • Where possible, key amino acid residues in the above proteins (generally in active sites, effectors binding sites or substrate binding sites) were identified in order to support gene identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such mechanism is the production of surface proteins that facilitate adhesive interactions with host and bacterial ligands. (springer.com)
  • These include the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), various T3-secreted effector proteins, H7 flagellin, and a number of specific adhesins, including F9 fimbriae and autotransporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rich, interactive visualizations that support analyses such as, a bird's-eye view of the conservation (or lack thereof) of particular genes of interest, discerning how many proteins have the same function within a single genome, and identifying proteins with multiple homologs or paralogs across a set of genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heatmap view is an interactive visualization tool that provides an overview of the distribution of proteins across a selected set of genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of these recombination events was known to be unique as they occurred in the absence of bacterial RecA and RecBCD proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Corn rootworm-resistant maize line MON88017 was produced using recombinant-DNA techniques to express the cry3Bb1 gene encoding a Coleopteran-specific insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (subsp. (cbd.int)
  • The cry3Bb1 gene encodes the insect control protein Cry3Bb1, a delta-endotoxin. (cbd.int)
  • The CHM gene was shown to encode a protein related to the MutS protein of Escherichia coli that is involved in mismatch repair and DNA recombination. (pnas.org)
  • Coevolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts has permitted economy of function via protein dual-targeting ( 5 , 6 ), genome capacity and coding have been altered ( 7 ), and the mitochondrial genomes of plants have acquired structural and maintenance features distinct from their animal counterparts. (pnas.org)
  • 11. The seed of claim 10 , wherein the single locus conversion confers a trait selected from the group consisting of male sterility, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, disease resistance, waxy starch, modified fatty acid metabolism, modified phytic acid metabolism, modified carbohydrate metabolism and modified protein metabolism. (google.com)
  • Olfactory receptor 10G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FOXP2 protein contains a forkhead-box DNA-binding domain, making it a member of the FOX group of transcription factors, involved in regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the team identified in CS that the mutation is in the middle of a protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of bioinformatics and RNA analyses, they discovered that the gene codes for a novel protein belonging to the forkhead-box (FOX) group of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, mutations that would change an amino acid within the protein coding region of the genome occur at an average of only 0.35 per generation (less than one mutated protein per generation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin Bacterial (UBact) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is homologus to Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms 'Ubiquitin Bacterial' and 'Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein' suggest a molecular similarity between ubiquitin and UBact/Pup which is largely absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pan-genome, that is a combined set of 30 sequenced strains, encodes 2,239 protein families (orthologous groups, OGs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Twinkle protein is a mitochondrial protein that in humans is encoded by the C10orf2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • However, with the modest exception of Alligator mississippiensis for which there is roughly 2.5 Mb of BAC end sequence [ 9 ] and 26 partially assembled BACs (GenBank, 10/3/2008), little sequence data is available for crocodilian genomes, in part due to a relative lack of high-quality molecular tools for this important clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a technique in molecular biology for the typing of multiple loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • MLST directly measures the DNA sequence variations in a set of housekeeping genes and characterizes strains by their unique allelic profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the data collection step, definitive identification of variation is obtained by nucleotide sequence determination of gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • To reconstruct this tree of life, the gene sequence encoding the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA, 16s rRNA) has proven useful, and the tree (as shown in the picture) relies heavily on information from this single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • HGT is thus a potential confounding factor in inferring phylogenetic trees from the sequence of one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Particularly relevant in this respect are the studies on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that produce long-lasting chronic infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Includes an interactive graph presenting relationships between pathogens, genes, and diseases and a disease map, which geolocates reports of associated diseases around the globe in real-time. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has suggested that estrogen may serve to block the production of caspase-12, resulting in a stronger inflammatory reaction to bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletions
  • The simplest explanation of their existence on chromosomes is that they prevent harmful large deletions of the cell's genome, though arguably deletions of large coding regions are fatal to a daughter cell regardless. (wikipedia.org)
  • host genome
