• entire genome
  • I will present our findings on first on reading the genetic code, and then learning to synthesize and write the genetic code, and as many of you know, we synthesized an entire genome, booted it up to create an entirely new synthetic cell where every protein in the cell was based on the synthetic DNA code. (edge.org)
  • The entire genome of the virulent strain V. cholerae El Tor N16961 has been sequenced, and contains two circular chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also relevant in determining if the replicon is a chromosome is whether it represents a significant percentage of the genome, and chromosome 2 is 40% by size of the entire genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, as a faculty member at the University of Texas at Houston, he led one of the first bacterial genome projects, collaborating with The Institute for Genomic Research to sequence the entire genome of a bacterium, Treponema pallidum, the organism that causes syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 Tobacco which expresses the coat protein from the mosaic virus is resistant to virus infection Cotton can be engineered to produce a bacterial toxin which destroys insects Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium which produces a toxin (Bt toxin) to insects. (docplayer.net)
  • One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the sequences recognized by the restriction enzymes are very short, the bacterium itself will almost certainly contain some within its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. (jove.com)
  • The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature and National Center for Biotechnology Information and the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HGSC produced sequences of human chromosomes 3, 12 and X. Dr. Weinstock was a principal investigator in projects producing genome sequences for rat, mouse, macaque, bovine, sea urchin, honey bee, fruit fly and many microbial genomes, as well as one of the first personal genome projects, sequencing Dr. James Watson's genome using next-generation sequencing technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • human genome
  • Nobody knows for sure how these synthetic substances will alter the human genome, especially later on in life, potentially leading to permanent and undesirable changes in human cells, tissue and even DNA. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Also, due clearly to his historical role, and it's interesting to be sharing this event with Jim Watson, who I've known and had multiple interactions with over the last 25 years, including most recently sharing the Double Helix Prize for Human Genome Sequencing with him from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory a few years ago. (edge.org)
  • Zinder was among the early proponents of the Human Genome Project , chairing the National Institutes of Health's advisory committee (1988-91). (britannica.com)
  • Previously, Dr. Weinstock was Co-Director of the Human Genome Sequencing Center (HGSC) at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics there. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999 he joined Richard Gibbs at the HGSC as one of the five main centers to work on the Human Genome Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Author] PubMed Citations "The Next Human Genome Project: Our Microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • For example, ribosomal proteins showed low recombination in all of the species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A species of technological interest is Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this species to transfer foreign DNA into plant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically,Pelagibacterales, Rickettsiales and Holosporales contains species with AT-rich genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic polyandry is found some insect species such as Apis mellifera (the Western Honey Bee), in which a virgin queen will mate with multiple drones during her nuptial flight whereas each drone will die immediately upon mating once. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative analyses of the sequenced genomes have also led to discovery of many conserved indels in widely distributed proteins and whole proteins (i.e. signature proteins) that are distinctive characteristics of either all Alphaproteobacteria, or their different main orders (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, bacterial DNA binding proteins are a family of small, usually basic proteins of about 90 residues that bind DNA and are known as histone-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since bacterial binding proteins have a diversity of functions, it has been difficult to develop a common function for all of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • HU-type proteins have been found in a variety of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria, and are also encoded in the chloroplast genome of some algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration host factor (IHF), a dimer of closely related chains which is suggested to function in genetic recombination as well as in translational and transcriptional control is found in Enterobacteria and viral proteins including the African swine fever virus protein A104R (or LMW5-AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an architectural role, maintaining structural integrity as transcription, recombination, replication, or any other DNA-dependent process proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, bacterial DNA binding proteins were thought to help stabilize bacterial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Here, we follow the genome dynamics of co-existing E. coli lineages in situ of the infant gut during the first year of life. (frontiersin.org)
  • During infection, the phage particle recognizes and binds to its host, E. coli, causing DNA in the head of the phage to be ejected through the tail into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lambda genome can be inserted into the E. coli chromosome and is then called a prophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a postdoctoral fellow with Dr. I. R. Lehman at Stanford University School of Medicine, Dr. Weinstock and Kevin McEntee discovered that the RecA protein of E. coli catalyzed strand transfer in genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Investigating the ecology of endemic accessory genetic elements, in their pathogenic hosts and native environment, is of vital importance if we want to understand the evolution and persistence of highly virulent and drug resistant bacterial isolates. (frontiersin.org)
  • strain
  • While the strain GMI1000 was one of the first phytopathogenic bacterias to have its genome completed, the strain UY031 was the first R. solanacearum to have its methylome reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. (jove.com)
  • Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. (jove.com)
  • Two other mosquito genera, Aedes and Culex, have poorly polytenized chromosomes because of significant overrepresentation of transposable elements in their genomes 4, 5, 6 . (jove.com)
  • 10 , the accumulation of multiple chromosomal rearrangements in cell line chromosomes 11 makes them useless for genome mapping. (jove.com)
  • Building on studies in fungi, in 1964 Robin Holliday proposed a model for recombination in meiosis which introduced key details of how the process can work, including the exchange of material between chromosomes through Holliday junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • In 1969, Max Delbrück, Alfred Hershey and Salvador Luria were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of the replication of viruses and their genetic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • Adherence test in 24-well polystyrene plates provides a quick preliminary visualization of the bacterial biofilm after crystal violet staining. (jove.com)
  • appendage
  • Colonization of the small intestine also requires the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), a thin, flexible, filamentous appendage on the surface of bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • The head contains the phage's double-strand linear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome contains 48,490 base pairs of double-stranded, linear DNA, with 12-base single-strand segments at both 5' ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • however, other pieces of DNA are often co-transferred and this can result in dissemination of genetic traits throughout a bacterial population, such as antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • meningitis
  • As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial inflammation of the meninges, that is, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Within the same year as McClintock's discovery, Curt Stern showed that crossing over-later called "recombination"-could also occur in somatic cells like white blood cells and skin cells that divide through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungal
  • They generally have cell walls , like plant and fungal cells , but bacterial cell walls are normally made out of peptidoglycan instead of cellulose (as in plants ) or chitin (as in fungi and arthropods), and are not homologous with eukaryotic cell walls. (citizendium.org)
  • Unlike the fungal wilts, the leaves remains green in bacterial wilt. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. (jove.com)
  • gene content
  • This issue stems from the large difference in gene content (e.g. genome streamlining in Pelagibacter ubique) and the large difference in GC-richness between members of several orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The most important bacterial structural characteristic is the cell wall . (citizendium.org)
  • Lambda phage is a non-contractile tailed phage, meaning during an infection event it cannot 'force' its DNA through a bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • These new combinations of DNA represent genetic variation in offspring, which in turn enables populations to adapt during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)