• bacterium
  • Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 Tobacco which expresses the coat protein from the mosaic virus is resistant to virus infection Cotton can be engineered to produce a bacterial toxin which destroys insects Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium which produces a toxin (Bt toxin) to insects. (docplayer.net)
  • One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the sequences recognized by the restriction enzymes are very short, the bacterium itself will almost certainly contain some within its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • human genome
  • Nobody knows for sure how these synthetic substances will alter the human genome, especially later on in life, potentially leading to permanent and undesirable changes in human cells, tissue and even DNA. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Also, due clearly to his historical role, and it's interesting to be sharing this event with Jim Watson, who I've known and had multiple interactions with over the last 25 years, including most recently sharing the Double Helix Prize for Human Genome Sequencing with him from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory a few years ago. (edge.org)
  • Zinder was among the early proponents of the Human Genome Project , chairing the National Institutes of Health's advisory committee (1988-91). (britannica.com)
  • Previously, Dr. Weinstock was Co-Director of the Human Genome Sequencing Center (HGSC) at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics there. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999 he joined Richard Gibbs at the HGSC as one of the five main centers to work on the Human Genome Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Author] PubMed Citations "The Next Human Genome Project: Our Microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences
  • The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature and National Center for Biotechnology Information and the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, bacterial DNA binding proteins are a family of small, usually basic proteins of about 90 residues that bind DNA and are known as histone-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since bacterial binding proteins have a diversity of functions, it has been difficult to develop a common function for all of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • HU-type proteins have been found in a variety of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria, and are also encoded in the chloroplast genome of some algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration host factor (IHF), a dimer of closely related chains which is suggested to function in genetic recombination as well as in translational and transcriptional control is found in Enterobacteria and viral proteins including the African swine fever virus protein A104R (or LMW5-AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an architectural role, maintaining structural integrity as transcription, recombination, replication, or any other DNA-dependent process proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, bacterial DNA binding proteins were thought to help stabilize bacterial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative analyses of the sequenced genomes have also led to discovery of many conserved indels in widely distributed proteins and whole proteins (i.e. signature proteins) that are distinctive characteristics of either all Alphaproteobacteria, or their different main orders (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial wilts of tomato, pepper, eggplant, and Irish potato caused by R. solanacearum were among the first diseases that Erwin Frink Smith proved to be caused by a bacterial pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • While the strain GMI1000 was one of the first phytopathogenic bacterias to have its genome completed, the strain UY031 was the first R. solanacearum to have its methylome reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • In 1969, Max Delbrück, Alfred Hershey and Salvador Luria were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of the replication of viruses and their genetic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phages
  • Phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phages were discovered to be antibacterial agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia (pioneered there by Giorgi Eliava with help from the co-discoverer of bacteriophages, Felix d'Herelle) and the United States during the 1920s and 1930s for treating bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • Adherence test in 24-well polystyrene plates provides a quick preliminary visualization of the bacterial biofilm after crystal violet staining. (jove.com)
  • organism
  • This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. (jove.com)
  • appendage
  • Colonization of the small intestine also requires the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), a thin, flexible, filamentous appendage on the surface of bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Building on studies in fungi, in 1964 Robin Holliday proposed a model for recombination in meiosis which introduced key details of how the process can work, including the exchange of material between chromosomes through Holliday junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Elucidating the adaptive strategies and plasticity of bacterial genomes in situ is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of pathogens threatening human health. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathogens
  • The application of this genetic method and subsequent phenotypic assays will reveal fundamental and unique aspects of the biology of T. gondii and related significant human pathogens that cause malaria ( Plasmodium sp. (jove.com)
  • Other important genera are the human pathogens Bartonella and Brucella, as well as Agrobacterium (genetic engineering). (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • The head contains the phage's double-strand linear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome contains 48,490 base pairs of double-stranded, linear DNA, with 12-base single-strand segments at both 5' ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • however, other pieces of DNA are often co-transferred and this can result in dissemination of genetic traits throughout a bacterial population, such as antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different genomes, and lifestyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the same year as McClintock's discovery, Curt Stern showed that crossing over-later called "recombination"-could also occur in somatic cells like white blood cells and skin cells that divide through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungal
  • They generally have cell walls , like plant and fungal cells , but bacterial cell walls are normally made out of peptidoglycan instead of cellulose (as in plants ) or chitin (as in fungi and arthropods), and are not homologous with eukaryotic cell walls. (citizendium.org)
  • Unlike the fungal wilts, the leaves remains green in bacterial wilt. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene content
  • This issue stems from the large difference in gene content (e.g. genome streamlining in Pelagibacter ubique) and the large difference in GC-richness between members of several orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The most important bacterial structural characteristic is the cell wall . (citizendium.org)
  • Lambda phage is a non-contractile tailed phage, meaning during an infection event it cannot 'force' its DNA through a bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)