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  • genomic
  • Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis, researchers found that CRISPR-Cas variants are associated with distinct types of MGEs such as transposable elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 contains genomic islands that house genes important in providing resistance to heavy metals and oxidizing nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • In theory, the modified mutant organism should express the altered gene, thus altering the phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genome is all the genetic information of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is beneficial to an organism to rid itself of non-essential genes because it makes replicating its DNA much faster and requires less energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • using electroporation (that is, introducing DNA from one organism into the cell of another by use of an electric pulse). (wikipedia.org)
  • This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrates that extensive gene loss and horizontal gene transfer leading to innovation are the two dominant evolutionary processes. (panspermia.org)
  • The Darwinian paradigm holds that copying mistakes and the shuffling of existing genes are sufficient to write the new genes needed for evolutionary advances. (panspermia.org)
  • In the case of wilt-fungi like Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, the increased virulence is dependent on homologous genes picked up from some incidence of horizontal gene transfer with a bacterium early in its evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four most widely recognised evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Then, the DNA sequence can be inserted back to a random location of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it was not until the late 1960s that bacterial geneticists recognized the important role of insertion sequence elements as a major source of mutation in bacteria and their more general role as agents of genetic change. (mbl.edu)
  • This systems creates duplicates of the gene sequence in the genome each time the TE moves. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower k-mer size will decrease the amount of edges stored in the graph, and as such, will help decrease the amount of space required to store DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having larger sized k-mers will increase the amount of edges in the graph, which in turn, will increase the amount of memory needed to store the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertional inactivation focuses on suppressing the expression of a gene by disrupting its sequence with an insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse transcriptase
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule covalently linked via a 2'-5'phosphodiester bond to an internal guanosine of an RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1972 Paul Berg created the first recombinant DNA molecule when he combined DNA from a monkey virus with that of the lambda virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of genes
  • For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • single stranded
  • Instead, helitrons replicate and move around the genome using a "rolling circle" mechanism, where a single stranded piece of donor DNA rolls in to a circular intermediate and inserts itself in to a target elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is usually measured in base pairs (or bases in single-stranded DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • After a DNA fragment coding for the production of msDNA in E. coli was discovered, it was conjectured that bacteriophages might have been responsible for the introduction of the RT gene into E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA and overlapping cell cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Mutation is the mechanism of genetic change that we hear the most about. (panspermia.org)
  • The rare exception is the back-mutation, which merely undoes the damage of a previous mutation and restores the affected strand of DNA to its original condition. (panspermia.org)
  • mutation and gene migration create variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • In addition, they can also rearrange genes in the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new host can incorporate the DNA from the first bacteria into its own chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. leprae lives and replicates inside of a host and due to this arrangement it does not have a need for many of the genes it once carried which allowed it to live and prosper outside the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeat-rich regions contain genes coding for host interaction proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In one novel use of high-throughput sequencing, homologously recombinant subpopulations of the bacterial culture were detected. (nih.gov)
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • Dr. Belfort studies mobile introns and inteins, elements that interrupt genes and that are removed by RNA and protein splicing, respectively. (mbl.edu)