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  • callus
  • The rate of callogenesis of oil palm explants remains low, at about 19% ( Corley and Tinker, 2003 ), while the rate of embryogenesis from proliferating callus cultures is only 6 percent ( Wooi, 1995 ). (scielo.cl)
  • Abdolvand B, Zarghami R, Hasani H, Mardi M, Zade HZ (2014) Effect of 2,4-D and 2-iP hormones on embryogenesis callus production and the effect of sucrose and concentrations of MS salts on somatic embryogenesis of date palm (cv. (springer.com)
  • Somaclonal variation is not restricted to, but is particularly common in, plants regenerated from callus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around the mid twentieth century, the idea that plants could be recovered or increased from either callus or organ society was generally acknowledged and useful application in the plant proliferation industry ensued [ 6 - 9 ].Plant tissue society depends on the way that numerous plant cells can recover an entire plant tot potency. (rroij.com)
  • A balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells, or callus, but the morphology of the outgrowth will depend on the plant species as well as the medium composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • shoots
  • The phenomenon of high variability in individuals from plant cell cultures or adventitious shoots has been named somaclonal variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • salts
  • Solid and liquid media are generally composed of inorganic salts plus a few organic nutrients, vitamins and plant hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of the medium, particularly the plant hormones and the nitrogen source (nitrate versus ammonium salts or amino acids) have profound effects on the morphology of the tissues that grow from the initial explant. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Although somatic embryogenesis has already been widely used in a number of woody species, propagating adult woody plants remains difficult. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, regeneration competence is not inherent in every cell, and with the fact that several important crop species are still recalcitrant this calls for studies of embryogenesis and cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Besides trying out different regeneration techniques for this species , molecular markers specific to embryongenic cells are searched for. (springer.com)
  • Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term somaclonal variation is a phenomenon of broad taxonomic occurrence, reported for species of different ploidy levels, and for outcrossing and inbreeding, vegetatively and seed propagated, and cultivated and non-cultivated plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimal conditions for such techniques are to be determined for each new species and we have a track-record in this area. (wur.nl)
  • A particular attention is being paid to specific sectors of the plant genetic resources such as local agro-ecotypes, ecotypes threatened of extinction, wild relatives of the cultivated plants, wild species used by man for several purposes, species that can be potentially exploited for the extraction of bio-active or technological products, and finally the model species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small data banks also exist on specific aspects, such as the protein quality and antinutritional factors (in wheat, bean, faba bean, lentil, cowpea), resistance to biotic stress (in wheat and faba bean), plant characters (in wheat and chickpea), rare, very rare and endemic angiosperm Italian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the genetic structure and the variability within and between populations of forest tree species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleus is then injected into an ovum of the same species which has had its own genetic material removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • citation needed] High production cost has limited the application of this technique to more valuable ornamental crops and some fruit trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ornamental breeding research is focussed on the development of tools for the efficient exploitation of genetic variation for the improvement of flower crops. (wur.nl)
  • As most ornamental crops are characterized by their obligatory outcrossing nature and for a number of crops by higher ploidy levels, this requires the development of dedicated bioinformatics, marker scoring and mapping software, this in close interaction with other groups within Plant Breeding. (wur.nl)
  • Protocols for genetic modification of numerous crops have been developed based on the knowledge of processes involved such as regeneration, gene transfer, and DNA integration. (wur.nl)
  • Crop management and post harvest storage and plant nutrition in horticultural crops- Fruits and vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenine
  • Abdolvand B, Zarghami R, Salari A (2018) The effects of AgNO 3 and 2iP (N6-(2-Isopentenyl) adenine) on different stages of somatic embryogenesis in date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) (cv. (springer.com)
  • Adenine methylation has been observed in bacterial, plant and recently in mammalian DNA, but has received considerably less attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • It evolved repeatedly for Chloroplastida (green algae and land plants), once or twice for animals, once for brown algae, three times in the fungi (chytrids, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) and perhaps several times for slime molds and red algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • invertebrates
  • By contrast, the genome of most plants, invertebrates, fungi or protists show "mosaic" methylation patterns, where only specific genomic elements are targeted, and they are characterized by the alternation of methylated and unmethylated domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • In particular, this invention relates to an improved method for establishing and maintaining embryogenic liquid suspension cultures for use in somatic embryogenesis processes from plants of the genus Pinus and Pinus interspecies. (google.com)
