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  • Mutation
  • Heterozygous GRN mutation carriers develop FTD with TDP-43 pathology and exhibit signs of lysosomal dysfunction in the brain, with increased levels of lysosomal proteins and lipofuscin accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple genome-wide association studies have shown that risk of FTD in GRN mutation carriers is modified by polymorphisms in TMEM106B, which encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. (nih.gov)
  • molecular
  • 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for underpinning the cellular and molecular signaling involved 3 . (jove.com)
  • Using the appropriate read-outs like the quantitation of single round acinar structures, or differential expression of validated molecular markers for cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis in combination with other molecular and cell biology techniques, 3D culture can provide an important tool to better understand the cellular changes during malignant transformation and for delineating the responsible signaling. (jove.com)
  • Department of Tumour Immunology of the Institute of Molecular Genetics, v. v. i. (naver.com)
  • Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Because of its versatility, tissue/cell transplantation into the anterior chamber of the eye not only benefits transplantation therapies, it extends to other in vivo applications to study physiological and pathophysiological processes such as signal transduction and cancer or autoimmune disease development. (jove.com)
  • Hans Clevers (Hubrecht Institute), for describing the role of Wnt signaling in tissue stem cells and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circadian oscillators are ubiquitous in tissues of the body where they are synchronized by both endogenous and external signals to regulate transcriptional activity throughout the day in a tissue-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The other is urotensin II-Related Peptide (URP) which is found in a variety of tissues as well although at less concentrations then urotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks contained in tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In mice, VEGF-A165b expression was upregulated by conditions associated with impaired limb revascularization, including leptin deficiency, diet-induced obesity, genetic ablation of the secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) adipokine and transgenic overexpression of Wnt5a in myeloid cells. (nih.gov)
  • VEGF-A165b protein expression was measured by western immunoblot analysis in the presence or absence of recombinant Wnt5a in cultured RAW264.7 cells after treatment for 24 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos treated with DAPT, a gamma secretase inhibitor able to block Notch signaling. (zfin.org)
  • Cross-phosphorylation, signaling and proliferative functions of the Tyro3 and Axl receptors in Rat2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dkk-1 exposure induced mislocalized activation of Cdc42 in migrating cells, which coincided with a displacement of the polarity protein Par6 from the leading edge. (diva-portal.org)
  • The usual structure of activation of T cells depends on positive indicators distributed by peptide antigens shown by HLA course I or II. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Nevertheless, PD-L2 however, not PD-L1 causes invert signaling in dendritic cells resulting in IL-12 creation and activation of T cells . (cancercurehere.com)
  • Maintaining homeostatic Ca 2+ signaling is a fundamental physiological process in living cells. (jove.com)
  • Heregulin (HRG) ?1 signaling promotes scattering of MCF7 cells by inducing breakdown of adherens and tight junctions. (jove.com)
  • Here, we show that stimulation with HRG-?1 causes the F-actin backbone of junctions to destabilize prior to the loss of adherent proteins and scattering of the cells. (jove.com)
  • The interplay of signals between cancer cells and their microenvironment exerts a powerful influence on breast cancer growth and biological behavior 1 . (jove.com)
  • However, most of these signals from the extracellular matrix are lost or their relevance is understudied when cells are grown in two dimensional culture (2D) as a monolayer. (jove.com)
  • Fusion proteins between the major fimbrial subunit of thin curled fimbriae (CsgA) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) elicited IL-8 production in HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2/CD14. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of natural killer T cells by α-galactosylceramide rapidly induces the full maturation of dendritic cells in vivo and thereby acts as an adjuvant for combined CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to a coadministered protein. (naver.com)
  • Gene knockdown is achieved by preventing cells from making a targeted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell signaling has been most extensively studied in the context of human diseases and signaling between cells of a single organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell signaling may also occur between the cells of two different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many mammals, early embryo cells exchange signals with cells of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human gastrointestinal tract, bacteria exchange signals with each other and with human epithelial and immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mating, some cells send a peptide signal (mating factor pheromones) into their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals can be categorized based on the distance between signaling and responder cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling within, between, and amongst cells is subdivided into the following classifications: Intracrine signals are produced by the target cell that stay within the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Juxtacrine signals target adjacent (touching) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signals target cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocrine signals target distant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells communicate with each other via direct contact (juxtacrine signaling), over short distances (paracrine signaling), or over large distances and/or scales (endocrine signaling). (wikipedia.org)
  • The notch signaling mechanism is an example of juxtacrine signaling (also known as contact-dependent signaling) in which two adjacent cells must make physical contact in order to communicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as with neuronal cell specification, canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs), WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen gradients along the dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The initiation complex scans along the mRNA strand until it reaches a start codon, and then the large subunit of the ribosome attaches to the small subunit and translation of a protein begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Overexpression of Tyro3 in the Rat2 cell line that expresses Axl, but not Mer or Tyro3, resulted in a 5 fold increase in cell proliferation.Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the Axl and Tyro3 receptors are closely associated.These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase signaling to adherens junction proteins regulates cell aggregation, providing a novel understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. (jove.com)
  • Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. (yale.edu)
  • C. David Allis, The Rockefeller University, for the discovery of covalent modifications of histone proteins and their critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin organization, advancing the understanding of diseases ranging from birth defects to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Core circadian 'clock' genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansion
  • Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this highlights the integral role of GDF9 signaling in altering granulosa cell enzymes and therefore allowing cumulus cell expansion in late stages of folliculogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. (jove.com)
  • pathology
  • Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43)-positive pathology. (nih.gov)
  • distances
  • Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebrafish
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • fusion
  • The fusion proteins aswell as Fab fragments TMC353121 from the mAbs found in this research are referred to in Dining tables S1 & S2. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Kinetic binding assays had been performed to look for the equilibrium dissociation continuous between PD-1 and PD-L1 and PD-L2 fusion proteins aswell as Compact disc-80, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 fusion protein. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • SC35 protein expression was measured by western blot analysis in the presence or absence of stimulation with recombinant Wnt5a. (nih.gov)
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, various names were assigned to these vertebrate homologs, which complicated the nomenclature of teneurin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4 cysteine residues assist in protein folding, however, they are absent in Ten-m2 and Ten-m3. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Morpholinos are used as research tools for reverse genetics by knocking down gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a similar manner, causing a specific exon to be spliced out of the RNA transcript encoding a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein activity altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rhomboid in the Gram-negative bacterium Providencia stuartii is required for the function of the twin-arginine protein translocation (TAT) machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • it is the process by which the information in a gene, encoded as a sequence of bases in DNA, is converted into the structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium (the agent that causes malaria) and Toxoplasma appear to use rhomboids to cleave cell surface proteins that participate in the host invasion process. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Analysis of cell signaling networks requires a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches including the development and analysis of simulations and modeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Teneurin protein was first identified and characterised in Drosophila by Baumgartner and Chiquet-Ehrismann in early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryonic Drosophila cDNA library was screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a primer derived from the EGF-like repeats region of chicken tenascin-C protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since discovery of teneurins in Drosophila, many other laboratories have independently described the Ten-a and Ten-m/Odz homolog proteins in different vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary structure, or amino acid sequence identity, of the proteins between paralogs is ~60% identical and between orthologs is ~90%, whilst between vertebrates and Drosophila or C. elegans is only 33-41% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular function of rhomboid took a bit longer to unravel but a combination of genetics and molecular techniques led to the discovery that Drosophila rhomboid and other members of the family were the first known intramembrane serine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although less well established than in Drosophila, there is some evidence that rhomboids may participate in growth factor signalling in mammals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, the homologous protein is called armadillo. (wikipedia.org)
  • But very soon, it was realized that the Drosophila protein armadillo - implicated in mediating the morphogenic effects of Wingless/Wnt - is homologous to the mammalian β-catenin, not just in structure but also in function. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • By releasing the extracellular domain of the growth factor Spitz, from its transmembrane precursor, rhomboid triggers signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. (jove.com)
  • To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. (jove.com)
  • integral
  • This loose attachment is followed by a more intimate association involving integral outer membrane protein adhesins, including the colony opacity-associated (Opa) proteins on the bacterial surface , . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this highlights the integral role of GDF9 signaling in altering granulosa cell enzymes and therefore allowing cumulus cell expansion in late stages of folliculogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • distances
  • Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The initiation complex scans along the mRNA strand until it reaches a start codon, and then the large subunit of the ribosome attaches to the small subunit and translation of a protein begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • The results of this approach confirmed isoform specificity in the recognition of several target peptides, suggesting that the isoform specificity may have an impact on the modulation of a variety of additional protein activities, as suggested by probing of a phosphopeptide array with members of the two 14-3-3 groups. (jove.com)
  • bind
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the colony opacity-associated (Opa) proteins on the N. gonorrhoeae surface can bind human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on CD4 + T cells to suppress T cell activation and proliferation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bone
  • Just as with neuronal cell specification, canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs), WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen gradients along the dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. (jove.com)
  • bacteria
