• Transduction
  • Because of its versatility, tissue/cell transplantation into the anterior chamber of the eye not only benefits transplantation therapies, it extends to other in vivo applications to study physiological and pathophysiological processes such as signal transduction and cancer or autoimmune disease development. (jove.com)
  • Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for underpinning the cellular and molecular signaling involved 3 . (jove.com)
  • Using the appropriate read-outs like the quantitation of single round acinar structures, or differential expression of validated molecular markers for cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis in combination with other molecular and cell biology techniques, 3D culture can provide an important tool to better understand the cellular changes during malignant transformation and for delineating the responsible signaling. (jove.com)
  • Department of Tumour Immunology of the Institute of Molecular Genetics, v. v. i. (naver.com)
  • Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Specifically, deltaA knock-down embryos lack alpha cells, similarly to mib (Delta ubiquitin ligase) mutants and embryos treated with DAPT, a gamma secretase inhibitor able to block Notch signaling. (zfin.org)
  • Dkk-1 exposure induced mislocalized activation of Cdc42 in migrating cells, which coincided with a displacement of the polarity protein Par6 from the leading edge. (diva-portal.org)
  • Maintaining homeostatic Ca 2+ signaling is a fundamental physiological process in living cells. (jove.com)
  • Heregulin (HRG) ?1 signaling promotes scattering of MCF7 cells by inducing breakdown of adherens and tight junctions. (jove.com)
  • Here, we show that stimulation with HRG-?1 causes the F-actin backbone of junctions to destabilize prior to the loss of adherent proteins and scattering of the cells. (jove.com)
  • The interplay of signals between cancer cells and their microenvironment exerts a powerful influence on breast cancer growth and biological behavior 1 . (jove.com)
  • However, most of these signals from the extracellular matrix are lost or their relevance is understudied when cells are grown in two dimensional culture (2D) as a monolayer. (jove.com)
  • Activation of natural killer T cells by α-galactosylceramide rapidly induces the full maturation of dendritic cells in vivo and thereby acts as an adjuvant for combined CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to a coadministered protein. (naver.com)
  • Our results support cancer stem cell hypothesis which implies that signaling pathway for self-renewal and proliferation of stem cells is maintained till the late stage of differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell signaling has been most extensively studied in the context of human diseases and signaling between cells of a single organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell signaling may also occur between the cells of two different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many mammals, early embryo cells exchange signals with cells of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human gastrointestinal tract, bacteria exchange signals with each other and with human epithelial and immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mating, some cells send a peptide signal (mating factor pheromones) into their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals can be categorized based on the distance between signaling and responder cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling within, between, and amongst cells is subdivided into the following classifications: Intracrine signals are produced by the target cell that stay within the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Juxtacrine signals target adjacent (touching) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signals target cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocrine signals target distant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells communicate with each other via direct contact (juxtacrine signaling), over short distances (paracrine signaling), or over large distances and/or scales (endocrine signaling). (wikipedia.org)
  • The notch signaling mechanism is an example of juxtacrine signaling (also known as contact-dependent signaling) in which two adjacent cells must make physical contact in order to communicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown is achieved by preventing cells from making a targeted protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as with neuronal cell specification, canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs), WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen gradients along the dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other is urotensin II-Related Peptide (URP) which is found in a variety of tissues as well although at less concentrations then urotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks contained in tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43)-positive pathology. (nih.gov)
  • precursor
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase signaling to adherens junction proteins regulates cell aggregation, providing a novel understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. (jove.com)
  • Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. (yale.edu)
  • C. David Allis, The Rockefeller University, for the discovery of covalent modifications of histone proteins and their critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin organization, advancing the understanding of diseases ranging from birth defects to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Core circadian 'clock' genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Overexpression of Tyro3 in the Rat2 cell line that expresses Axl, but not Mer or Tyro3, resulted in a 5 fold increase in cell proliferation.Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the Axl and Tyro3 receptors are closely associated.These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Dkk1 treatment blocked Wnt signaling in HB1.F3 in a dosage-dependent manner, and induced differentiation into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data suggest that astrocytes also signal to neurons through Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansion
  • Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this highlights the integral role of GDF9 signaling in altering granulosa cell enzymes and therefore allowing cumulus cell expansion in late stages of folliculogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The initiation complex scans along the mRNA strand until it reaches a start codon, and then the large subunit of the ribosome attaches to the small subunit and translation of a protein begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebrafish
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we found that Olig2-induced differentiation induces the expression of Dickkopf-1(Dkk1), a potent antagonist of Wnt signaling. (nih.gov)
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Wnt signaling is transduced to β-catenin in cytoplasm, which enters the nucleus and activate transcription of Wnt pathway target genes with TCF . (nih.gov)
  • However
  • However, various names were assigned to these vertebrate homologs, which complicated the nomenclature of teneurin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4 cysteine residues assist in protein folding, however, they are absent in Ten-m2 and Ten-m3. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Morpholinos are used as research tools for reverse genetics by knocking down gene function. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a similar manner, causing a specific exon to be spliced out of the RNA transcript encoding a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein activity altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rhomboid in the Gram-negative bacterium Providencia stuartii is required for the function of the twin-arginine protein translocation (TAT) machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • it is the process by which the information in a gene, encoded as a sequence of bases in DNA, is converted into the structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium (the agent that causes malaria) and Toxoplasma appear to use rhomboids to cleave cell surface proteins that participate in the host invasion process. (wikipedia.org)
  • components
  • While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. (jove.com)
  • analysis
  • Analysis of cell signaling networks requires a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches including the development and analysis of simulations and modeling. (wikipedia.org)