• sequences
  • Since it is not known whether retron sequences per se represent mobile elements, retrons are functionally defined by their ability to produce msDNA while deliberately avoiding speculation about other possible activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some transposases non-specifically bind to any target site in DNA, whereas others bind to specific target sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to the fact that the k-mer will contain a balance of the repeat region and the adjoining DNA sequences (given it are a large enough size) that can help to resolve the amount of repetition in that particular area. (wikipedia.org)
  • While genetic sequencing techniques can determine the genotype of a genome, they cannot determine the function or phenotypic expression of gene sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right now, we have genome sequences from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of genes
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • lateral gene tra
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteriophages
  • After a DNA fragment coding for the production of msDNA in E. coli was discovered, it was conjectured that bacteriophages might have been responsible for the introduction of the RT gene into E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • In 1972 Paul Berg created the first recombinant DNA molecule when he combined DNA from a monkey virus with that of the lambda virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-stranded
  • Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule covalently linked via a 2'-5'phosphodiester bond to an internal guanosine of an RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, helitrons replicate and move around the genome using a "rolling circle" mechanism, where a single stranded piece of donor DNA rolls in to a circular intermediate and inserts itself in to a target elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome size is usually measured in base pairs (or bases in single-stranded DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis, researchers found that CRISPR-Cas variants are associated with distinct types of MGEs such as transposable elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA and overlapping cell cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.2 Replication of DNA. (nhbs.com)
  • sequence
  • Then, the DNA sequence can be inserted back to a random location of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This systems creates duplicates of the gene sequence in the genome each time the TE moves. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower k-mer size will decrease the amount of edges stored in the graph, and as such, will help decrease the amount of space required to store DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having larger sized k-mers will increase the amount of edges in the graph, which in turn, will increase the amount of memory needed to store the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertional inactivation focuses on suppressing the expression of a gene by disrupting its sequence with an insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular techniques such as PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) also offer the advantage of being both culture independent and gene expression independent since they are based solely on the specific detection of a given nucleotide sequence ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This review considers strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in the mosquito, together with issues related to the transfer of laboratory-acquired knowledge to the field, such as minimization of transgene fitness load to the mosquito, driving genes through populations, avoiding the selection of resistant strains, and how to produce and release populations of males only. (biologists.org)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse transcriptase
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • In addition, they can also rearrange genes in the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alters Gene Expression in the Brain of the Host Mollusc Haliotis Asinina FEBS Letters. (jove.com)
  • This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. (jove.com)
  • M. leprae lives and replicates inside of a host and due to this arrangement it does not have a need for many of the genes it once carried which allowed it to live and prosper outside the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeat-rich regions contain genes coding for host interaction proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • found that during early age transcription of retrotransposable elements are minimal in mice, but in advanced age the transcription level increases. (wikipedia.org)