• populations
  • In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively.Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival.This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, the Semai are closer to Northeast Asian populations which consistently show high frequencies of haplotype A. (nih.gov)
  • We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages in this dataset and surrounding populations.The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation.They encourage setting up regional and subpopulation databases, especially for forensic applications. (nih.gov)
  • The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in northern Asian populations. (naver.com)
  • Strong evidence implies selection has increased the frequency of this allele in some East Asian populations but does not fully explain its geographic pattern. (nih.gov)
  • Genetics of type 2 diabetes in European populations. (pubtransformer.com)
  • Most novel T2D susceptibility loci were identified through GWAS in European populations and later confirmed in other ethnic groups. (pubtransformer.com)
  • PMID- 22781158 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DCOM- 20130201 LR - 20161019 IS - 1753-0407 (Electronic) IS - 1753-0407 (Linking) VI - 4 IP - 3 DP - 2012 Sep TI - Genetics of type 2 diabetes in European populations. (pubtransformer.com)
  • In everyday life, many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and cultural identity-these are the groups usually called "races" in countries like the United States, Brazil, and South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, there is no specific gene that can be used to determine a person's race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical practitioners also sometimes argue that racial categories can be used successfully as proxies to assess risk of those different heritable illnesses that occur with different frequencies among populations of different geographic ancestries. (wikipedia.org)
  • By analogy, the term metapopulation is used in forensic genetics to describe a set of geographically dispersed populations with shared ancestry and continuing geneflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In countries like USA, Brazil, UK or China which are characterized by strong population substructure national reference databases are often built on basis of a historical concept of ethnic affiliation, e.g. the US population is sub-structured in a Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian and Native American populations or UK differentiates English, Afro-Caribbean, Indo-Pakistani and Chinese. (wikipedia.org)
  • state: "Historical contacts-for example, under Alexander the Great or during the ancient Minoan civilization-may provide an explanation for the common ancestry of disease mutations in these ethnically diverse populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, 1994), Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza grouped Greeks with other European and Mediterranean populations based on 120 loci (view MDS plot). (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, Afro-Asian populations have been marginalized as a result of human migration and social conflict. (wikipedia.org)
  • From an Asian point of reference, populations range from as far east as Greenland, to as far west as Kalmykia, Crimea, and northern Europe, giving Asiatic peoples or their descendants a historical presence across four continents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a broader comparison of populations from every region of Asia, the aforementioned cluster is subsumed in a Northeast and East Asian cluster that also includes the Koryak, Chukchi, Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan, Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N. Chinese, and Mongol samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and Kittles' objection is also methodological: according to them the FST is based on a faulty underlying assumptions that all populations contain equally genetic diverse members and that continental groups diverged at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarich and Miele have also argued that estimates of genetic difference between individuals of different populations understate differences between groups because they fail to take into account human diploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rushton's book is focused on what he considers the three broadest racial groups, and does not address other populations such as South East Asians and Australian aboriginals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valencia identified the main areas of criticism as focusing on Rushton's use of "race" as a biological concept, a failure to appreciate the extent of variation within populations compared with that between populations, a false separation of genetics and environment, poor statistical methodology, a failure to consider alternative hypotheses, and the use of unreliable and inappropriate data to draw conclusions about the relationship between brain size and intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotype
  • For both ethnic groups and for subtypes of ICH active treatment more than halved the risk of ICH and the treatment effects were not different in carriers of the epsilon 2 or epsilon 4 allele and in those with the epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotype. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mitochondrial
  • High magnification revealed that the structure of mitochondrial cristae was severely damaged and swollen in the Sjögren syndrome group (Figure 3F) compared to that in the non-Sjögren syndrome group (Figure 3C), indicating that mitochondrial damage may be related to Sjögren syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • racial
  • Subgroup analysis indicated that publication bias could be influenced by racial ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic analysis enables scientists to estimate the geographic ancestry of a person by using ancestry-informative markers, and by inference the probable racial category into which they will be classified in a given society. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, many scientists reacted to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mongoloid race (/ˈmɒŋ.ɡə.lɔɪd/ alternatively East Asian race) is a broad racial grouping of peoples indigenous to East Asia and adjacient parts of Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept continues to be in use as a rough categorization of ethnic or racial origin, even though its use even as such in forensic anthropology has been criticized as too vague as the term covers a very large and diverse group of phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rushton argues that race is a valid biological concept and that racial differences frequently arrange in a continuum across 60 different behavioral and anatomical variables, with "Mongoloids" (East Asians) at one end of the continuum, "Negroids" (Sub-Saharan Africans) at the opposite extreme, and "Caucasoids" (Europeans, Middle Easterners and North Africans) in the middle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In specific terms, Rushton argues that the three broad racial groups that he's defined have fundamental biological differences going back through evolutionary history that cause clear-cut distinctions in modern everyday life, as well stating that generalizations about these broad groups are justified given the large nature of the gaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Europeans
