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  • Proteins
  • I This course will cover topics including genes-to-proteins, cell cycle, genomics, synthetic and systems biology, stem cells and regenerative medicine, cellular signaling, personalized medicine, and the production of therapeutic biologics. (wpi.edu)
  • It has become an indispensable tool for gene cloning, the study of gene function and regulation and the production of small amounts of recombinant proteins for analysis and verification. (mybiosource.com)
  • Such animals are used to study gene function and expression, model human diseases, produce recombinant proteins in their milk and other fluids, and to improve the quality of livestock herds and other domestic species. (mybiosource.com)
  • All the genes encoding the accessory proteins, including Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef are excluded in the packaging system. (jove.com)
  • A transposon contains genetic sequences that encode for proteins that mediate its own movement, but can also carry genes for additional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can have a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Combined transcription and genome data from multiple tissues in hundreds of human donors reveal links between genotype and gene expression across the body. (the-scientist.com)
  • The technology has contributed to understand the functions of the many genes discovered in the genome projects (functional genomics). (mybiosource.com)
  • Examples of such experiments include systematic DNA-mediated mutagenesis and gene trap programs in the mouse and in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, genome-wide RNA interference experiments in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and novel protein interaction screens based on the yeast two hybrid system but performed using mammalian cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • In somatic gene transfer the recipient's genome is changed, but the change will not be passed on to the next generation. (mybiosource.com)
  • Molecular genetics allows the artist to engineer the plant and animal genome and create new life forms. (ekac.org)
  • The number of genes in the entire dog genome is estimated at about 100,000 . (ekac.org)
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Hfr cell can transfer a portion of the bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the F factor's inherent tendency to transfer itself during conjugation, the rest of the bacterial genome is dragged along with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transposase coding region of these transposons is replaced by a gene of interest intended to be integrated into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including medicine and crop seed enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • Specific approaches may include the generation of novel plasmids, genes, and cells, designed to specifically address contemporary problems in biology and biomedical science. (wpi.edu)
  • At Stanford he began to explore the field of bacterial plasmids, seeking to understand how the genes of plasmids could make bacteria resistant to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This collaboration, in particular the 1973 publication of "Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro" by Cohen, Chang, Boyer and Helling, is considered a landmark in the development of methods to combine and transplant genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries signaled the birth of genetic engineering, and earned Cohen a number of significant awards, beginning with the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1980 for "his imaginative and persevering studies of bacterial plasmids, for discovering new opportunities for manipulating and investigating the genetics of cells, and for establishing the biological promise of recombinant DNA methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Combining mouse genetics and gene transfer techniques, Gage and a team headed by former postdoctoral fellow Ayumu Tashiro, Ph.D., injected a virus carrying a pair of molecular shears capable of deleting a gene encoding part of the NMDA receptor into the hippocampus, a brain region harboring neural stem cells that give rise to new neurons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the global deletion of TLX leads to a variety of developmental problems, so postdoctoral fellow and first author Chun-Li Zhang, Ph.D., had to devise a strategy that would allow them to control when to shut off the gene coding for TLX in neural stem cells kept in Petri dishes as well as in live animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When he cultured mouse neural stem cells without the gene encoding TLX, the proliferation rate of these cells plummeted and the activity of hundreds of genes changed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • RESULTS: Antisense gene transfer resulted in markedly downregulation of B7.1 in the donor livers, attenuated acute immune rejection against liver allografts, prolonged the survival time of rats, and decreased the number of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells in livers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gene transfer experiment helps to express the introduced genetic construct (or transgene) in the recipient cells or to disrupt or inactivate particular endogenous genes (resulting in a loss of function. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gene transfer can be targeted to somatic (body) or germ (egg and sperm) cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • In germline gene transfer, the parents' egg and sperm cells are changed with the goal of passing on the changes to their offspring. (mybiosource.com)
  • In 1944 Oswald Avery established that the substance transferred between cells was DNA. (mybiosource.com)
