• explants
  • The rate of callogenesis of oil palm explants remains low, at about 19% ( Corley and Tinker, 2003 ), while the rate of embryogenesis from proliferating callus cultures is only 6 percent ( Wooi, 1995 ). (scielo.cl)
  • Living plant materials from the environment are naturally contaminated on their surfaces (and sometimes interiors) with microorganisms, so their surfaces are sterilized in chemical solutions (usually alcohol and sodium or calcium hypochlorite) before suitable samples (known as explants) are taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used tissue explants are the meristematic ends of the plants like the stem tip, axillary bud tip and root tip. (wikipedia.org)
  • callus
  • Maximum callus regeneration was induced on MSmedium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 2.0mg · L -1 , benzyladenine (BA) 1.0 mg · L -1 and 3% sucrose.Friable callus was transferred to solidified MS media containingBA (1.0 mg · L -1 ) with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid for the induction of embryogenesis. (cropbio.or.kr)
  • Somaclonal variation is not restricted to, but is particularly common in, plants regenerated from callus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells, or callus, but the morphology of the outgrowth will depend on the plant species as well as the medium composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome editing is a potential game-changer in crop genetics when plant transformation systems are optimized. (plantcell.org)
  • By contrast, the genome of most plants, invertebrates, fungi or protists show "mosaic" methylation patterns, where only specific genomic elements are targeted, and they are characterized by the alternation of methylated and unmethylated domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • It evolved repeatedly for Chloroplastida (green algae and land plants), once or twice for animals, once for brown algae, three times in the fungi (chytrids, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) and perhaps several times for slime molds and red algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The physiology of this species is timed so that plants will bloom and set seed when the hot, dry weather is over. (cropbio.or.kr)
  • Authoritative and convenient, Plant Embryo Culture: Methods and Protocols serves as a key reference that can be used by scientists of all backgrounds to help develop their own customized methods for many different species and for a variety of purposes. (buchfreund.de)
  • The term somaclonal variation is a phenomenon of broad taxonomic occurrence, reported for species of different ploidy levels, and for outcrossing and inbreeding, vegetatively and seed propagated, and cultivated and non-cultivated plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particular attention is being paid to specific sectors of the plant genetic resources such as local agro-ecotypes, ecotypes threatened of extinction, wild relatives of the cultivated plants, wild species used by man for several purposes, species that can be potentially exploited for the extraction of bio-active or technological products, and finally the model species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small data banks also exist on specific aspects, such as the protein quality and antinutritional factors (in wheat, bean, faba bean, lentil, cowpea), resistance to biotic stress (in wheat and faba bean), plant characters (in wheat and chickpea), rare, very rare and endemic angiosperm Italian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleus is then injected into an ovum of the same species which has had its own genetic material removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • Key topics include plant-made pharmaceuticals, classical and non-classical techniques for secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture and their relevance to pharmaceutical science, edible vaccines, novel delivery systems for plant-based products, international industry regulatory guidelines, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • Single-cell and robotic techniques should be developed for high-throughput genomic screens. (plantcell.org)
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared with 10-20 in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single cells, plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, stems or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Engineering universal Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and recruiting other microbes, such as Ensifer or Rhizobium , could facilitate delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. (plantcell.org)
  • The gametes are believed to arise by successive divisions from a distinct line of cells (the germ plasm), and the cells that are not directly concerned with gametogenesis are termed somatic. (lifeissues.net)
  • This is characteristic of somatic and primordial germ cells alike. (lifeissues.net)
  • There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female germ cells also show a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that in male germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings appear to reflect employment of more effective mechanisms to limit the initial occurrence of spontaneous mutations in germ cells than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells have also been collected in the practice of cryoconservation of animal genetic resources as a means of conserving animal genetic material, including to clone livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junctions are analogous to the plasmodesmata that join plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, around 60-80% of CpG are methylated in somatic cells and DNA methylation appears as a default state that has to be specifically excluded from defined locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It therefore plays an important role in embryogenesis, the healing of wounds and the invasivity of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • shoots
  • As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental inheritance) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Data quality in field surveys: Methods and results for tree condition, phenology, growth, plant diversity and foliar injury due to ozone. (metla.fi)
  • More recently, a number of books describing the Methods and Protocols for one or more techniques of PTC have been published which should serve as useful laboratory manuals. (worldcat.org)
  • tissues
  • The composition of the medium, particularly the plant hormones and the nitrogen source (nitrate versus ammonium salts or amino acids) have profound effects on the morphology of the tissues that grow from the initial explant. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • Growth and genotype x environment interactions in Betula pendula: can tree genetic variation be maintained by small-scale forest ground heterogeneity? (metla.fi)
  • Genomics
  • The recent development of plant sequence-based approaches, supported by bioinformatics and broadly classified into genomics (DNA) and functional genomics (mRNA, protein and metabolites) could lead to a step-wise change in our understanding of the genetic basis of agronomic traits and the development of practical tools and trait information for plant breeding. (springer.com)
  • Genomics and functional genomics represent a suite of techniques which can help to bridge the gap between the bottom-up and the top-down approaches. (springer.com)
  • Mutations
  • Typical genetic alterations are: changes in chromosome numbers (polyploidy and aneuploidy), chromosome structure (translocations, deletions, insertions and duplications) and DNA sequence (base mutations). (wikipedia.org)
  • variation
  • The major likely benefit of somaclonal variation is plant/crop improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination between homologous retroviral sequences has also contributed to gene shuffling and the generation of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • In recent years, the technique of cloning whole organisms has been developed in mammals, allowing almost identical genetic clones of an animal to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • Based on observed restrictions of hyphal growth and increases in H 2 O 2 accumulation in the transgenic plants, the accumulation of VpPR10.1 likely enhanced the transgenic plants resistance to downy mildew. (springer.com)
  • Bornhoff B-A, Harst M, Zyprian E, Töpfer R (2005) Transgenic plants of Vitis vinifera cv. (springer.com)
  • applications
  • A great fascination for biologists, the study of embryo development provides indispensable information concerning the origins of the various forms and structures that make up an organism, and our ever-increasing knowledge gained through the study of plant embryology promises to lead to the development of numerous useful applications. (buchfreund.de)
  • pathogens
  • Adie BA, Pérez-Pérez J, Pérez-Pérez MM, Godoy M, Sánchez-Serrano J-J, Schmelz EA, Solano R (2007) ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • growth
  • The efficacies of putrescine, spermidine and spermine are identified at a range of concentrations (10 µM, 100 µM and 1 mM) added to the culture medium during somatic embryo growth. (springer.com)
  • Plant nutrition-growth and diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • medicinal
  • Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify - and later cultivate - edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In 1942, Straub developed a novel technique for extracting muscle protein that allowed him to isolate substantial amounts of relatively pure actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • useful
  • This updated version proves to be an excellent text for undergraduate, postgraduate students and teachers in various fields of plant sciences and a useful reference book for those interested in the application of any aspect of this aseptic technology. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Practice
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • This knowledge is poised to be leveraged for increased agricultural production by using synthetic biology, including tools for precise plant breeding. (plantcell.org)
  • diversity
  • PAPGREN, which is coordinated by the Land Resources Division of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) , helps Pacific countries and territories to conserve their crop genetic diversity sustainably, with technical assistance from the Bioversity International (BI) and support from NZAID and ACIAR . (blogspot.com)