  • Here, we review several recent analytical advances in this new research area, including those that use genome-wide association studies to examine host genome-microbiome interactions, while controlling for the influence of other factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we discuss the importance of understanding long-term interactions between the host genome and microbiome, as well as the potential impacts of disrupting this relationship, and explore new research avenues that may provide information about the co-evolutionary history of humans and their microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • endogenous
  • Because endogenous (metabolically-caused) DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells, any reduced DNA repair is likely an important source of genome instability. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • He describes the microorganism Archaeoglobus fulgidus as an anomaly with respect to a phylogenetic tree based upon the code for the enzyme HMGCoA reductase - the organism is definitely an archaean, with all the cell lipids and transcription machinery expected of an archaean, but its HMGCoA genes are of bacterial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • it is no longer safe to assume that those were the only lateral gene transfers that occurred after the first eukaryotes arose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only in later, multicellular eukaryotes do we know of definite restrictions on horizontal gene exchange, such as the advent of separated (and protected) germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • To strike the balance between the acceptable identification power, time and cost for the strain typing, about seven to eight house-keeping genes are commonly used in the laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large number of potential alleles at each of the loci provides the ability to distinguish billions of different allelic profiles, and a strain with the most common allele at each locus would only be expected to occur by chance approximately once in 10,000 isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the strain "26695" consists of about 1.7 million base pairs, with some 1,576 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Furthermore, translocation of α/β-gliadin genes from chromosomes 1 to 6 apparently occurred before the diversification of various wheat genomes. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme's unique and specific recombination system is exploited to manipulate genes and chromosomes in a huge range of research, such as gene knock out or knock in studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • In plants, relative copy number of recombination-derived subgenomic DNA molecules within mitochondria is controlled by nuclear genes, and a genomic shifting process can result in their differential copy number suppression to nearly undetectable levels. (pnas.org)
  • Ectopic recombination results in expressed gene chimeras that cause cytoplasmic male sterility, plant variegation, and other aberrant phenotypes ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • The P1 gene product was named Cre (Causes Recombination) and the recombination site was named loxP (locus of crossing (x) over, P1). (wikipedia.org)
  • microbiome
  • The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis has uncovered the previously unappreciated complexity of the bacterial microbiome at various anatomic sites. (jimmunol.org)
  • The microbiome of the lung has relatively less bacterial biomass when compared with the lower gastrointestinal tract yet displays considerable diversity. (jimmunol.org)
  • evolution
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, studies on bacterial evolution are of increasing interest to understand the basic mechanisms of evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent discoveries of "rampant" HGT in microorganisms, and the detection of horizontal movement of even genes for the small subunit of ribosomal RNA, have forced biologists to question the accuracy of at least the early branches in the tree, and even question the validity of trees as useful models of how early evolution occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster
  • Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. (springer.com)
  • Prokaryotic
  • BLAST RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service KLEIO advanced MedLine search tool The CyberInfrastructure Division at VBI develops methods, infrastructure, and resources to help enable scientific discoveries in infectious disease research and other research fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • These sites are called fragile sites, and can occur commonly as naturally present in most mammalian genomes or occur rarely as a result of mutations, such as DNA-repeat expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • MLST
  • Quoting Staphylococcus aureus as an example, seven housekeeping genes are used in MLST typing. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes include carbamate kinase (arcC), shikimate dehydrogenase (aroE), glycerol kinase (glpF), guanylate kinase (gmk), phosphate acetyltransferase (pta), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (yqiL) as specified by the MLST website. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Despite MLST providing high discriminatory power, the accumulation of nucleotide changes in housekeeping genes is a relatively slow process and the allelic profile of a bacterial isolate is sufficiently stable over time for the method to be ideal for global epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • presented a comprehensive analysis of transcription at single-nucleotide resolution by differential RNA-seq that confirmed the known acid induction of major virulence loci, such as the urease (ure) operon or the cag pathogenicity island (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. (harvard.edu)
  • An example is the Saccharomyces pombe gene rad9 which arrests the cells in late S/G2 phase in the presence of DNA damage caused by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • kumamotoensis) in order to control infestation with corn root worm, and the cp4 epsps gene from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium ssp. (cbd.int)