  • The addition of spent culture media to assays conducted on planktonic cells showed that H. volcanii -conditioned media stimulated persistence, whereas conditioned media of other haloarchaea or halophilic bacteria did not, suggesting the involvement of a species-specific signal. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the human gastrointestinal tract, bacteria exchange signals with each other and with human epithelial and immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • These machines have broad clinical significance not only for delivering bacterial toxins or effector proteins directly into targeted host cells, but also for direct involvement in phenomena such as biofilm formation and the rapid horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cultured ES cells used for cell transplantation were transfected with the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP). (jove.com)
  • Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a key role in the induction of an adaptive immune response, we investigated the effects of N. gonorrhoeae Opa proteins on human DC activation and function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown is achieved by preventing cells from making a targeted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell signaling may also occur between the cells of two different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mating, some cells send a peptide signal (mating factor pheromones) into their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals can be categorized based on the distance between signaling and responder cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling within, between, and amongst cells is subdivided into the following classifications: Intracrine signals are produced by the target cell that stay within the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Juxtacrine signals target adjacent (touching) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocrine signals target distant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulation
  • C. David Allis, The Rockefeller University, for the discovery of covalent modifications of histone proteins and their critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin organization, advancing the understanding of diseases ranging from birth defects to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Core circadian 'clock' genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Crystal structures are available for the T4CP, several secreted proteins and essential T4SS components, as are high-resolution images of the supramolecular assembly of the envelope-spanning secretion channel. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Major
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 30% of all proteins have transmembrane domains, and their regulated processing often has major biological consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. (jove.com)
  • However, various names were assigned to these vertebrate homologs, which complicated the nomenclature of teneurin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • This model has been used effectively to measure metastatic response to both changes in protein expression as well as to response to small molecule therapeutics, in a short turnaround time. (jove.com)
  • expression
  • When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. (jove.com)
  • single
  • Termed armadillo repeats, all these elements fold together into a single, rigid protein domain with an elongated shape - called armadillo (ARM) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • target
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell surface
  • Apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium (the agent that causes malaria) and Toxoplasma appear to use rhomboids to cleave cell surface proteins that participate in the host invasion process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The choice of which cell continues to divide is controlled by competition of cell surface signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Analysis of cell signaling networks requires a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches including the development and analysis of simulations and modeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • it is the process by which the information in a gene, encoded as a sequence of bases in DNA, is converted into the structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • A rhomboid in the Gram-negative bacterium Providencia stuartii is required for the function of the twin-arginine protein translocation (TAT) machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus beta-catenin became one of the very first examples of moonlighting: a protein performing more than one radically different cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morpholinos are used as research tools for reverse genetics by knocking down gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a similar manner, causing a specific exon to be spliced out of the RNA transcript encoding a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein activity altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environment
  • The normal body clock oscillates with an endogenous period of exactly 24 hours, it entrains, when it receives sufficient daily corrective signals from the environment, primarily daylight and darkness. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • For each cystatin B variant we determine its specific binding concentration using calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) and compare the values obtained with total protein concentration as determined by A 280 . (jove.com)
  • found
  • The name of gluten is applied to a collective set of proteins for the storage that are found in grains of wheat, barley, and rye [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The other is urotensin II-Related Peptide (URP) which is found in a variety of tissues as well although at less concentrations then urotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapid
  • This enabled the alliance of transient dominant selection (TDS) with a fluorescent reporter and metabolic selection to provide a rapid and modular approach to fluorescently label viral proteins. (jove.com)
  • SCN5A encodes the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.5 that is responsible for depolarization of the cardiac action potential and rapid intercellular conduction. (jci.org)
  • component
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Long-range allostery is often a significant component of cell signaling events. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibly
  • It has been suggested that these associations among CD and other AD may be explained by the sharing of a common pathogenic basis involving genetic susceptibility, similar environmental triggers, and the loss of intestinal barrier secondary to dysfunction of intercellular tight junctions with increased intestinal permeability, and possibly by other undiscovered mechanisms [ 7 , 11 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, it is required for Wnt signaling: possibly to recruit various coactivators. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays. (jove.com)