• short repeats
  • Investigations of the relation between the AR polymorphism and breast cancer ( Table 1 ) have been conflicting, variably reporting that short repeats are associated with a decreased risk ( 14 - 18 ) or are not associated with risk ( 19 - 21 ) or are associated with decreased breast cancer survival ( 16 , 22 , 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • lengths
  • Using the concept of "intermediate bubble NSC 74859 says" and our recently established criterion for DNA base pair "thickness" through the base pairs common displacement (BAD) characteristic we compare the breathing dynamics of TRS against random sequences with identical nucleotide composition as well as repeats with different lengths and G/C content. (cancer-basics.com)
  • We did not find any associations between AR or VDR microsatellite lengths and breast cancer when we used a priori determined cutoffs (≤21 or ≥22 repeats for AR and ≤18 or ≥19 for VDR ) to define long and short alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • genome
  • Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression , organization of chromosome architecture , and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance . (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimate of the number of human genes has been repeatedly revised down from initial predictions of 100,000 or more as genome sequence quality and gene finding methods have improved, and could continue to drop further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • My thesis aims to gain insights into the genes regulating NPC proliferation using a phenotypic-driven, genome-wide approach. (ubc.ca)
  • Microsatellites are found both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including humans, wherein they appear scattered almost at random throughout the genome. (bmj.com)
  • In fact "functional DNA", consisting of transcribed genes and regions involved either in transcriptional regulation or in maintaining chromosomal structure/integrity, is thought to comprise less than a sixth of the total human genome. (bmj.com)
  • disorder
  • Expanded SCA1 and CAG repeats were found to cosegregate with the disorder in six of the families tested and were also observed in one sporadic individual with a negative family history of SCA. (springer.com)
  • The invention for the first time provides strong evidence of a susceptibility gene for bipolar mood disorder that is located in the 18q22-q23 region of the long arm of chromosome 18. (google.com)
  • species
  • The five chloroplast genomes ranged from 161,072 bp ( Q. baronii ) to 161,237 bp ( Q. dolicholepis ) in length, and their gene organization and order, and GC content, were similar to those of other Fagaceae species. (frontiersin.org)
  • dynamics
  • We record that repeats possess the to hinder the binding of transcription elements with their consensus series by changed DNA inhaling and exhaling dynamics in closeness from the binding sites. (cancer-basics.com)
  • Such dynamics affect the numbers and the type of microsatellites required for identifying individual parasites or parasite clusters when performing cross-sectional studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sufficient
  • However, when used to refer to the number of repeating units of genetic information that are sufficient to encode the blueprint for something as complex as a human being, it never ceases to amaze me that this number is big enough! (bmj.com)
  • In most cases, identifying the population structure of a given infection agent relies on a blind approach that considers "sufficient" gene sampling and a "good" survey of the natural populations [ 10 ], where "good" and "sufficient" depend on the underlying question. (biomedcentral.com)
  • important
  • These QTLs are hypothesized to harbor genes important for NPC proliferation and downstream experimentation is required to validate the function of these genes. (ubc.ca)
  • biological
  • Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • case
  • We investigated the association between polymorphism in the androgen receptor ( AR ) and vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) genes and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study of genetically homogenous Swedish women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have chosen to study the AR CAG microsatellite and a polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] microsatellite in the 3′ untranslated region of VDR in relation to breast cancer in a large case-control study in a genetically homogenous population. (aacrjournals.org)
  • in others it becomes a problem, e.g. clonal expansions may hamper the ability of separating a new infection from a recrudescence case in a drug efficacy study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • candidate
  • As proof of concept, a candidate gene called Galanin receptor 2 (Galr2) in the Chr 11 QTL was demonstrated to be a pro-proliferative regulator of NPCs using in vitro techniques manipulating Galr2 expression and Galr2 knockout mice. (ubc.ca)
  • known
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)