  • In Asian patients the risk of ICH for epsilon 2 or epsilon 4 carriers was 2.11 (95% CI = 1.28 to 3.47) and 1.48 (95% CI = 0.76 to 2.87) in Europeans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Carriers of the epsilon 2 or epsilon 4 allele had an increased risk of both incident and recurrent ICH, and both cortical and deep ICH, and most risk estimates were higher in Asians than in Europeans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • They found that though these individuals could be classified very accurately to continental clusters, there was a significant degree of genetic overlap on the individual level, to the extent that, using 377 loci, individual Europeans were about 38% of the time more genetically similar to East Asians than to other Europeans. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnic group
  • The UK usage of the term "Asian" is reflected in the "ethnic group" section of UK census forms, which treat "Asian" and "Chinese" as separate (see British Asian). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most respondents to the UK 2001 Census of non-Chinese East Asian and Southeast Asian descent chose to write-in their ethnicity in the "Other Ethnic Group" category rather than the "Other Asian" category, reflecting the association of the word Asian in the UK with South Asian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1980, Indians and all other South Asians have been classified as part of the Asian ethnic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study of Malagasy, autosomal DNA shows the highlanders ethnic group like Merina are almost an even mixture of Southeast Asian and Bantu origin, while the coastal ethnic group have much higher Bantu mixture in their autosomal DNA suggesting they are mixture of new Bantu migrants and the already established highlander ethnic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the whole Korean Peninsula and southeastern Manchuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malays (Malay: Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations - areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • Each additional risk allele increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 1.24-fold (P = 2.85 × 10−7) (B) and of IFG and diabetes combined by 1.21-fold (P = 6.31 × 10−11) (C). B: Participants harboring seven or all eight risk alleles had a 4.44-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes (P = 5 × 10−4) compared with the reference group. (nih.gov)
  • Schizophrenia
  • In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57) was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39). (nih.gov)
  • This is consistent with the negative results from the logistic regression analysis of the risk-index score, which found a non-significant (p = 0.783) and slightly negative (β = -0.02) effect of increments in the risk-index on likelihood of being in the schizophrenia group. (nih.gov)
  • 2001
  • Despite there being a strong presence of East Asians in the United Kingdom there are considerably more South Asians, for example the 2001 Census recorded 1.05 million people of Indian origin and 247,000 of Chinese origin in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soares 2010 felt in their review of the literature, that the case for South Asian origins is strongest, with the Central Asian origin argued by (Wells 2001) being also worthy of consideration. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1-3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. (nih.gov)
  • The sample is distinct from modern Native Americans and Neo-Eskimos, falling within haplogroup D2a1, a group previously observed among modern Aleuts and Siberian Sireniki Yuit. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of haplogroup R1 among Indigenous Americans groups is a matter of controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wu's variant only applies the Multiregional hypothesis to the East Asian fossil record which is popular among Chinese scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of them live in secluded reservations, distributed among eight ethnic groups: Quitirrisí (in the Central Valley), Matambú or Chorotega (Guanacaste), Maleku (northern Alajuela), Bribri (southern Atlantic), Cabécar (Cordillera de Talamanca), Guaymí (southern Costa Rica, along the Panamá border), Boruca (southern Costa Rica) and Térraba (southern Costa Rica). (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnicity
  • The Metapopulation structure built on basis of "ethnicity/linguistic affiliation" takes to a larger extent the ancestry of sampled individuals into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • East Asian
  • Defined by the 2006-2011 Australian Census, three broad groups have the word Asian included in their name: Central and Southern Asian, South-East Asian and North-East Asian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, Pietrusewsky (1999) found, however, that Korean and Yayoi people were very highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Human phenotypes are highly polygenic (dependent on interaction by many genes) and are influenced by environment as well as by genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of genetic clustering examines the degree to which regional groups differ genetically, the categorization of individuals into clusters, and what can be learned about human ancestry from this data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major
  • Vast migrations and subsequent assimilation processes have shaped the genetic composition of Southeast Asia, an area of close contact between several major ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Common definitive markers of a Malayness - the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions - are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affiliation
  • Currently the YHRD database recognizes four separate "metapopulation" structures: national, continental, linguistic/ethnic and phylogenetic affiliation with several categories within. (wikipedia.org)
  • haplogroup
  • It is therefore hypothesized that Haplogroup C-M130 either originated or underwent its longest period of evolution within India or the greater South Asian coastal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negroid
  • It is part of the three great races introduced by Georges Cuvier in the 18th century, the other two groups being Caucasoid and Negroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediterranean
  • There was also cultural diversity in other Roman-British towns, which were sustained by considerable migration, both within Britannia and from other Roman territories, including North Africa, Roman Syria, the Eastern Mediterranean, and continental Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimates
  • Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1,200 years ago by a very small group of women of approximately 30. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Edwards (2003) claims, "It is not true, as Nature claimed, that 'two random individuals from any one group are almost as different as any two random individuals from the entire world'" and Risch et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific
  • Respondents can also report their specific ancestry, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Issues specific to this group include having no documentation of their births, since not having been born in the local hospital spared their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • European
  • P=4.25×10(-8)).We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively).Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). (nih.gov)