• Humans
  • These include:[citation needed] Stomach antrum distension vagal stimulation (mediated by the neurocrine bombesin, or GRP in humans) the presence of partially digested proteins, especially amino acids, in the stomach hypercalcemia (via Calcium-sensing receptors) Gastrin release is inhibited by: The presence of acid (primarily the secreted HCl) in the stomach (a case of negative feedback). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although less well established than in Drosophila, there is some evidence that rhomboids may participate in growth factor signalling in mammals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth/differentiation factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1827, William Prout recognized fat ("oily" alimentary matters), along with protein ("albuminous") and carbohydrate ("saccharine"), as an important nutrient for humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catenin beta-1, also known as β-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the CTNNB1 protein is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction
  • Because of its versatility, tissue/cell transplantation into the anterior chamber of the eye not only benefits transplantation therapies, it extends to other in vivo applications to study physiological and pathophysiological processes such as signal transduction and cancer or autoimmune disease development. (jove.com)
  • Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for underpinning the cellular and molecular signaling involved 3 . (jove.com)
  • Using the appropriate read-outs like the quantitation of single round acinar structures, or differential expression of validated molecular markers for cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis in combination with other molecular and cell biology techniques, 3D culture can provide an important tool to better understand the cellular changes during malignant transformation and for delineating the responsible signaling. (jove.com)
  • Department of Tumour Immunology of the Institute of Molecular Genetics, v. v. i. (naver.com)
  • Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Overexpression of Tyro3 in the Rat2 cell line that expresses Axl, but not Mer or Tyro3, resulted in a 5 fold increase in cell proliferation.Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the Axl and Tyro3 receptors are closely associated.These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other is urotensin II-Related Peptide (URP) which is found in a variety of tissues as well although at less concentrations then urotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks contained in tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43)-positive pathology. (nih.gov)
  • precursor
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase signaling to adherens junction proteins regulates cell aggregation, providing a novel understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. (jove.com)
  • Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. (yale.edu)
  • C. David Allis, The Rockefeller University, for the discovery of covalent modifications of histone proteins and their critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin organization, advancing the understanding of diseases ranging from birth defects to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Core circadian 'clock' genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Dkk1 treatment blocked Wnt signaling in HB1.F3 in a dosage-dependent manner, and induced differentiation into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data suggest that astrocytes also signal to neurons through Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansion
  • Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this highlights the integral role of GDF9 signaling in altering granulosa cell enzymes and therefore allowing cumulus cell expansion in late stages of folliculogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. (jove.com)
  • subunit
  • The initiation complex scans along the mRNA strand until it reaches a start codon, and then the large subunit of the ribosome attaches to the small subunit and translation of a protein begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebrafish
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • partially
  • This increase was partially blocked by inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway but not by inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Expression
  • These findings show that overexpression of Tyro3 in the presence of Axl promotes cell proliferation, and that co-expression of Axl and Tyro3 can affect the outcome of Gas6-initiated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we found that Olig2-induced differentiation induces the expression of Dickkopf-1(Dkk1), a potent antagonist of Wnt signaling. (nih.gov)
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Wnt signaling is transduced to β-catenin in cytoplasm, which enters the nucleus and activate transcription of Wnt pathway target genes with TCF . (nih.gov)
  • However
  • However, various names were assigned to these vertebrate homologs, which complicated the nomenclature of teneurin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4 cysteine residues assist in protein folding, however, they are absent in Ten-m2 and Ten-m3. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • it is the process by which the information in a gene, encoded as a sequence of bases in DNA, is converted into the structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium (the agent that causes malaria) and Toxoplasma appear to use rhomboids to cleave cell surface proteins that participate in the host invasion process. (wikipedia.org)