• molecular and cel
  • In your first and second years, you develop your skills as a bioscientist, covering areas including biological chemistry, genetics, molecular and cellular biology, human physiology and disease, and metabolism. (kent.ac.uk)
  • plasmid
  • In the lentiviral transfer plasmid, the U3 region in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) is replaced with a strong promoter from another virus. (jove.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Efficient gene delivery in the central nervous system (CNS) is important in studying gene functions, modeling neurological diseases and developing therapeutic approaches. (jove.com)
  • MICE
  • Combining mouse genetics and gene transfer techniques, Zhang genetically engineered mice that allowed him to specifically delete TLX in the brains of adult mice and thus shut down neurogenesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • SERCA2a gene transfer improves electrocardiographic performance in aged mdx mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In August 2008, Melton's lab published successful in vivo reprogramming of adult mice exocrine pancreatic cells into insulin secreting cells which closely resembled endogenous islet beta cells of the pancreas in terms of their size, shape, ultrastructure, and essential marker genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here his group did pioneering work to generate and utilize genetically modified mice as a tool to search for new cancer genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Here, both in vivo and in vitro techniques are demonstrated, which allow scientists to study different cytokine contributions towards osteoclast differentiation, signaling, and activation. (jove.com)
  • The minicircle DNA delivery gene transfer system provides an alternative method to establish an osteoporosis-related model is particularly useful to study the efficacy of various pharmacological inhibitors in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Ex vivo gene transfer and In-vivo gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of gene therapy in which the gene transfer takes place outside the patient's body is called ex vivo gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Osteoarthritis gene therapy, ex vivo method makes it possible to transfect not only the cells of the synovial lining of joints but also articular chondrocytes and chondroprogenitor cells in cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have managed to switch multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes within cells in vivo at a defined time and to monitor the relevance of these genes for tumor initiation and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • By applying sensitive in vivo imaging techniques to follow tumor growth and metastatic spread in real time in animals the researchers not only can follow tumor development longitudinally but also monitor response to genetic and pharmacological interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium
  • In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site insertions of the foreign DNA, which allows for easier monitoring. (wikipedia.org)
  • developed indu
  • Unlike producing beta cells from conventional embryonic stem cells or the more recently developed induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technique, Melton's method involved direct cell reprogramming of an adult cell type (exocrine cell) into other adult cell type (beta cell) without reversion to a pluripotent stem cell state. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • The next major step in MMCT came during the 1980s when new transfection techniques were utilized to introduce selectable markers onto chromosomes thus making it possible to select for the introduction of specific chromosomes and more easily create defined hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Further development in integration site preferences of transposable elements is expected to advance the technologies of human gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other pharmacological treatments, gene therapy targets the disease process rather than the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy is a molecular method aiming to replace defective or absent genes, or to counteract the ones undergoing overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an abnormal gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of gene therapy is more complicated but safer since it is possible to culture, test, and control the modified cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today's society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be accomplished by several methods, summarized below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar trials were restricted or halted in the USA when leukemia was reported in patients treated in the French X-SCID gene therapy trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy trials to treat SCID due to deficiency of the Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) enzyme (one form of SCID) continue with relative success in the USA, Britain, Ireland, Italy and Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • inverted repeats
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • geneticists
  • This technique is called interrupted mating as geneticists allow conjugation to take place for different periods of time before stopping conjugation with a high-speed blender. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of the discipline of genetics allows geneticists today to accurately predict the outcome of such crosses and in determining the phenotypical effects of the crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The "Gene Gun" method is also referred to as "biolistics" (ballistics using biological components). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic erosion in agricultural and livestock is the loss of biological genetic diversity - including the loss of individual genes, and the loss of particular recombinants of genes (or gene complexes) - such as those manifested in locally adapted landraces of domesticated animals or plants that have become adapted to the natural environment in which they originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist
  • Antonius Jozef Maria "Anton" Berns (born January 1945, Schijndel) is a Dutch scientist researching molecular genetics and author of the Mouse Cancer Models studies series. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985 he was appointed as staff scientist at the Netherlands Cancer Institute and in 1986 he became head of the Division of Molecular Genetics of the Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist born on 20 July 1822 in Austria-Hungary and is well known for discovering genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugation
  • Therefore, unlike a normal F+ cell, Hfr strains will attempt to transfer their entire DNA through the mating bridge, in a fashion similar to the normal conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • MMCT has been in use since the 1970s and has contributed to a multitude of discoveries including tumor, metastasis and telomerase suppressor genes as well as information about epigenetics, x-inactivation, mitochondrial function and aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anton Berns' research group has a significant investment in developing new mouse models for a variety of tumors, using Cre/Lox mediated switching of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathology
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression Laboratory
  • This new study is conducted by the lab of Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Gene Expression Laboratory and the Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our study directly establishes that neurogenesis plays an important role in a defined process, the acquisition and storage of spatial memory, says Howard Hughes Medical Investigator Ronald M. Evans, Ph.D., a professor in the Salk Institutes Gene Expression Laboratory, who, together with his Salk colleague Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics, directed the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • cells
  • Combining mouse genetics and gene transfer techniques, Gage and a team headed by former postdoctoral fellow Ayumu Tashiro, Ph.D., injected a virus carrying a pair of molecular shears capable of deleting a gene encoding part of the NMDA receptor into the hippocampus, a brain region harboring neural stem cells that give rise to new neurons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the global deletion of TLX leads to a variety of developmental problems, so postdoctoral fellow and first author Chun-Li Zhang, Ph.D., had to devise a strategy that would allow them to control when to shut off the gene coding for TLX in neural stem cells kept in Petri dishes as well as in live animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When he cultured mouse neural stem cells without the gene encoding TLX, the proliferation rate of these cells plummeted and the activity of hundreds of genes changed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Their method was based on previous work from 1974 by Ege, Ringertz, Veomett and colleagues, synthesizing the techniques used at the time to induce multinucleation in cells, nuclear removal and cell-cell fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus infects the human by inserting its gene directly into his cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different techniques for each type of cell, some only recently being found to foster growth in stem and nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • Previous studies have shown that the locus control region (LCR) and the promoter of the growth hormone (GH) gene can control the expression of GH. (jove.com)
  • Real-time monitoring techniques like electrophysiology have made critical contributions to the studies of membrane transport. (jove.com)
  • Recent studies demonstrated an association of STAT4 variants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), indicating that multiple autoimmune diseases share common susceptibility genes. (jove.com)
  • Studies have shown that genetics is the source of at least 50% of OA cases in the hands and hips. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low genetic diversity in a population of wild animals and plants leads to a further diminishing gene pool - inbreeding and a weakening immune system can then "fast-track" that species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. (wikipedia.org)
  • With advances in modern bioscience, several techniques and safeguards have emerged to check the relentless advance of genetic erosion and the resulting acceleration of endangered species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many of these techniques and safeguards are too expensive yet to be practical, and so the best way to protect species is to protect their habitat and to let them live in it as naturally as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • This modification allows the transcription of the vector sequence independent of HIV-1 Tat protein that is normally required for HIV gene expression 11 . (jove.com)
  • Gene amplification is a procedure in which a certain gene or DNA sequence is replicated many times in a process called DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The DNA molecule is left free in the nucleus of the host cell, and the instructions in this extra DNA molecule are transcribed just like any other gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Currently, flu vaccines are produced in specialized chicken eggs, but that technique does not allow for speedy mass vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)