• Proteins
  • It has become an indispensable tool for gene cloning, the study of gene function and regulation and the production of small amounts of recombinant proteins for analysis and verification. (mybiosource.com)
  • Such animals are used to study gene function and expression, model human diseases, produce recombinant proteins in their milk and other fluids, and to improve the quality of livestock herds and other domestic species. (mybiosource.com)
  • All the genes encoding the accessory proteins, including Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef are excluded in the packaging system. (jove.com)
  • A transposon contains genetic sequences that encode for proteins that mediate its own movement, but can also carry genes for additional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can have a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • At Stanford he began to explore the field of bacterial plasmids, seeking to understand how the genes of plasmids could make bacteria resistant to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This collaboration, in particular the 1973 publication of "Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro" by Cohen, Chang, Boyer and Helling, is considered a landmark in the development of methods to combine and transplant genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries signaled the birth of genetic engineering, and earned Cohen a number of significant awards, beginning with the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1980 for "his imaginative and persevering studies of bacterial plasmids, for discovering new opportunities for manipulating and investigating the genetics of cells, and for establishing the biological promise of recombinant DNA methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids, discovered in 1952, became important tools for transferring information between cells and replicating DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular and cel
  • In your first and second years, you develop your skills as a bioscientist, covering areas including biological chemistry, genetics, molecular and cellular biology, human physiology and disease, and metabolism. (kent.ac.uk)
  • MICE
  • Combining mouse genetics and gene transfer techniques, Zhang genetically engineered mice that allowed him to specifically delete TLX in the brains of adult mice and thus shut down neurogenesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • SERCA2a gene transfer improves electrocardiographic performance in aged mdx mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In August 2008, Melton's lab published successful in vivo reprogramming of adult mice exocrine pancreatic cells into insulin secreting cells which closely resembled endogenous islet beta cells of the pancreas in terms of their size, shape, ultrastructure, and essential marker genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here his group did pioneering work to generate and utilize genetically modified mice as a tool to search for new cancer genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • MMCT has been in use since the 1970s and has contributed to a multitude of discoveries including tumor, metastasis and telomerase suppressor genes as well as information about epigenetics, x-inactivation, mitochondrial function and aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anton Berns' research group has a significant investment in developing new mouse models for a variety of tumors, using Cre/Lox mediated switching of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have managed to switch multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes within cells in vivo at a defined time and to monitor the relevance of these genes for tumor initiation and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • By applying sensitive in vivo imaging techniques to follow tumor growth and metastatic spread in real time in animals the researchers not only can follow tumor development longitudinally but also monitor response to genetic and pharmacological interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Here, both in vivo and in vitro techniques are demonstrated, which allow scientists to study different cytokine contributions towards osteoclast differentiation, signaling, and activation. (jove.com)
  • The minicircle DNA delivery gene transfer system provides an alternative method to establish an osteoporosis-related model is particularly useful to study the efficacy of various pharmacological inhibitors in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Ex vivo gene transfer and In-vivo gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of gene therapy in which the gene transfer takes place outside the patient's body is called ex vivo gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Osteoarthritis gene therapy, ex vivo method makes it possible to transfect not only the cells of the synovial lining of joints but also articular chondrocytes and chondroprogenitor cells in cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • Unlike producing beta cells from conventional embryonic stem cells or the more recently developed induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technique, Melton's method involved direct cell reprogramming of an adult cell type (exocrine cell) into other adult cell type (beta cell) without reversion to a pluripotent stem cell state. (wikipedia.org)
  • For animals, the gene must be inserted into embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • There are many applications of gene transfer like large-scale commercial production of recombinant antibodies and vaccines and gene medicine or gene therapy. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gene transfer is one of the key factors in gene therapy, and it is one of the key purposes of the clone. (mybiosource.com)
  • Further development in integration site preferences of transposable elements is expected to advance the technologies of human gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other pharmacological treatments, gene therapy targets the disease process rather than the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy is a molecular method aiming to replace defective or absent genes, or to counteract the ones undergoing overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an abnormal gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of gene therapy is more complicated but safer since it is possible to culture, test, and control the modified cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also difficult to administer gene therapy repeatedly due to the immune system's enhanced response to viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be accomplished by several methods, summarized below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar trials were restricted or halted in the USA when leukemia was reported in patients treated in the French X-SCID gene therapy trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy trials to treat SCID due to deficiency of the Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) enzyme (one form of SCID) continue with relative success in the USA, Britain, Ireland, Italy and Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today's society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. (wikipedia.org)