  • widely
  • I begin by dispelling the widely held oversimplification that "plants grow from seeds" - indeed many of them do, but quite a few have evolved the capacity for asexual (clonal) reproduction. (cornell.edu)
  • agricultural
  • This weblog documents the activities of Pacific Agricultural Genetic Resources Network (PAPGREN) , along with other information on plant genetic resources (PGR) in the Pacific. (blogspot.com)
  • Numerous business research centers were set up far and wide for mass clonal proliferation of agricultural plants [ 10 - 12 ]. (rroij.com)
  • nuclear
  • One method of doing this is called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" and involves removing the nucleus from a somatic cell, usually a skin cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • genotype
  • Growth and genotype x environment interactions in Betula pendula: can tree genetic variation be maintained by small-scale forest ground heterogeneity? (metla.fi)
  • variation
  • The major likely benefit of somaclonal variation is plant/crop improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination between homologous retroviral sequences has also contributed to gene shuffling and the generation of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared with 10-20 in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental inheritance) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. (frontiersin.org)
  • This group focuses on developing and implementing the latest plant breeding techniques. (wur.nl)
  • The research is on developing protocols, and also in generating markers for marker assisted breeding in diploids and polyploids, to identify, isolate and edit genes by using genetic and genomic tools coding for traits of interest and to provide approaches in improving the quality of micopropagated plants. (wur.nl)
  • The group is also involved in preparing science-based position papers for the government on the New Plant Breeding Techniques such as cisgenesis and targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR -technology. (wur.nl)
  • genetically
  • Research is aimed at constantly updating that knowledge and improving the efficiency with which genetically modified plants can be generated. (wur.nl)
  • different
  • There are two different ways of inducting somatic embryogenesis including direct somatic embryogenesis and indirect somatic embryogenesis ( Yang and Zhang, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • With quick populace development, the aggregate acreages of organic products, vegetables and different elaborate plants have not possessed the capacity to meet the requests of the general population in creating nations. (rroij.com)
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Data quality in field surveys: Methods and results for tree condition, phenology, growth, plant diversity and foliar injury due to ozone. (metla.fi)
  • More recently, a number of books describing the Methods and Protocols for one or more techniques of PTC have been published which should serve as useful laboratory manuals. (worldcat.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Typical genetic alterations are: changes in chromosome numbers (polyploidy and aneuploidy), chromosome structure (translocations, deletions, insertions and duplications) and DNA sequence (base mutations). (wikipedia.org)
  • useful
  • This method is well suited for producing clonal planting stock useful for reforestation. (google.com)
  • This updated version proves to be an excellent text for undergraduate, postgraduate students and teachers in various fields of plant sciences and a useful reference book for those interested in the application of any aspect of this aseptic technology. (elsevier.com)
  • medicinal
  • It is quintessentially called "tree of life" owing to its resilience to adverse climatic conditions, along with manifold nutritional-cum-medicinal attributes that comes from its fruits and other plant parts. (springer.com)
  • Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify - and later cultivate - edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In contrast to other studies in plants, gene body methylation had a more repressive effect on transcription than promoter methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • organisms
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A,T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strand being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, the technique of cloning whole organisms has been developed in mammals, allowing almost identical genetic clones of an animal to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • Adenine methylation has been observed in bacterial, plant and recently in mammalian DNA, but has received considerably less attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • horticultural
  • This long-awaited English edition of the famous 'Mansfeld' gives a full account of all agricultural and horticultural plants, other than ornamentals, grown throughout the world presently or in the past. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • nitrogen fixing b
  • Predominantly, members of the plant family Leguminosae have evolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae. (intechopen.com)
  • In summary, the plants excrete specific chemical signals to attract the nitrogen fixing bacteria towards their roots. (intechopen.com)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to the large impact plant mutants have had on a molecular dissection of plant development and physiology in maize and Arabidopsis, legume mutants have had a relatively minor impact on our understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • hormones
  • Solid and liquid media are generally composed of inorganic salts plus a few organic nutrients, vitamins and plant hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • This means that not all ERVs may have originated as an insertion by a retrovirus but that some may have been the source for the genetic information in the retroviruses they resemble. (wikipedia.org)