• species
  • Few bacterial species are capable of this conversion, and exactly how the transformation takes place has been a matter of debate for decades. (redorbit.com)
  • This key process remains a bottleneck in synthetic biology, especially for genome engineering strategies of intractable and economically important microbial species. (jcvi.org)
  • The existence of these bacterial species inside the fruit fly genome database is an artifact of the way the fly was sequenced, Eisen said. (innovations-report.com)
  • They were able to reconstruct 95 percent (1,440,650 base pairs) of the genome of one new species from D. ananassae, which they called Wolbachia wAna. (innovations-report.com)
  • The group chose to work with these species of mycoplasmas for several reasons - the small genomes of these organisms which make them easier to work with, their lack of cell walls, and the team's experience and expertise with mycoplasmas. (medgadget.com)
  • The ability to transfer the naked DNA isolated from one species into a second microbial species paves the way for next experiments to transplant a fully synthetic bacterial chromosome into a living organism and if successful, "boot up" the new entity. (medgadget.com)
  • For example, the genome is unique among sequenced obligate intracellular species in both being highly streamlined and containing very high levels of repetitive DNA and mobile DNA elements. (ualberta.ca)
  • Genome analysis predicts many metabolic differences with the closely related Rickettsia species, including the presence of intact glycolysis and purine synthesis, which may compensate for an inability to obtain ATP directly from its host, as Rickettsia can. (ualberta.ca)
  • Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is of little relevance when considering the number of functional genes in eukaryotic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • By editing the genome of the bacterium, the Shen lab produced LNM E1, which they showed in 2015 could react with reactive oxygen species in prostate cancer cells, triggering death. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The sensitivity of this procedure to resolve variation within a bacterial species is demonstrated: genome sizes and repeat structure of five environmental strains of E. coli from short Illumina reads were estimated by this method, and total genome sizes corresponded well with those obtained for the same strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (igsb.org)
  • The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since nearly all RT genes function in retrovirus replication and/or the movement of transposable elements, it is reasonable to imagine that retrons might be mobile genetic elements, but there has been little supporting evidence for such a hypothesis, save for the observed fact that msDNA is widely yet sporadically dispersed among bacterial species in a manner suggestive of both horizontal and vertical transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydia species have genomes around 1.0 to 1.3 megabases in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species also contain a DNA plasmids or phage genomes (see Table). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome features of selected Chlamydia species and strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since retrons are not mobile, their appearance in diverse bacterial species is not a "selfish DNA" phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole genome
  • One of the barriers to making whole genome sequencing a routine part of NHS care is the need for powerful computers and expertise to interpret the masses of complex data. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The software is now being evaluated in hospitals in Oxford, Brighton and Leeds in a project led by Professor Derrick Crook, which in collaboration with parallel programmes at UCL and Cambridge University aims to develop whole genome sequencing as a routine tool for the diagnosis and control of infections within the NHS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • A team led by Steven L. Salzberg of TIGR and including Eisen of UC Berkeley s Center for Integrative Genomics published their discovery in the most recent issue of the open access journal Genome Biology, published this week. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genome transplantation is an essential enabling step in the field of synthetic genomics as it is a key mechanism by which chemically synthesized chromosomes can be activated into viable living cells. (medgadget.com)
  • This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. (asmscience.org)
  • gene
  • Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. (genetics.org)
  • Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • reported that genomes with truncated homologs might erroneously lead to false inferences of "gene gain" rather than multiple instances of "gene loss. (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis of over 2000 Escherichia coli genomes reveals an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. (wikipedia.org)
  • As single-gene comparisons have largely given way to genome comparisons, phylogeny of bacterial genomes have improved in accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing
  • This webinar will discuss an optimized protocol for methyl-CpG binding domain sequencing (MBD-seq), which enables comprehensive, adequately powered, and cost-effective large-scale methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) of almost all 28 million CpG sites in the genome. (genomeweb.com)
  • third-generation sequencing might eventually yield a complete genome in a few hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant achievement in the second decade of bacterial genome sequencing was the production of metagenomic data, which covers all DNA present in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting the second millennium, many microbiological laboratories, as well as national health institutes, started genome sequencing projects for sequencing the infectious agents collections they had in their biobanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. (genetics.org)