  • phage
  • They found that newly formed phage could occasionally package some of the host cell's DNA and then transfer it to a second host cell in a subsequent infection. (mybiosource.com)
  • biological
  • The "Gene Gun" method is also referred to as "biolistics" (ballistics using biological components). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic erosion in agricultural and livestock is the loss of biological genetic diversity - including the loss of individual genes, and the loss of particular recombinants of genes (or gene complexes) - such as those manifested in locally adapted landraces of domesticated animals or plants that have become adapted to the natural environment in which they originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium
  • In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site insertions of the foreign DNA, which allows for easier monitoring. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • The next major step in MMCT came during the 1980s when new transfection techniques were utilized to introduce selectable markers onto chromosomes thus making it possible to select for the introduction of specific chromosomes and more easily create defined hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • inverted repeats
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • geneticists
  • Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of the discipline of genetics allows geneticists today to accurately predict the outcome of such crosses and in determining the phenotypical effects of the crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Combining mouse genetics and gene transfer techniques, Gage and a team headed by former postdoctoral fellow Ayumu Tashiro, Ph.D., injected a virus carrying a pair of molecular shears capable of deleting a gene encoding part of the NMDA receptor into the hippocampus, a brain region harboring neural stem cells that give rise to new neurons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the global deletion of TLX leads to a variety of developmental problems, so postdoctoral fellow and first author Chun-Li Zhang, Ph.D., had to devise a strategy that would allow them to control when to shut off the gene coding for TLX in neural stem cells kept in Petri dishes as well as in live animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When he cultured mouse neural stem cells without the gene encoding TLX, the proliferation rate of these cells plummeted and the activity of hundreds of genes changed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Gene transfer experiment helps to express the introduced genetic construct (or transgene) in the recipient cells or to disrupt or inactivate particular endogenous genes (resulting in a loss of function. (mybiosource.com)
  • In germline gene transfer, the parents' egg and sperm cells are changed with the goal of passing on the changes to their offspring. (mybiosource.com)
  • In 1944 Oswald Avery established that the substance transferred between cells was DNA. (mybiosource.com)
  • This process involved the transfer of DNA through a direct link between the bacterial cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • 250 target cells can be assessed at once, the technique allows the monitoring of T cell responses against several antigen epitopes at several concentrations and in multiple replicates. (jove.com)
  • Their method was based on previous work from 1974 by Ege, Ringertz, Veomett and colleagues, synthesizing the techniques used at the time to induce multinucleation in cells, nuclear removal and cell-cell fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus infects the human by inserting its gene directly into his cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different techniques for each type of cell, some only recently being found to foster growth in stem and nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach literally shoots genes into plant cells and plant cell chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist
  • Antonius Jozef Maria "Anton" Berns (born January 1945, Schijndel) is a Dutch scientist researching molecular genetics and author of the Mouse Cancer Models studies series. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985 he was appointed as staff scientist at the Netherlands Cancer Institute and in 1986 he became head of the Division of Molecular Genetics of the Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist born on 20 July 1822 in Austria-Hungary and is well known for discovering genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low genetic diversity in a population of wild animals and plants leads to a further diminishing gene pool - inbreeding and a weakening immune system can then "fast-track" that species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. (wikipedia.org)
  • With advances in modern bioscience, several techniques and safeguards have emerged to check the relentless advance of genetic erosion and the resulting acceleration of endangered species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many of these techniques and safeguards are too expensive yet to be practical, and so the best way to protect species is to protect their habitat and to let them live in it as naturally as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression Laboratory
  • This new study is conducted by the lab of Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Gene Expression Laboratory and the Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our study directly establishes that neurogenesis plays an important role in a defined process, the acquisition and storage of spatial memory, says Howard Hughes Medical Investigator Ronald M. Evans, Ph.D., a professor in the Salk Institutes Gene Expression Laboratory, who, together with his Salk colleague Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics, directed the study. (bio-medicine.org)