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  • Proteins
  • Cooperative and antagonistic contributions of two heterochromatin proteins to transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila sex determination decision. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report a similar phenotype for the telomeric partner of HP1, HOAP, and roles for both proteins in regulating the Drosophila sex determination pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, these proteins regulate the critical decision in this pathway, firing of the establishment promoter of the masterswitch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl). (nih.gov)
  • Gonads
  • She states that during this time period, many physicians and scientists struggled to determine the nature sex, and to support a classification of sex as male or female, many physicians and scientists resorted to viewing a person's gonads for identification of his or her sex. (asu.edu)
  • males
  • Birds and many insects have a similar system of sex determination (ZW sex-determination system), in which it is the females that are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. (genetics.org)
  • Serving as an arena in which sperm from different mating males compete for access to oocytes, a process called sperm competition, and in which females may preferentially utilize sperm from some males over those of others, called female sperm preference or cryptic female choice (e.g. many invertebrate animals, birds and reptiles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antagonistic co-evolution is the relationship between males and females where sexual morphology changes over time to counteract the opposite's sex traits in order to achieve the maximum reproductive success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scholars argue that the expected birth sex ratio in a normal population is in the range of 103 to 107 males to females at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis
  • The transmission of genetic material in cell division by mitosis or meiosis, the control of these processes and how cell division fits within the cell cycle. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Über Geschlechtsbestimmung und Reduktionsteilung, 1922 - On sex determination and meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex, in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an exception to this rule, laying worker bees in some subspecies of honey bees may also produce diploid (and therefore female) fertile offspring in a process called thelytoky, in which the second set of chromosomes comes not from sperm, but from one of the three polar bodies during anaphase II of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT
  • X-inactivation Sex-determination system Demethylation Acetylation Xist Tsix (gene) Links to full text articles are provided where access is free, in other cases only the abstract has been linked. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • It is at this point that the system can no longer be described in terms of genetics per se, but a complete explanation of proximate mechanisms must resort to epigenetic explanations of the development of behavior. (ucsc.edu)
  • Sociogenomic methodology has been applied to understanding the biology of eusociality include its cellular origin, caste determination in a eusocial hierarchy, and the mechanisms that mediate division of labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female sperm storage is an integral stage in the reproductive process for many animals with internal fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ericsson method, first applied in a clinical setting in the 1970s by Dr. Ronald J. Ericsson, uses higher concentrations of sperm of the desired sex to increase the likelihood of conceiving that sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • However, full expression of sex differences requires that testosterone also activate many aspects of the phenotype during the process of maturation. (ucsc.edu)
  • regulates
  • DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. (zfin.org)
  • The evolutionarily-conserved sirtuin family of histone deacetylases regulates a multitude of DNA-associated processes. (feedage.com)
  • females
  • Female-specific activation of this promoter, Sxl(Pe), is essential to females, as it provides SXL protein to initiate the productive female-specific splicing of later Sxl transcripts, which are transcribed from the maintenance promoter (Sxl(Pm)) in both sexes. (nih.gov)
  • There are many ways that females can alter offspring genetics to increase their success and diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • X chromosomes in females undergo a process known as X inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • understand genetics
  • GELLERMAN: A failed laboratory experiment led to an accidental discovery that is changing the way we understand genetics. (loe.org)
  • Study of human genetics can be useful as it can answer questions about human nature, understand the diseases and development of effective disease treatment, and understand genetics of human life. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that differences in ribosome densities across polycistronic transcript segments, together with the conserved structural RNA elements, play a major role in the differential decay process. (feedage.com)
  • Nearly all of the sex differences in neural development and resulting behaviors are thought to be triggered by the action of steroids (Goy and McEwen 1980). (ucsc.edu)
  • Caenorhabditis
  • A classic 1988 Cold Spring Harbor monograph, The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, described the basic genetics, anatomy and development of the organism. (cshlpress.com)
  • Hermaphrodites
  • Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex, by historian of science Alice Domurat Dreger, was published in 1998 by Harvard University Press. (asu.edu)