  • For instance, in plant mitochondrial genomes, which have an α-proteobacterial ancestry, most, if not all, of the laterally transferred genes are pseudogenes ( R ichardson and P almer 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • A study that included, but was not limited to, 478 bacterial genomes, concluded that as genome size increases, the number of genes increases at a disproportionately slower rate in eukaryotes than in non-eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic or mutational reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • The genome size of Bacillus cereus strains varies from 5.5 to 6.3 Mb, and great diversity is seen in the number and organization of the chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
  • Luckily, researchers have a valuable resource on TSRI's Florida campus, where Shen heads the Natural Products Library Initiative, a library consisting of purified natural products, partially pure fractions, crude extracts and bacterial strains collected from all over the globe that are available for screening. (technologynetworks.com)
  • GenBank
  • Thereby generating private databases and sending model genomes to global nucleotide databases such as GenBank of the NCBI or the nucleotide database of the EMBL. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Genome rearrangements are a result of the actions of discrete genetic elements such as conjugative transposons, plasmids, phage, and non-conjugative transposons. (ecampus.com)
  • The Average Nucleotide Identity method quantifies genetic distance between entire genomes by taking advantage of regions of about 10,000 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989 . Physical and genetic maps of the genome of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (asmscience.org)
  • Genome instability (also genetic instability or genomic instability) refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome of a cellular lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • A study on more than 4,500 retrospective patient samples, published today in Nature Communications, shows that Mykrobe Predictor accurately detects antibiotic resistance in two life-threatening bacterial infections: Staphylococcus aureus (one form of which causes MRSA) and tuberculosis (TB). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plasmid
  • In particular, this is true of the open reading frame of the protein of interest, which is present in both the plasmid and the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia
  • Given the Wolbachia genome and the likelihood that W. pipientis had been sequenced along with the fruit fly genome, Eisen performed a quick look for Wolbachia in the Trace Archive, an open source for raw genome data. (innovations-report.com)
  • Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont of diverse arthropods, affects its host's reproduction and so is consequential for its host's fitness. (ualberta.ca)
  • amino acid
  • In humans, mutations that would change an amino acid within the protein coding region of the genome occur at an average of only 0.35 per generation (less than one mutated protein per generation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • The research team-led by affiliates from the departments of chemistry, biology, and physics-used super-resolution images in combination with biochemical tests to study the bacterial genome. (thecrimson.com)
  • scientists
  • Scientists have developed an easy-to-use computer program that can quickly analyse bacterial DNA from a patient's infection and predict which antibiotics will work, and which will fail due to drug resistance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Harvard scientists have unraveled the inner architecture of bacterial genomes in a breakthrough discovery that may shed light on how chromosomes organize within a cell. (thecrimson.com)
  • occur
  • Somatic genome variations occur during normal development and ageing, contribute to pathogenesis and are the cause of diseases such as cancer, as well as autoimmune, brain and other disorders. (qiagen.com)
  • These sites are called fragile sites, and can occur commonly as naturally present in most mammalian genomes or occur rarely as a result of mutations, such as DNA-repeat expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • 2012 - 2016: Development of a robust IT-backbone for the database, and development of novel genome analysis algorithms and software. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • apparent
  • Compelling evidence indicates that the apparent degradation of bacterial genomes is owed to a deletional bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of these procedures, based solely on k-mer abundances in short read data sets, allows aspects of genome structure to be resolved that are not apparent from conventional short read assemblies. (igsb.org)
  • single
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - In a proof-of-principle demonstration that genomes can be assembled from long, noisy nanopore reads alone, researchers at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research in Toronto and the University of Birmingham in the UK have used data from the Oxford Nanopore MinIon to assemble a bacterial genome into a single contig. (genomeweb.com)
  • The findings came after researchers applied a new visualization technique that generated the first fluorescence super-resolution images of chromosomes within a single bacterial cell. (thecrimson.com)
  • complete
  • A complication of this broad variety of pre-WGS techniques is the difficulty to standardize between techniques, laboratories and microorganisms, which may be overcome using the complete DNA code of the genome generated by WGS techniques. (wikipedia.org)