• proteins
  • We have been investigating site-specific DNA recognition by DNA regulatory proteins, the dynamics of a protein regulated genetic switch and the origin of the genetic code. (epress.com)
  • Harris, L., Sullivan, M. and Hickok, D. Genetic sequences of hormone response elements share similarity with predicted alpha helices within DNA binding domains of steroid receptor proteins: A basis for site-specific recognition. (epress.com)
  • RNA can then direct synthesis of proteins via the genetic code . (ukessays.com)
  • Gag proteins are necessary for virion assembly and mature virus infection of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attachment Entry into host cell Targeting where it will reproduce Uncoating of the capsid Synthesis of proteins, replication of nucleic acid Maturation Cell lysis Can you identify some examples of viruses that produce an acute viral infection? (studyres.com)
  • Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the missing proteins for production of new virions. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Viruses expressing pathogen proteins are currently being developed as vaccines against these pathogens, based on the same rationale as DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research has focused on the impact of HBV DNA integration and the interactions between HCV proteins and the main cell signaling pathways, such as the interferon and TGF-beta pathways, contributing to improve the understanding of the mechanisms behind liver cancer in patients suffering from chronic HBV or HCV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since their dysfunction has been strongly associated with increased susceptibility to several types of cancer, the proteins that facilitate homologous recombination are topics of active research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, it is an enveloped virus with a condensed, central core, and has barely visible envelope spikes, or proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, many viruses inhibit the synthesis of host DNA, RNA, proteins directly or even interfere with protein-protein, DNA-protein, RNA-protein interactions at the subcellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene therapy
  • A potential approach for treating genetic disorders is gene therapy. (ukessays.com)
  • At DKFZ, Associate Professor (PD) Dr. Stephanie Laufs and Dr. Frank Giordano are trying to find out whether AIDS viruses can be used as gene delivery vehicles in gene therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Therefore, the researchers took a very close look by starting an analysis of more than 46,000 known integration sites of HIV-based gene delivery vehicles that were determined in various gene therapy studies or are available in gene databases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • HONOLULU - A jumping gene first identified in a cabbage-eating moth may one day provide a safer, target-specific alternative to viruses for gene therapy, researchers say. (hawaii.edu)
  • In cancer, he suspects gene therapy will focus on this type of modification of normal tissue for protective purposes as well as manipulating the immune response. (hawaii.edu)
  • He was, e.g., concerned about the biological effects of radiation, the dangers of biological warfare, the risks of gene therapy and (later) of genetic recombination, and on all these issues, he was actively involved in efforts to reduce risks and guarantee public safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The fact that AAV has evolved to integrate into this ubiquitously transcribed region and that the chromosomal motifs required for integration are located a few nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation start codon of MBS85 suggests that the transcriptional activity of MBS85 might influence site-specific integration and thus might be involved in the evolution of this mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • malignant
  • Hepatocarcinogenesis has been described as CpG island methylator phenotype-positive (CIMP) multistep processes associated with the hallmark of successive accumulation of aberrant genetic and epigenetic alterations which co-operate to drive the malignant phenotype [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cellular
  • These findings should provide a framework to further elucidate the complex interactions between the virus and its cellular host in this unique pathway to latency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Subsequently, AAV DNA integration is speculated to occur through limited viral and cellular DNA synthesis following template strand switches, resulting in partial duplication of MBS85 sequences ( 19 , 38 , 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2016 (when the Institute's latest 5-year funding plan began), the Institute engages in several areas of research: Provides leadership in data aggregation and informatics innovation, develops high-throughput cellular models of cancer for genome-wide functional screens and drug testing, and explores somatic mutation's role in clonal evolution, ageing and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • Some viruses are tumorigenic when they infect a cell and persist as circular episomes or plasmids, replicating separately from host cell DNA ( Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • For example, adenoviruses do not cause cancer in humans but are instead responsible for colds, conjunctivitis and other acute illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies of common diseases in humans suffer significant limitations for practical and ethical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Christian Bréchot is specialized in hepatitis B and C and the mechanisms behind liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fox's primary achievement in the early part of his career was to turn bacterial transformation into an experimental model for genetic analysis that was to provide key insights into the mechanisms of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Interaction of viral products with the host cell machinery may lead to increased frequency of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that cause harmful alterations in gene transcription. (hindawi.com)
  • recombination
  • Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination is conserved across all three domains of life as well as viruses, suggesting that it is a nearly universal biological mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination is also used in gene targeting, a technique for introducing genetic changes into target organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1947, the microbiologist Joshua Lederberg showed that bacteria-which had been assumed to reproduce only asexually through binary fission-are capable of genetic recombination, which is more similar to sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Harris, L., Sullivan, M. and Hickok, D. Conservation of genetic information between regulatory protein DNA binding alpha helices and their cognate operator sites: A simple code for site-specific recognition. (epress.com)
