• genes
  • This breakthrough technique makes it possible to redesign plant genomes - from the editing of single genes to the exact engineering of chromosomes - achieving what farmers have always dreamed of: an efficient path to precise crop design. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Headed by Dr. Gane Ka-Shu Wong and Dr. Michael Deyholos of the University of Alberta, the project aims to obtain the transcriptome (expressed genes) of 1000 different plant species over the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead plants that produce valuable chemicals or other products (secondary metabolites in many cases) will be focused on in the hopes that characterizing the involved genes will allow the underlying biosynthetic processes to be used or modified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is 13.7 MB, and 6623 protein-coding genes were annotated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the molecular complexity of plants, it is not surprising that most early transformation experiments were related to the introduction of viral and bacterial genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Advances in plant molecular biology have greatly facilitated efforts to isolate plant genes associated with agronomically important traits ( Pereira, 2000 ), thus providing alternatives to approaches that rely on genetic variation evolved in unrelated species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, methods were developed to remove selectable marker genes from the genomes of transgenic plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that the number of genes encoding urea transporters underwent a progressive reduction during evolution, eventually down to a single copy in vascular plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • The histone methyltransferase SDG8 mediates the epigenetic modification of light and carbon responsive genes in plants . (nih.gov)
  • TAGs represent a large proportion of genes in a genome, including between 14% to 17% of the human, mouse, and rat genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partially because the initial studies of clock genes were conducted in Drosophila in the 1970s and then in mammals, it was originally thought that the plant circadian clock functioned similarly to the mammalian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repression of morning loop genes lhy and cca1 was predicted by computational modeling and was the piece of evidence needed to re-define toc1's role in the plant clock as part of a triple negative-component repressilator model rather than a positive/negative-element system of the sort seen in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the founder Director of the National Institute of Plant Genome Research and is credited with the discovery of genes that assist in extended preservation of fruits and vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her team was successful in preparing the draft genome of Ocimum tenuiflorum (commonly known as Tulsi), a plant with medicinal properties, for the first time which assisted in identifying the genes responsible for the production of Ursolic acid, a triterpenoid and Eugenol, a phenylpropene, compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of functional redundancy, genes are rapidly silenced or lost from the duplicated genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To distinguish between whole-genome duplication and a collection of (more common) single gene duplication events, the following rules are often applied: Duplicated genes are located in large duplicated blocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single gene duplication is a random process and tends to make duplicated genes scattered throughout the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • A plant scientist from The Australian National University (ANU) has called for the United Nations to guarantee free and open access to plant DNA sequences to enable scientists to continue work to sustainably intensify world food production. (edu.au)
  • This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unassembled genomes are not included, nor are organelle only sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selaginella and Physcomitrella are representatives of lycophytes and bryophytes, respectively, and the recent completion of their genome sequences provided us with an opportunity for comparative genome studies, with special emphasis on the adaptive processes that accompanied the conquest of dry land and the evolution of a vascular system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although they do not regularly integrate into the host genome, sequences from certain caulimoviruses, such as Petunia vein clearing virus and Banana streak virus have been found in host genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomics
  • The goal of The Plant Genome is to provide the readership with a short submission-to-online publication of the latest advances and breakthroughs in plant genomics research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Plant Genome is peer reviewed and publishes original research investigating all aspects of plant genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technical breakthroughs reporting improvements in the efficiency and speed of acquiring and interpreting plant genomics data are welcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Announced in 2008, shortly after the human 1000 Genomes Project, the 1000 Plant Genomes Project is another, similar highly large-scale genomics endeavour to take advantage of the speed and efficiency of next-generation DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the 28 Illumina Genome Analyzer next-generation DNA sequencing machines at the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI - Shenzhen, China), the 3Gb/run (3 billion base pairs per experiment) capacity of each of these machines will enable fast and accurate sequencing of the plant samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cold Spring Harbor Symposium series, held every year since 1933 with the exception of three years during the Second World War, has been a forum for researchers in genetics, genomics, neuroscience and plant biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known for his studies in the fields of plant stress biology and genomics, Chattopadhyay is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science Academies namely the Indian Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy and the National Academy of Sciences, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sushil Kumar (born 1940) is an Indian geneticist and academic, known for his Plant and microbial genetical genomics, especially the studies on Escherichia coli and Lambda phage as well as on the mutants of Rhizobium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researches of Sushil Kumar which focused on the fields of plant and microbial genetical genomics are reported to have assisted in a wider understanding of biotechnology and crop breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms
  • In light of recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have dramatically reduced the cost and time needed to sequence an organism's entire genome, large-scale (involving many organisms) sequencing projects have been and are currently being undertaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • maize
  • The Prize is in honor of Dr. Barbara McClintock, who received the Physiology or Medicine Nobel Prize in 1983 for her work on maize genome structure, function and evolution, especially for her discovery and study of mobile DNA elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies suggest that the common ancestor of Poaceae, the grass family which includes important crop species such as maize, rice, wheat, and sugar cane, shared a whole genome duplication about 70 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Due to this trick, the method that is referred to as "in planta gene targeting" (IPGT) is highly reliable and the new genetic information is incorporated in the genome precisely at the point desired. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is concept of engineering plants to do "work" is popular and its potential would dramatically increase as a result of gene information on 1000 plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • By infecting explants with two different Agrobacterium strains, one containing a T-DNA vector with a selectable marker gene and the other one carrying a P-DNA vector, some plant cells may receive both a T-DNA (red bar) and a P-DNA (green bar). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Only plant cells that at least temporarily express the marker gene will survive a subsequent transient selection step. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Marker-free P-DNAs are transferred to plant cell nuclei together with conventional T-DNAs carrying a selectable marker gene. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The presented methods are used to produce hundreds of marker-free and backbone-free potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) plants displaying reduced expression of a tuber-specific polyphenol oxidase gene in potato. (plantphysiol.org)
  • TOC1 was the first plant gene that, when mutated, yielded a circadian phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene codes for a transcriptional repressor, TOC1, one of five pseudo-response regulators (PRR) that mediate the period of the circadian clock in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toc1 gene is expressed in most plant structures and cells, and has its locus on chromosome 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Millar's group found the TOC1 protein to be a negative regulator, and the plant clock to be better modeled as a repressilator-a system in which one gene represses another and is in turn repressed by the next, forming an interdependent, oscillating gene network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Plant genomes encode several families of specific transporters for these molecules, plus other uptake mechanisms such as aquaporins and ABC transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike retroviruses, they do not require the integration of viral genome into the host's in order to replicate and for this reason their genome does not encode the enzymatic protein integrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • autonomous
  • Post his official retirement, he continued his association with CSIR as an emeritus scientist from 2001 to 2005 when he moved to the National Institute for Plant Genome Research, an autonomous institute under the Department of Biotechnology as an INSA Senior Scientist in 2006, holding the position till 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • He is a pioneer in the study of something called DNA double-strand break repair - a natural process in which the plant cell's genetic machinery fixes damage occurring in both strands of the DNA double helix. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • sequence
  • 1000 genomes project for example, aims to obtain high genome coverage of 1000 individual people to better understand human genetic variation because genomic sequence is the best way to assess this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1000 Plant Genomes Project will produce a roughly a 100x increase in the number of species with available broad genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013). "The first symbiont-free genome sequence of marine red alga, Susabi-nori Pyropia yezoensis. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. (doe.gov)
  • DAS Tool for Genome Reconstruction from Metagenomes Through the JGI's Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program (ETOP), researchers have developed and improved upon a tool that combines existing DNA sequence binning algorithms, allowing them to reconstruct more near-complete genomes from soil metagenomes compared to other methods. (doe.gov)
  • Arabidopsis
  • Thale cress blossom: Common thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) is used as a model plant in many biotechnology experiments. (innovations-report.com)
  • With their experiments on the model plant of thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), the researchers of KIT, in cooperation with the company SunGene GmbH, a subsidiary of BASF Plant Science having its office at Gatersleben, have now succeeded in furnishing evidence of the fact that IPGT works in plants. (innovations-report.com)
  • ╬╝ChIP-Seq for Genome -Wide Mapping of In Vivo TF-DNA Interactions in Arabidopsis Root Protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Millar developed an innovative forward genetic screen in which he linked a bioluminescent reporter, firefly (luciferase), to expression of CAB (chlorophyll-a,b binding protein-see Light-harvesting complexes of green plants) in Arabidopsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced, has experienced at least two additional rounds of whole genome duplication since the duplication shared by the core eudicots. (wikipedia.org)
  • species known
  • In addition to industrial compound biosynthetic capacity, plant species known or suspected to produce medically active chemicals (such as poppies producing opiates) were assigned a high priority to better understand the synthesis process, explore commercial production potential, and discover new pharmaceutical options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This is a big advantage compared to conventional methods that work for certain plants only and produce a lot of rejects," explains Professor Holger Puchta, who holds the Chair for Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. (innovations-report.com)
  • The editorial board gives preference to novel reports that use innovative genomic applications that advance our understanding of plant biology that may have applications to crop improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Norman Warthmann, a plant geneticist at the ANU Research School of Biology , has lodged a submission with the UN, which is currently considering issues to include in its 2015 Global Sustainable Development Report. (edu.au)
