• viruses
  • Evolutionists have long claimed that human chromosomes were infected with many different viruses over millions of years, which then multiplied in the genome. (icr.org)
  • These peculiarities compromise the suitability of traditional tools and analysis methods developed for the analysis of the human genome to study infections by viruses. (mpg.de)
  • Highly similar Hel-2 copies were predicted in the genomes of insects and associated viruses, which along with a previous documented case of real-time virus-insect cell line transposition suggests that this Helitron has likely propagated by HTT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This family contains all plant viruses that consist of a double-stranded DNA genome that has a reverse transcribing phase in its lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes of viruses from this family contain monopartite, double-stranded DNA in either an open circular or linear structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system especially must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • 4 In brief, these elements are clearly part of the original created genomic blueprint for each creature and not the result of numerous viral infestations over eons of time. (icr.org)
  • As I and several other creationist researchers have proposed, it's far more likely that ERVs were part of God's original genomic blueprint for different kinds of animals and humans, and that external viral genomes were derived from human and animal ERVs only after God cursed the creation for man's sin. (icr.org)
  • Obtaining genomic sequence from such samples can provide valuable insights into viral attenuation, response to host immune pressure and drug treatment during infection, disease severity, transmission and epidemic spread. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since they replicate independently, genomic recombination of these genomes is rarely found in offspring contrary to nuclear genomes, in which recombination is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsid
  • Some studies attribute this observation to selective pressure toward small genome sizes mediated by the physical constraints of packaging the genome in a viral capsid, particularly one of icosahedral geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • In dengue fever patients, urine samples contain dengue virus (DENV) genomes and virus antigens were present in renal biopsies. (mdpi.com)
  • The gamma-herpesviruses are characteristically latent in lymphocytes and drive the proliferation that requires the expression of latent viral antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The situation is further complicated by the fact that viral genomes differ from the genomes of multicellular organisms such as humans in their very high evolutionary rate and intra-species diversity, resulting in an especially complex genotype. (mpg.de)
  • The movement of mobile elements among species by horizontal transposon transfer (HTT) influences the evolution of genomes through the modification of structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A non-autonomous Helitron independently annotated as BmHel-2 from Bombyx mori and the MITE01 element from Ostrinia nubilalis was predicted in the genomes of 24 species in the insect Order Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many instances, the comparison of haplotype variants in a species or sophisticated computer algorithms are relied upon to predict the myriad of variant Helitron integrations in or among genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mRNA
  • To produce viral mRNA molecules. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes copy the (-) RNA strand into (+) viral mRNA. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • It may be involved in the inhibition of host cap-dependent mRNA translation and stimulation of viral internal ribosome entry site activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Only a few studies have reported the reconstruction of bacterial genomes from complex metagenomes. (blogspot.com)
  • In this work, Binning-Assembly approach has been proposed and demonstrated for the reconstruction of bacterial and viral genomes from 72 human gut metagenomic datasets. (blogspot.com)
  • A total 1156 bacterial genomes belonging to 219 bacterial families and, 279 viral genomes belonging to 84 viral families could be identified. (blogspot.com)
  • This approach along with spiking was also demonstrated to be useful in improving the draft assembly of a bacterial genome. (blogspot.com)
  • The Binning-Assembly approach can be successfully used to reconstruct bacterial and viral genomes from multiple metagenomic datasets obtained from similar environments. (blogspot.com)
  • polymerase
  • The genome is detectable by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the head, thorax, abdomen and wings of infected bees. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Very rare cases which require further investigation have been reported of paternal mitochondrial inheritance in humans, in which the father's mitochondrial genome is found in offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure
  • Instead, it appears that the main way that expression of viral transcripts is maintained at a lower level during latency is through chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3' end of the TCV genome contains the hairpin H4, a T-shaped structure (TSS), which contains hairpins 4a, 4b and hairpin 5 and a promoter hairpin. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • In a recent article, I go into more detail about ERVs and why the evolutionary story is completely backwards when it comes to explaining their presence in the genome. (icr.org)
  • Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and pathological changes in kidneys were examined in the present study. (mdpi.com)
  • These data suggest that the presence of viral nucleic acid in the myocardium is common in HIV-infected children, and may relate to the development of myocarditis, DCM or CHF and may contribute to the rapid progression of HIV disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • gene
  • in most cases the overprinted gene is more phylogenetically restricted and is less likely to match the codon usage distribution found in the genome overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Examples of low-copy viral RNA samples include the following: HIV controllers (capable of controlling the virus in the absence of antiretroviral therapy) ( 18 ), dengue virus (DENV) clinical samples collected after peak viremia ( 19 ), and West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance samples ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of viral nucleic acid detection in the myocardium of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to determine whether an association exists with the development of heart disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The virus genome is 1250-2200 nm in length and 10-13 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) hairpin H4 is an RNA hairpin found at the 3' end of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • Levels of DENV genome were determined in 228 urine samples from 20 primary DENV-inoculated marmosets and in 56 urine samples from four secondary DENV-inoculated marmosets. (mdpi.com)
  • DENV genome was detected in 75% (15/20) of marmosets after primary DENV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • symptoms
  • However, the association between disease symptoms from appearance of DENV genome in urine, renal injury (occurrence rate of 2.9-13.3% of dengue patients) and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in the pathogenesis of dengue fever is unclear [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • promoter
  • Now if you drop a promoter anywhere in the genome, it has a good chance of promoting the transcription of some native DNA. (blogspot.fr)
  • clinical
  • Virana is specifically tailored to the analysis of clinical data and takes the complex viral genotype as well as the longitudinal character of antiviral therapies into account. (mpg.de)