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  • gene expression
  • The observation that variants regulating gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) are at a high frequency among SNPs associated with complex traits has made the genome-wide characterization of gene expression an important tool in genetic mapping studies of such traits. (csuca.org)
  • As part of a study to identify genetic loci contributing to bipolar disorder and other quantitative traits in members of 26 pedigrees from Costa Rica and Colombia, we measured gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 786 pedigree members. (csuca.org)
  • heritability
  • The study design enabled us to comprehensively reconstruct the genetic regulatory network in these families, provide estimates of heritability, identify eQTL, evaluate missing heritability for the eQTL, and quantify the number of different alleles contributing to any given locus. (csuca.org)
  • variants
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have ascertained numerous trait-associated common genetic variants, frequently localized to regulatory DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Knowing which genetic variants are responsible for differences in gene activity among individuals can give powerful clues for diagnosis, prognosis and intervention of different diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to expanding the library of genetic changes that can underlie pulmonary fibrosis, this study's findings demonstrate that both rare and common genetic variants contribute significantly to pulmonary fibrosis risk," says James Kiley, PhD, Director of NHLBI's Division of Lung Diseases. (medindia.net)
  • A key next step for research is figuring out how these genetic variants work with environmental factors in the development of the disease. (medindia.net)
  • SNPs are the most common type of sequence variation, estimated in 1998 to account for 90% of all sequence variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • single nucleotide po
  • Watch this video to learn about single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), normal variation within the human genome and how we are beginning to understand that SNPs have a key role in disease development and our response to medicines. (futurelearn.com)
  • Nearly all (>99.9%) of these sites are small differences, either single nucleotide polymorphisms or brief insertion-deletions in the genetic sequence, but structural variations account for a greater number of base-pairs than the SNPs and indels. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • resulting from genetic mutation caused by radiation or by chemical damage. (coursera.org)
  • Genetic variation is brought about by random mutation, which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of a gene. (wn.com)
  • Genetic variation is brought about, fundamentally, by mutation, which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographic
  • The regional geographic axes of greatest phonemic differentiation correspond to axes of genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a relationship between human dispersal and linguistic variation. (pnas.org)
  • Within a language family, phoneme evolution along genetic, geographic, or cognate-based linguistic trees predicts similar ancestral phoneme states to those predicted from ancient sources. (pnas.org)
  • The genetic distance is then simply a function of time since divergence, as well as the magnitude of gene flow (which is inversely proportional to geographic distance). (gnxp.com)
  • Going back to South Asians, putting them on a genetic-geographic map and attempting to adduce deep demographic history is total folly, because evidence is building that they are a compound synthetic population , whose origins in time are relatively recent. (gnxp.com)
  • For population pairs from the same cluster, as geographic distance increases, genetic distance increases in a linear manner, consistent with a clinal population structure. (gnxp.com)
  • However, for pairs from different clusters, genetic distance is generally larger than that between intracluster pairs that have the same geographic distance. (gnxp.com)
  • For example, genetic distances for population pairs with one population in Eurasia and the other in East Asia are greater than those for pairs at equivalent geographic distance within Eurasia or within East Asia. (gnxp.com)
  • Loosely speaking, it is these small discontinuous jumps in genetic distance-across oceans, the Himalayas, and the Sahara-that provide the basis for the ability of STRUCTURE to identify clusters that correspond to geographic regions. (gnxp.com)
  • The terms race, genetic population, ethnicity, geographic population, and ancestry are used interchangeably in everyday discourse involving race. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The question remains whether similar patterns of spatial genetic variation and similar functional roles for specific patches are obtained for different species. (pnas.org)
  • Here we study the networks of genetic variation of four Mediterranean woody plant species inhabiting the same habitat patches in a highly fragmented forest mosaic in Southern Spain. (pnas.org)
  • To date, those papers that have applied network theory to explain spatial patterns of genetic variation have all focused on a single species ( 10 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have analyzed the genetic structure of these four species by using isozymes as multivariant codominant markers (see Materials and Methods ). (pnas.org)
  • O]ngoing contacts, plus the fact that we were a small, genetically homogeneous species to begin with, has resulted in relatively close genetic relationships, despite our worldwide presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • The relationship between self-reported identity and genetic African ancestry, as well as the low numbers of self-reported African Americans with minor levels of African ancestry, provide insight into the complexity of genetic and social consequences of racial categorization, assortative mating, and the impact of notions of "race" on patterns of mating and self-identity in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • On a typical single locus (on some loci, such as SLC24A5 , most of the variation is between groups). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Three previously known genetic links were confirmed and seven novel loci were identified by studying the entire genome in this progressive incurable disease. (medindia.net)
  • Genetic variation within a population is commonly measured as the percentage of gene loci that are polymorphic or the percentage of gene loci in individuals that are heterozygous. (wikipedia.org)
  • variant
  • And then, the, the term genetic variant is just kind of a generic term. (coursera.org)
  • Ph.D., one of the authors on this study, comments, "This first study, while requiring replication, identifies a very common genetic variant that appears to affect smoking cessation treatment outcome. (innovations-report.com)
  • evolution
  • More genetic sampling could further elucidate the relative roles of vertical and horizontal transmission in phoneme evolution. (pnas.org)
