• acquisition of genes
  • For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • genomic
  • Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis, researchers found that CRISPR-Cas variants are associated with distinct types of MGEs such as transposable elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 contains genomic islands that house genes important in providing resistance to heavy metals and oxidizing nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • demonstrates that extensive gene loss and horizontal gene transfer leading to innovation are the two dominant evolutionary processes. (panspermia.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Darwinian paradigm holds that copying mistakes and the shuffling of existing genes are sufficient to write the new genes needed for evolutionary advances. (panspermia.org)
  • In the case of wilt-fungi like Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, the increased virulence is dependent on homologous genes picked up from some incidence of horizontal gene transfer with a bacterium early in its evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four most widely recognised evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • single stranded
  • Instead, helitrons replicate and move around the genome using a "rolling circle" mechanism, where a single stranded piece of donor DNA rolls in to a circular intermediate and inserts itself in to a target elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule covalently linked via a 2'-5'phosphodiester bond to an internal guanosine of an RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is usually measured in base pairs (or bases in single-stranded DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Group I and II introns are a product from self-splicing in the host transcripts, and they act as ribozymes that can invade tRNA, rRNA, and protein coding genes in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be harnessed as a genetic tool for analysis of gene and protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the genome size is much larger than would be expected given the total number of protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA and overlapping cell cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Then, the DNA sequence can be inserted back to a random location of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This systems creates duplicates of the gene sequence in the genome each time the TE moves. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower k-mer size will decrease the amount of edges stored in the graph, and as such, will help decrease the amount of space required to store DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having larger sized k-mers will increase the amount of edges in the graph, which in turn, will increase the amount of memory needed to store the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertional inactivation focuses on suppressing the expression of a gene by disrupting its sequence with an insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This review considers strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in the mosquito, together with issues related to the transfer of laboratory-acquired knowledge to the field, such as minimization of transgene fitness load to the mosquito, driving genes through populations, avoiding the selection of resistant strains, and how to produce and release populations of males only. (biologists.org)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse transcriptase
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • In addition, they can also rearrange genes in the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alters Gene Expression in the Brain of the Host Mollusc Haliotis Asinina FEBS Letters. (jove.com)
  • This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. (jove.com)
  • M. leprae lives and replicates inside of a host and due to this arrangement it does not have a need for many of the genes it once carried which allowed it to live and prosper outside the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeat-rich regions contain genes coding for host interaction proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The rare exception is the back-mutation, which merely undoes the damage of a previous mutation and restores the affected strand of DNA to its original condition. (panspermia.org)
  • mutation and gene migration create variation. (wikipedia.org)