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  • tissues
  • The composition of the medium, particularly the plant hormones and the nitrogen source (nitrate versus ammonium salts or amino acids) have profound effects on the morphology of the tissues that grow from the initial explant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • However, regeneration competence is not inherent in every cell, and with the fact that several important crop species are still recalcitrant this calls for studies of embryogenesis and cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. (frontiersin.org)
  • We carried out somatic embryogenesis andplant regeneration using hypocotyl segments as explant of thecultivated buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum whichdiffers from existing studies in the growth regulator combinationsused. (cropbio.or.kr)
  • The physiology of this species is timed so that plants will bloom and set seed when the hot, dry weather is over. (cropbio.or.kr)
  • Authoritative and convenient, Plant Embryo Culture: Methods and Protocols serves as a key reference that can be used by scientists of all backgrounds to help develop their own customized methods for many different species and for a variety of purposes. (buchfreund.de)
  • A particular attention is being paid to specific sectors of the plant genetic resources such as local agro-ecotypes, ecotypes threatened of extinction, wild relatives of the cultivated plants, wild species used by man for several purposes, species that can be potentially exploited for the extraction of bio-active or technological products, and finally the model species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small data banks also exist on specific aspects, such as the protein quality and antinutritional factors (in wheat, bean, faba bean, lentil, cowpea), resistance to biotic stress (in wheat and faba bean), plant characters (in wheat and chickpea), rare, very rare and endemic angiosperm Italian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the genetic structure and the variability within and between populations of forest tree species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleus is then injected into an ovum of the same species which has had its own genetic material removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells, or callus, but the morphology of the outgrowth will depend on the plant species as well as the medium composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • By contrast, the genome of most plants, invertebrates, fungi or protists show "mosaic" methylation patterns, where only specific genomic elements are targeted, and they are characterized by the alternation of methylated and unmethylated domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crops
  • citation needed] High production cost has limited the application of this technique to more valuable ornamental crops and some fruit trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crop management and post harvest storage and plant nutrition in horticultural crops- Fruits and vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • It evolved repeatedly for Chloroplastida (green algae and land plants), once or twice for animals, once for brown algae, three times in the fungi (chytrids, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) and perhaps several times for slime molds and red algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clones
  • In recent years, the technique of cloning whole organisms has been developed in mammals, allowing almost identical genetic clones of an animal to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • One method of doing this is called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" and involves removing the nucleus from a somatic cell, usually a skin cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • orchids
  • The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and growing, i.e.: orchids and Nepenthes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • Key topics include plant-made pharmaceuticals, classical and non-classical techniques for secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture and their relevance to pharmaceutical science, edible vaccines, novel delivery systems for plant-based products, international industry regulatory guidelines, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared with 10-20 in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single cells, plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, stems or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These findings appear to reflect employment of more effective mechanisms to limit the initial occurrence of spontaneous mutations in germ cells than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. (frontiersin.org)
  • In spite of its high importance to food security in third world countries, cassava has long been neglected in plant breeding programmes [ 11 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • shoots
  • As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental inheritance) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Female germ cells also show a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that in male germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Typical genetic alterations are: changes in chromosome numbers (polyploidy and aneuploidy), chromosome structure (translocations, deletions, insertions and duplications) and DNA sequence (base mutations). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • More recently, a number of books describing the Methods and Protocols for one or more techniques of PTC have been published which should serve as useful laboratory manuals. (worldcat.org)
  • applications
  • A great fascination for biologists, the study of embryo development provides indispensable information concerning the origins of the various forms and structures that make up an organism, and our ever-increasing knowledge gained through the study of plant embryology promises to lead to the development of numerous useful applications. (buchfreund.de)
  • growth
  • Barker WG, Steward FC (1962b) Growth and development of the banana plant. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this review is to critically analyze the role of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) in modulating plant growth and development. (conicyt.cl)
  • Plant nutrition-growth and diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In 1942, Straub developed a novel technique for extracting muscle protein that allowed him to isolate substantial amounts of relatively pure actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • medicinal
  • Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify - and later cultivate - edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • useful
  • This updated version proves to be an excellent text for undergraduate, postgraduate students and teachers in various fields of plant sciences and a useful reference book for those interested in the application of any aspect of this aseptic technology. (elsevier.com)
  • Practice
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells have also been collected in the practice of cryoconservation of animal genetic resources as a means of conserving animal genetic material, including to clone livestock. (wikipedia.org)