• Genes
  • Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. (zfin.org)
  • When a drone mates with a queen, the resultant queen will have a spotty brood pattern (numerous empty cells on a brood frame) due to the removal of diploid drone larvae by nurse bees (i.e., a fertilized egg with two identical sex genes will develop into a drone instead of a worker). (wikipedia.org)
  • The center contains twelve genes, seven of which code for proteins, five for untranslated RNAs, of which only two are known to play an active role in the X inactivation process, Xist and Tsix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species, sex determination is genetic: males and females have different alleles or even different genes that specify their sexual morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally in this method, the sex is determined by amount of genes expressed across the two chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypic
  • Masculine epigenetic sex marks of the CYP19A1/aromatase promoter in genetically male chicken embryonic gonads are resistant to estrogen-induced phenotypic sex conversion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings substantially increase the number of NR5A1 mutations reported in humans and show that mutations in NR5A1 can be found in patients with a wide range of phenotypic features, ranging from 46,XY sex reversal with primary adrenal failure to male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • reversal
  • In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. (zfin.org)
  • We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. (zfin.org)
  • Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. (zfin.org)
  • Gradual sex reversal in developed mice can also occur when the gene FOXL2 is removed from females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis
  • The transmission of genetic material in cell division by mitosis or meiosis, the control of these processes and how cell division fits within the cell cycle. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Über Geschlechtsbestimmung und Reduktionsteilung, 1922 - On sex determination and meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex, in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an exception to this rule, laying worker bees in some subspecies of honey bees may also produce diploid (and therefore female) fertile offspring in a process called thelytoky, in which the second set of chromosomes comes not from sperm, but from one of the three polar bodies during anaphase II of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • Birds and many insects have a similar system of sex determination (ZW sex-determination system), in which it is the females that are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. (genetics.org)
  • Serving as an arena in which sperm from different mating males compete for access to oocytes, a process called sperm competition, and in which females may preferentially utilize sperm from some males over those of others, called female sperm preference or cryptic female choice (e.g. many invertebrate animals, birds and reptiles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antagonistic co-evolution is the relationship between males and females where sexual morphology changes over time to counteract the opposite's sex traits in order to achieve the maximum reproductive success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scholars argue that the expected birth sex ratio in a normal population is in the range of 103 to 107 males to females at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • This is true only in the sense that sperms come in two 'flavors' (X and Y), whereas eggs in only one (X). Thus, depending upon which sperm fertilizes the egg, that will determine the sex of the offspring. (csbsju.edu)
  • Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female sperm storage is an integral stage in the reproductive process for many animals with internal fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the XY sex-determination system and the X0 sex-determination system, where the sperm determines the sex, in the ZW system, the ovum determines the sex of the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ericsson method, first applied in a clinical setting in the 1970s by Dr. Ronald J. Ericsson, uses higher concentrations of sperm of the desired sex to increase the likelihood of conceiving that sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT
  • X-inactivation Sex-determination system Demethylation Acetylation Xist Tsix (gene) Links to full text articles are provided where access is free, in other cases only the abstract has been linked. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. (zfin.org)
  • The evolutionarily-conserved sirtuin family of histone deacetylases regulates a multitude of DNA-associated processes. (feedage.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Sociogenomic methodology has been applied to understanding the biology of eusociality include its cellular origin, caste determination in a eusocial hierarchy, and the mechanisms that mediate division of labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • imbalances
  • According to the United Nations Population Fund, the reasons behind sex selection are due to three factors and provide an understanding for sex ratio imbalances as well as to project future trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological
  • He was a member of the Genetics Society of America, the American Morphological Society (president, 1900), the American Society of Naturalists (president, 1909), the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (president, 1910-1912), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (president, 1930). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Caenorhabditis
  • A classic 1988 Cold Spring Harbor monograph, The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, described the basic genetics, anatomy and development of the organism. (cshlpress.com)
  • sexual
  • The internal and external sexual organs of boys and girls developed from the same basic body plan, but you know, at birth, you can clearly distinguish the 2 sexes just by looking. (parents.com)
  • Most organisms that create their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes. (wikipedia.org)