  • This process involved the transfer of DNA through a direct link between the bacterial cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • Due to the large size of bacterial chromosome, it is very rare for the entire chromosome to be transferred into the F − cell as time required is simply too long for the cells to maintain their physical contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjugation mediated by Hfr cells, transfer of DNA starts at the origin of transfer (oriT) located within the F factor and then continues clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the orientation of F factor in the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using Hfr and F− strains with one strain carrying mutations in several genes, each affecting a metabolic function or causing antibiotic resistance, and examining the phenotype of the recipient cells on selective agar plates, one can deduce which genes are transferred into the recipient cells first and therefore are closer to the oriT sequence on the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their method was based on previous work from 1974 by Ege, Ringertz, Veomett and colleagues, synthesizing the techniques used at the time to induce multinucleation in cells, nuclear removal and cell-cell fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this purpose, three techniques may be utilized: gene isolation, manipulations, and transferring to target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus infects the human by inserting its gene directly into his cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2008, Melton's lab published successful in vivo reprogramming of adult mice exocrine pancreatic cells into insulin secreting cells which closely resembled endogenous islet beta cells of the pancreas in terms of their size, shape, ultrastructure, and essential marker genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike producing beta cells from conventional embryonic stem cells or the more recently developed induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technique, Melton's method involved direct cell reprogramming of an adult cell type (exocrine cell) into other adult cell type (beta cell) without reversion to a pluripotent stem cell state. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have managed to switch multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes within cells in vivo at a defined time and to monitor the relevance of these genes for tumor initiation and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach literally shoots genes into plant cells and plant cell chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different techniques for each type of cell, some only recently being found to foster growth in stem and nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugation
  • A second form of gene transfer was named conjugation discovered by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum in 1946 in Escherichia coli. (mybiosource.com)
  • Therefore, unlike a normal F+ cell, Hfr strains will attempt to transfer their entire DNA through the mating bridge, in a fashion similar to the normal conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is called interrupted mating as geneticists allow conjugation to take place for different periods of time before stopping conjugation with a high-speed blender. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life, almost all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3.8 billion years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • phage
  • They found that newly formed phage could occasionally package some of the host cell's DNA and then transfer it to a second host cell in a subsequent infection. (mybiosource.com)
  • Agrobacterium
  • In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site insertions of the foreign DNA, which allows for easier monitoring. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • The next major step in MMCT came during the 1980s when new transfection techniques were utilized to introduce selectable markers onto chromosomes thus making it possible to select for the introduction of specific chromosomes and more easily create defined hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • inverted repeats
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • geneticists
  • Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of the discipline of genetics allows geneticists today to accurately predict the outcome of such crosses and in determining the phenotypical effects of the crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Plant genetics is different from that of animals in a few ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low genetic diversity in a population of wild animals and plants leads to a further diminishing gene pool - inbreeding and a weakening immune system can then "fast-track" that species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic erosion in agricultural and livestock is the loss of biological genetic diversity - including the loss of individual genes, and the loss of particular recombinants of genes (or gene complexes) - such as those manifested in locally adapted landraces of domesticated animals or plants that have become adapted to the natural environment in which they originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist
  • Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist born on 20 July 1822 in Austria-Hungary and is well known for discovering genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. (wikipedia.org)
  • With advances in modern bioscience, several techniques and safeguards have emerged to check the relentless advance of genetic erosion and the resulting acceleration of endangered species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many of these techniques and safeguards are too expensive yet to be practical, and so the best way to protect species is to protect their habitat and to let them live in it as naturally as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • MMCT has been in use since the 1970s and has contributed to a multitude of discoveries including tumor, metastasis and telomerase suppressor genes as well as information about epigenetics, x-inactivation, mitochondrial function and aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anton Berns' research group has a significant investment in developing new mouse models for a variety of tumors, using Cre/Lox mediated switching of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • This new study is conducted by the lab of Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Gene Expression Laboratory and the Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our study directly establishes that neurogenesis plays an important role in a defined process, the acquisition and storage of spatial memory, says Howard Hughes Medical Investigator Ronald M. Evans, Ph.D., a professor in the Salk Institutes Gene Expression Laboratory, who, together with his Salk colleague Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics, directed the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this laboratory based course, students will learn to use current techniques in molecular and genetic engineering to address authentic research questions. (wpi.edu)
  • Pathology