  • To date, he has written over 130 papers published in a range of international scientific journals, including 33 overviews on a range of topics, notably on molecular markers, aphid migration, clonality, rapid genetic evolution in insects, and specialism versus generalism, with special reference to insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • A new study being published in the September 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry reports that genetic variation in a particular enzyme affects the success rates of treatment with bupropion, an anti-smoking drug. (innovations-report.com)
  • makeup
  • If the approach pans out and doctors adopt it, a bad score wouldn't mean you'd get a disease, just that your genetic makeup increases the chance - one more piece of information in deciding care. (wn.com)
  • Ancestry, then, is a more subtle and complex description of an individual's genetic makeup than is race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Large-scale Structural variation (>1Kbp) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • John H. Krystal, M.D., Editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, adds his thoughts about this exciting new data: "We look forward to the era of personalized medicine, when doctors are able to use genetic information about their patients to guide treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • Racial groups are "constructed" from differing historical, political, and economic contexts, rather than corresponding to inherited, biological variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • The amount of variation within a population refers to the differences that exist between the members of that population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If, for example, a population consisted entirely of clones, then everyone in the population would be genetically the same, and there would be no variation within the population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A polymorphism is a genetic difference that is common in the, in the population. (coursera.org)
  • Without this variation, it is difficult for a population to adapt to environmental changes, which therefore makes it more prone to extinction. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic variation is measured as the tendency of individual genotypes in a population to vary from one another. (pnas.org)
  • Our approach is based on the integration of population graphs as a way to prune the original network of spatial genetic variation in a meaningful and informative way, and modularity analysis as a way to describe the structure of such a simplified network. (pnas.org)
  • study
  • In phase one of the study, researchers examined genetic data from 1,558 Australian marijuana users who self-reported various types of sexual abuse as children. (india.com)
  • Multiple genetic variations that should help with future efforts to treat pulmonary fibrosis was discovered by a newly published study. (medindia.net)
  • This new study found evidence that common genetic variation is an important contributor to the risk of developing IPF, accounting for approximately one-third of the risk of developing disease. (medindia.net)
  • racial
  • Most Brazilians of all racial groups (except Asian Brazilians and Natives) are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • This week's lectures continue what we began last week: laying the foundation of genetic concepts and processes we will need to consider in some depth genetic research on schizophrenia and intelligence. (coursera.org)
  • common
  • We found that common genetic variation at BCL11A associated with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level lies in noncoding sequences decorated by an erythroid enhancer chromatin signature. (nih.gov)
  • markers
  • According to U.S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • European scientists, led by researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE)'s Faculty of Medicine in the context of the GEUVADIS project, today present a map that points to the genetic causes of differences between people. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recombinant
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestry
  • Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, represents the future of genetic studies in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world. (blogspot.com)
  • However, another study suggests that the Onge (indigenous to Little Andaman) are "more closely related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians," and that the Great Andamanese "appear to have received a degree of relatively recent admixture from adjacent regional populations but also share a significant degree of genetic ancestry with Malaysian negrito groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • When recombination does occur in XY chromosomes, it is confined to the tips of the chromosome, leaving most of the genetic material in the Y chromosome intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • For DNA annotation, a previously unknown sequence representation of genetic material is enriched with information relating genomic position to intron-exon boundaries, regulatory sequences, repeats, gene names and protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Size
  • The Pandikona shows wide variations in size as the local breeders never chain their dogs and are not given to selective breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • For reasons of conceptual clarification, the various puzzles that remain with regard to genome size variation instead have been suggested by one author to more accurately comprise a puzzle or an enigma (the C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern
  • A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analyzed for both maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing the genetic variation and structure of a modern North European population. (blogspot.com)
  • care
  • The Pandikona is an ideal guardian and hunting companion requiring little or no veterinary care as they are hardy, robust dogs which are not plagued by genetic defects brought on by selective and irresponsible breeding by humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations in maternal care, such as maternal licking and grooming, indicates reduced HPA axis reactivity in subsequent generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • little
  • The pharmacokinetics of perphenazine covary with the hydroxylation of debrisoquine which is mediated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP 2D6) and thus is subject to genetic polymorphism - i.e., 7% to 10% of Caucasians and a low percentage of Asians have little or no activity and are called "poor metabolizers. (nih.gov)
  • Sons generally learn the song of their fathers with little variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these ninja can use their different elements separately with little effort, combining the two elements is impossible for ninja who do not have a genetic predisposition for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Several variations on this basic structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids, and hydrophilic groups such as phosphate as in phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)