  • It thus appears that an excess of c-myc protein is a primary cause of numerous cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In breast cancer, MYC has been studied mostly at the DNA level because of the poor quality of available antibodies against the protein product. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fewer data are available on MYC expression in breast cancer than on ERBB2 and CCND1 , and almost all derive from immunochemistry-based studies at the protein level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Contain a single type of nucleic acid Contain a protein coat Obligate intracellular parasites Are viruses the only known obligate intracellular parasites? (studyres.com)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the matrix lies the capsid, a protein shell that contains viral intigrase, reverse-transcriptase and the nucleocapsid, inside of which lives the viruses' genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the viruses' tendency to bud into the endoplasmic reticulum, the virions tend to display immature protein characteristics around the core as well as unique glycoptorien spikes on the surface of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion process is imitated when the TM protein is cleaved by the changing levels of pH which in turns creates a conformation change in the protein, fusing the membrane of the virus with the internal vessical. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenovirus
  • In fact, in one study, three patients developed leukemia after the virus inserted itself upstream of a cancer-causing gene, and in another study, a patient died because of an immune response to an adenovirus. (hawaii.edu)
  • epigenetic
  • It also led him to a very early challenge (based on critical examination of the epidemiological data on breast cancer) to the prevailing confidence among physicians in the efficacy either of radical mastectomy or of mammograms (1979), and to an equally early recognition of the critical importance of epigenetic changes in the initial stages of carcinogenesis (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • cervical cancer
  • Cervical cancer is the leading gynaecological malignancy in southern Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Many pathological disorders or diseases, including cervical cancer, are characterised by the exacerbated activation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading gynaecological malignancy in women in Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 In 2008 the International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that 493 243 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer annually. (scielo.org.za)
  • mice
  • Such mice are cancer-prone but generally only develop disease after a long latency, indicating that additional somatic "hits" must occur before an overt tumor forms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence for bidirectional MBS85 promoter activity and demonstrate that the minimal motifs required for AAV site-specific integration are present in the 5′ untranslated region of the gene and play a posttranscriptional role in the regulation of MBS85 expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, some viruses integrate into the cell genome facilitating stable expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is common for people diagnosed with cancer to have been treated for other diseases, which were hypothesized to be causing their symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Breast cancer is consensually considered genetically and clinically as a heterogeneous disease, in that it reflects the heterogeneity of the normal breast tissue at its origin17873350. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Safety: Although viral vectors are occasionally created from pathogenic viruses, they are modified in such a way as to minimize the risk of handling them. (wikipedia.org)
  • transduction
  • Later he was to extend the powerful modes of analysis developed in this early work to the investigation of genetic modification in transduction and conjugation as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • VAL401 is the reformulation of a clinical drug to enable use in the treatment of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Christian Bréchot has investigated the clinical impact of the genetic variability of HCV, his clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in treating HCV infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • Preclinical data indicate potential use of the reformulated drug in lung cancer, where many subsets of patients have currently a high unmet medical need. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division of Pediatrics
  • Expansão, Purificação e Avaliação Funcional de Células NK do sangue periférico Srinivas S. Somanchi 1 , Vladimir V. Senyukov 1 , Cecele J. Denman 1 , Dean A. Lee 1 1 Division of Pediatrics, MD Anderson Cancer Center - University of Texas Aqui nós descrevemos um método eficiente para expandir e purificar um grande número de células NK e avaliar a sua função. (jove.com)
  • receptor
  • Genetic information is conserved between estrogen response elements and the c-DNA encoding the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain: A code for site-specific DNA recognition. (epress.com)
  • There are two ways viruses can enter the host cell: cell receptor endocytosis or fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis is the process where the virus binds a receptor on the target cell membrane, and the virus is taken into or endocytosed into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral receptor can be modified to target the virus to a specific kind of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral glycoprotein-receptor interactions are required to initiate membrane fusion of the virus and cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface glycoproteins contain the major domains that interact with the host cell receptor while the transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins anchor the surface glycoproteins to the virus membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell proliferation
  • These data imply that dysregulated MYC gene expression is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, especially by favoring local cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1961
  • Directly or indirectly, it led, e.g., to the search for RNA viruses by Tim Loeb (1961), to the discovery of the SOS response in bacteria by Miroslav Radman (1976), and to the development of techniques of bacterial cell fusion by Pierre Shaeffer (1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once internalized, the virus particle must fuse with the internal vessical and allow its genetic material to escape into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)