  • Figure 2 illustrates the differences between the UBact and Pup loci in the representative Nitrospirae bacterium Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum. (wikipedia.org)
  • sepsis
  • Following binding, pores are formed that disrupt midgut ion flow, causing gut paralysis and eventual death due to bacterial sepsis. (cbd.int)
  • metabolic pathways
  • Comparative pathways: Compares consistently annotated metabolic pathways across closely related or diverse groups of genomes and visualizes them using interactive KEGG maps and heatmaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Since they have similar cis-elements and promoter structures, the mechanisms underlying their distinct gene expression and possible applications are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • There are four major alleles of the gene blpH , which encodes the receptor responsible for activating the blp locus when bound to one of four distinct peptide pheromones (BlpC). (asm.org)
  • Recently a comprehensive survey identified 23 different loci encoding up to 10 functionally distinct BMCs across 23 bacterial phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation
  • To demonstrate the utility of the library in gene isolation, we probed the C. porosus macroarrays with an overgo designed from a C-mos (oocyte maturation factor) partial cDNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Automated AST systems are currently available within the clinical diagnostics market [ 12 ], and the technology used by these platforms require bacterial isolation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • analyses
  • Genome level analyses of a crocodilian would be especially useful in leveraging information from the chicken, and a crocodilian genome would be the best possible outgroup for all genomic work within birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further analyses of the UBact (and not Pup) locus in Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum revealed its existence and extreme conservation across several gram-negative bacterial phyla, as illustrated in figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • PATRIC sharpens and hones the scope of available bacterial phylogenomic data from numerous sources specifically for the bacterial research community, in order to save biologists time and effort when conducting comparative analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • For this reason it is important to use other information to infer phylogenies, such as the presence or absence of genes, or, more commonly, to include as wide a range of genes for analysis as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • The blp locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae secretes and regulates bacteriocins, which mediate both intra- and interspecific competition in the human nasopharynx. (asm.org)
  • genetics
  • Esther Miriam Zimmer Lederberg (December 18, 1922 - November 11, 2006) was an American microbiologist and a pioneer of bacterial genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of the overall risk is related to genetics with more than 70 genes found to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterozygous
  • Hemizygous transgenic mice carrying the huα-globin locus on a heterozygous knockout background (huα+/0, muα++/−−) demonstrated complementation of most hematologic parameters. (deepdyve.com)
  • When the researchers sequenced the FOXP2 gene in the KE family, they found a heterozygous point mutation shared by all the affected individuals, but not in unaffected members of the family and other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cas9
  • Interestingly, a catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) can be employed as a targeted DNA-binding platform to alter gene expression. (springer.com)
  • synthase
  • The cp4 epsps gene encodes for a form of the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that is highly tolerant to inhibition by glyphosate. (cbd.int)
  • single
  • 10. A seed of the hybrid corn variety CH493326, produced by crossing a first plant of variety CV840071 with a second plant of variety I113752, wherein representative seed of said varieties CV840071 and I113752 have been deposited under ATCC Accession numbers PTA-10196 and PTA-7861, respectively, wherein one or both of the first and second plants further comprises a single locus conversion. (google.com)
  • If there had never been any lateral gene transfer, all these individual gene trees would have the same topology (the same branching order), and the ancestral genes at the root of each tree would have all been present in the last universal common ancestor, a single ancient cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • But extensive transfer means that neither is the case: gene trees will differ (although many will have regions of similar topology) and there would never have been a single cell that could be called the last universal common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioinformatics
  • There are currently over 20,000 bacterial genomes sequenced, and bioinformatics methods can be used to find all BMC shell genes and to look at what other genes are in the vicinity, producing a list of potential BMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • PATRIC (Pathosystems Resource Integration Center) is the Bacterial Bioinformatics Resource Center, an information system designed to support the biomedical research community's work on bacterial infectious diseases via integration of vital pathogen information with rich data and analysis tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • allelic
  • Our approach provides foundations for a simple and powerful genome engineering tool for site-specific mutagenesis and allelic replacement in yeast. (harvard.edu)
  • mechanisms
  • However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. (biomedcentral.com)
  • evolutionary
  • Scientists trying to reconstruct evolutionary history are challenged by the fact that genes can sometimes transfer between distant branches on the tree if life. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)