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether downregulating the expression of B7.1 (CD80) in the donor livers by antisense B7.1 gene transfer could attenuate the acute immune rejection against liver allografts in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • variants
  • Huntington's disease) to common multi-factorial disorders (e.g. hypertension) that result from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical , physical, biological, social, infectious, behavioural or nutritional factors. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • nucleus
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, and transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • During his PhD studies, Erwin Wagner joined the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin with a Max Planck Fellowship for one year in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synonyms for autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) used prior to the current understanding of the molecular genetics were Marie's ataxia, inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy, cerebello-olivary atrophy, or the more generic term "spinocerebellar degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficiencies in the genes involved in N-linked glycosylation constitute the molecular background to most of the CDGs. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (ageing-map.org)
  • Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. (ageing-map.org)
  • Gene expression can be stably altered through epigenetic changes which not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to "memorize" these encounters once the stimulus is removed. (jove.com)
  • Epigenetic modifications are reversible modifications on a cell's DNA or histones that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic modifications that alter gene expression that cannot be attributed to modification of the primary DNA sequence and that are heritable mitotically and meiotically are classified as epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resulting,in an increased expression of the imprinted gene by UPD or inherited duplication that leads to the onset of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This eliminates the risk of disrupting various important processes such as cell division and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Plant miRNAs usually have near-perfect pairing with their mRNA targets, which induces gene repression through cleavage of the target transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In its most precise usage, the term transgene describes a segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from one organism and is introduced into a different organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • And, while DNA binding transcription factors provide a mechanism for specific control of cellular responses, a model where DNA binding transcription factors are the sole regulators of gene activity is also unlikely. (wikipedia.org)
  • defect
  • The genetic defect in shiverer is a deletion in the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene, an essential component of CNS myelin. (jneurosci.org)
  • ZFP57 Gene Third, mother's hypomethylation defects (a genetic defect that stops the allele from getting a methyl group, which would inhibit transcription) can occur from an isolated genomic imprinting or occur as a defect called, "hypomethylation imprinted loci" (HIL). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2009, most researchers use a different nomenclature based on the gene defect (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • To combat this, scientists used biolistics to insert the daffodil phytoene synthase gene into Asia indigenous rice cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Induced islet neogenesis by gene transfer of Neuogenin3 (Ngn3), the islet lineage-defining specific transcription factor and Betacellulin (Btc), an islet growth factor has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. (jove.com)
  • Specific genes that can cause NDM have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenesis is the same as gene therapy in the sense that they both transform cells for a specific purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The Green Revolution refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • NDM is a monogenic (controlled by a single gene) form of diabetes that occurs in the first 6 months of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute
  • The National Gene Bank at the Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, part of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences (ICGR-CAAS), Beijing, contains close to 24,000 soybean accessions, including wild soybean types. (intechopen.com)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The basic approach was the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These groups published back-to-back papers on the lin-4 gene, which was known to control the timing of C. elegans larval development by repressing the lin-14 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Energy transfer in material solids is driven primarily by differences in intensive thermodynamic quantities such as pressure and temperature. (xonl.de)
  • This technique is primarily used for taxa that are rare or in areas where habitat has been severely degraded. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Recent analysis of a wide range of mtDNA genomes suggests that both these features may dictate mitochondrial gene retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants
  • GM maize has also caused controversy with respect to possible health effects, impact on other insects and impact on other plants via gene flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • It was discovered that a differentially methylated region (DMR) is present within the shared promoter of these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • The last possible cause of TNDM, the mother's genes are affected by DNA methylation (DNA methylation is the process in which methyl groups or CH3- are added to the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Erwin Wagner's studies are focused in the area of gene function in both healthy and pathological states. (wikipedia.org)
  • variety
  • Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, and heat-transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • relevant
  • In many cases people are not aware that they carry a relevant gene until they have children who begin to show signs of having the disorder. (wikipedia.org)