  • Occasionally, there are hermaphrodites in place of one or both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • The internal and external sexual organs of boys and girls developed from the same basic body plan, but you know, at birth, you can clearly distinguish the 2 sexes just by looking. (parents.com)
  • A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most organisms that create their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Each topic is linked to provide a logical overview of how oxygen is exchanged between the atmosphere and the blood, together with how the biochemical processes are initiated in order to maintain equilibrium within the body tissues, so how oxygen is used to convert glucose to energy, for example. (oxfordcollege.ac)
  • Genetic Recombination
  • While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation, transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex, in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • To better understand these processes, neuroimmunological experiments are being created and tested to once and for all amass a more complete anthology of knowledge pertaining to the complex interactions between the nervous and immune systems along with that of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Sex disparities related to stroke will have important clinical and policy implications that can guide funding and resource allocation for national, regional and global health programs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Veterinary
  • Pathology and disease processes in these cases have been documented cooperatively with veterinary pathologist Gregory Bossart of the Georgia Aquarium and manatee biologist Robert Bonde of the US Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project in Gainesville, Florida. (wikipedia.org)
  • differently
  • Professor Ben Barres (born 1955), a neurobiologist at Stanford University Medical School who transitioned from female to male, has spoken of his scientific achievements having been perceived differently, depending on his sex at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • The protein SXL attaches to an intron segment located within the 5′UTR segment of the primary transcript, which leads to the inclusion of the intron after processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Cytokines and chemokines regulate neurotrophins and other molecules critical to neurodevelopmental processes, and exposure to certain neuroimmune challenges early in life affects brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Although the precise role of amelogenin(s) in regulating the mineralization process is unknown, it is known that amelogenins are abundant during amelogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In one study in Spain, the amelogenin sex determination test using AMELX (977bps) and AMELY (790bps) bands was performed for 1224 individuals of known gender with a 99.84% (1222/1224) accuracy rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • etiology
  • These terms suggest organ dysfunction or refractory hypotension related to an ischemic or inflammatory process rather than to an infectious etiology. (medscape.com)
  • This new branch has already provided unique insights into the mechanisms underlying brain development, evolution, neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the etiology of diverse neurological diseases and neural regenerative processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Migration is a key property of live cells and critical for normal development, immune response, and disease processes such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. (jove.com)
  • involves
  • It involves an unusual process in which two (endodyogeny) or more (endopolygeny) daughter cells are produced inside a mother cell, which is then consumed by the offspring prior to their separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • A comprehensive DNA analysis has been conducted determining sex of the remains. (blogspot.com)
  • Analysis was performed separately by sex and 5-year age categories for 188 countries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • normal
  • This process is essential for normal host defense homeostasis and if absent is not compatible with life. (medscape.com)
  • population
  • This view of culture emphasizes population thinking by focusing on the process by which culture is generated and maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view's main advantage is that it connects individual-level processes to population-level outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • Lumad-Mindanao's main objective was to achieve self-determination for their member-tribes or, put more concretely, self-governance within their ancestral domain in accordance with their culture and customary laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Here we use tumor cell migration and invasion as an example and describe two related assays to illustrate the commonly used, easily accessible methods to measure these processes. (jove.com)
  • Regardless of sex, though, WNT4 is needed for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • In 2012, two female researchers from Radboud University Nijmegen showed that in the Netherlands the sex of professorship candidates influences the evaluation made of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Since the temporal lobe is responsible for hearing, information processing, and long-term memory, abnormal functioning in the temporal lobes will also cause these brain processes to function wrongly. (blogspot.com)
  • recent
  • Although sepsis has diverged from SIRS criteria for diagnosis and management in recent years, focusing more on infectious etiologies, the pathophysiologic processes present in sepsis and noninfectious SIRS are remarkably similar, making a discussion of SIRS in critical illness appropriate. (medscape.com)
  • affect
  • In adults, cytokines and chemokines affect synaptic plasticity and other ongoing neural processes, which may change in aging brains. (wikipedia.org)