  • Eight CSHL faculty members conduct research in plant biology - Drs. David Jackson, Zachary Lippman, Robert Martienssen, Richard McCombie, Ullas Pedmale, Doreen Ware, Marja Timmermans and Thomas Gingeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14th Swiss Plant Molecular and Cell Biology Conference, March 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • rice
  • In particular Selaginella , similar to rice, favors the AMT2/MEP family of ammonium transporters over the plant-specific AMT1 type. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers
  • The researchers relied on a revolutionary molecular tool called CRISPR-Cas, which makes it possible to cleave the genome at specific sites ("Cas" is the name of the enzyme responsible for cutting DNA). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Enabled by the JGI's Community Science Program (CSP), researchers are developing a number of resources to build up Sphagnum as a plant model system focused on carbon cycling studies. (doe.gov)
  • yeast
  • A well-supported paleopolyploidy has been found in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), despite its small, compact genome (~13Mbp), after the divergence from the common yeast Kluyveromyces waltii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through genome streamlining, yeast has lost 90% of the duplicated genome over evolutionary time and is now recognized as a diploid organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sciences
  • Prof. Levy is a member of the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, and is the incoming Dean of the Faculty of Biochemistry. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Prof. Levy is the incumbent of the Gilbert de Botton Professorial Chair of Plant Sciences. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • He is a former director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, India, and Indian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • This result was achieved using only a few plants - compared to the several thousand required to introduce desired traits into the plant genome by conventional, random methods - and in a single generation. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • advances
  • Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope, Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice, Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution (2 volumes), and Cytology of Different Species of Palms and Its Bearing on the Solution of the Problems of Phylogeny and Speciation are some of his notable works. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • But the search for the "perfect plant," combining the best traits from both parents, requires screening thousands of plants bred over successive generations-a process that can take years. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Editing
  • Prof. Levy's achievement, for which a patent application has been registered, demonstrates how CRISPR-Cas can drive non-random "chromosome editing" in order to achieve specific results in plants. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The advent of genome editing has evoked enthusiasm but also controversy, creating regulatory and governance challenges worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this scenario, this Research Topic aims at collecting articles on the latest advancements and future targets of genome editing, as well as contributions addressing the regulatory, social and socioeconomic aspects, the ethics, risk assessment, management, and biosafety researches. (frontiersin.org)
  • protein
  • Sowdhamini's research is in the fields of computational studies of protein science as well as genome sequencing and she is reported to have done advanced research in the code development for studying protein folding and unfolding. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Proteins found to be encoded in this virus family genome include reverse transcriptase, proteases, nucleocapsids and transactivators - there are other proteins essential for replication that have yet to be assigned a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal
  • A biotechnological technique developed by KIT botanists to more precisely and reliably install or modify genetic information in the plant genome is now presented by the expert journal PNAS. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Plant Genome is an international, open-access, electronic scientific journal published by the Crop Science Society of America since 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to being published as a stand-alone journal, The Plant Genome was published as a supplement to Crop Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • medicinal
  • Biosynthetic pathways could also be used for mass production of medicinal compounds using plants rather than manual organic chemical reactions as most are created currently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as a senior grade scientist in 1989, he became the director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in 1993, superannuating in that position in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his tenure at the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, he established a regional field station of the institute at Uttaranchal and founded a central Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • For example, there are many plants known to produce oils (like olives) and some of the oils from certain plants bear a strong chemical resemblance to petroleum products like the Oil palm and hydrocarbon-producing species. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been a focus on those plant species that are known to have useful biosynthetic capacity to facilitate the biotechnology goals of the project, and selection of other species to fill in gaps and explain some unknown evolutionary relationships of the current plant phylogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that vertebrates share a common whole genome duplication is known as the 2R Hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The term applies for cellular memory, animals' memory, and plants' memory, as described in the following paragraphs. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Sharma pioneered researches in cytogenetics and cytochemistry in India and is credited with developing new research techniques for the study of chromosome structure of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • Significantly, these dramatic changes took place over a single generation, establishing CRISPR-Cas as a highly efficient tool for precise breeding of crop plants. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist pests. (innovations-report.com)
  • Food security depends on an acceleration in plant breeding, which could be threatened by private companies restricting access to genomic information, Dr Warthmann said. (edu.au)
  • Until now, the genetic engineering of plants has always resulted in the stable incorporation of genetic material that could not have been introgressed through traditional breeding. (plantphysiol.org)
  • resistance
  • CRISPR-Cas gives us the means to choose the best from both parents, for example, combining the high-yield characteristics of the 'dad' plant with the high disease resistance of the 'mom', using just a handful of plants. (weizmann.ac.il)