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  • malignant
  • Landscape of DNA virus associations across human malignant cancers: analysis of 3,775 cases using RNA-Seq. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This infection causes a host cell to become malignant and can be either cytocidal (usually in the case of RNA viruses) or persistent (usually in the case of DNA viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • They include: Cell growth and division absent the proper signals Continuous growth and division even given contrary signals Avoidance of programmed cell death Limitless number of cell divisions Promoting blood vessel construction Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • We have been investigating site-specific DNA recognition by DNA regulatory proteins, the dynamics of a protein regulated genetic switch and the origin of the genetic code. (epress.com)
  • Harris, L., Sullivan, M. and Hickok, D. Genetic sequences of hormone response elements share similarity with predicted alpha helices within DNA binding domains of steroid receptor proteins: A basis for site-specific recognition. (epress.com)
  • RNA can then direct synthesis of proteins via the genetic code . (ukessays.com)
  • Gag proteins are necessary for virion assembly and mature virus infection of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the missing proteins for production of new virions. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Viruses expressing pathogen proteins are currently being developed as vaccines against these pathogens, based on the same rationale as DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research has focused on the impact of HBV DNA integration and the interactions between HCV proteins and the main cell signaling pathways, such as the interferon and TGF-beta pathways, contributing to improve the understanding of the mechanisms behind liver cancer in patients suffering from chronic HBV or HCV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, it is an enveloped virus with a condensed, central core, and has barely visible envelope spikes, or proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since their dysfunction has been strongly associated with increased susceptibility to several types of cancer, the proteins that facilitate homologous recombination are topics of active research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, many viruses inhibit the synthesis of host DNA, RNA, proteins directly or even interfere with protein-protein, DNA-protein, RNA-protein interactions at the subcellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Cancer cells have diverse biological capabilities that are conferred by numerous genetic and epigenetic modifications [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There are several pioneering examples of genomic aberrations being discovered in cancer cells and the findings being successfully translated into therapeutic agents with considerable effects on the practice of cancer medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • Two years later Temin concluded that the transformed morphology of the cells was controlled by a genetic property of RSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current methods for the genetic modification of cells typically use integrating genotoxic viruses that can potentially disrupt the molecular behavior of cancer cell lines due to their random nature of integration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells were stably transfected with a pSMARt-UBC-Luc and cultured for 4 weeks under selection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results demonstrated that S/MAR DNA vectors are able to produce genetically modified cells without the limitations of random genomic integration, whilst providing extra-chromosomal mitotic stability and sustained transgene expression at high level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mologni L, Magistroni V, Casuscelli F, Montemartini M, Gambacorti-Passerini C. The Novel PIM1 Inhibitor NMS-P645 Reverses PIM1-Dependent Effects on TMPRSS2/ERG Positive Prostate Cancer Cells And Shows Anti-Proliferative Activity in Combination with PI3K Inhibition. (jcancer.org)
  • Despite the high frequency of this genetic rearrangement, expression of TMPRSS2/ERG fusion alone is not sufficient to generate a fully transformed phenotype in prostate cells, both in vitro and in vivo [ 2 - 5 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Firstly, this is because viruses cannot truly be isolated in pure culture-even stringent isolation techniques cannot exclude undetected contaminating viruses with similar density characteristics, and viruses must be grown on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes that may contribute to the generation of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses have evolved specialized molecular mechanisms to efficiently transport their genomes inside the cells they infect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Berg used a modified SV40 virus containing DNA from the bacteriophage λ to infect monkey kidney cells maintained in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studying the Rous sarcoma virus at UW-Madison, Temin began to refer to the genetic material that the virus introduced to the cells, the "provirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 'foam' part of 'foamy virus' comes from syncytium formation and the rapid vacuolization of infected cells which creates a 'foamy' appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding receptor for foamy viruses is not entirely know, however it is know that the virus is capable of infecting a board spectrum of cells, meaning the binding receptor must be quite prevalent in most forms of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of discrete genetic events have to occur in order to enable individual tumor cells that have the capacity to grow at an ectopic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted expression of oncogenes in mouse mammary epithelial cells is a way of modeling human breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A detailed understanding of retroviral cell entry may lead to the discovery of ways in which to block the viruses from entering cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capecchi and Smithies independently discovered applications to mouse embryonic stem cells, however the highly conserved mechanisms underlying the DSB repair model, including uniform homologous integration of transformed DNA (gene therapy), were first shown in plasmid experiments by Orr-Weaver, Szostack and Rothstein. (wikipedia.org)
  • I-SceI) to cut chromosomes for genetic engineering of mammalian cells, where nonhomologous recombination is more frequent than in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukosis Virus
  • Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be transmitted after cell-free filtration to new chickens, causing leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • These findings should provide a framework to further elucidate the complex interactions between the virus and its cellular host in this unique pathway to latency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Constructing an integrated genetic and epigenetic cellular network for whole cellular mechanism using high-throughput next-generation sequencing data. (docphin.com)
  • At present, there is no satisfactory method to construct an integrated genetic and epigenetic cellular network (IGECN), which combines NGS omics data with gene regulatory networks (GRNs), microRNAs (miRNAs) regulatory networks, protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), and epigenetic regulatory networks of methylation using high-throughput NGS data. (docphin.com)
  • We investigated different kinds of NGS omics data to develop a systems biology method to construct an integrated cellular network based on three coupling models that describe genetic regulatory networks, protein-protein interaction networks, microRNA (miRNA) regulatory networks, and methylation regulation. (docphin.com)
  • The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2016 (when the Institute's latest 5-year funding plan began), the Institute engages in several areas of research: Provides leadership in data aggregation and informatics innovation, develops high-throughput cellular models of cancer for genome-wide functional screens and drug testing, and explores somatic mutation's role in clonal evolution, ageing and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The fact that AAV has evolved to integrate into this ubiquitously transcribed region and that the chromosomal motifs required for integration are located a few nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation start codon of MBS85 suggests that the transcriptional activity of MBS85 might influence site-specific integration and thus might be involved in the evolution of this mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) was established as the key mechanism in cancer development. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver cancer
  • In other examples, UV light from solar radiation causes DNA damage that is important in melanoma, helicobacter pylori infection produces high levels of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and contributes to gastric cancer, and the Aspergillus metabolite, aflatoxin, is a DNA damaging agent that is causative in liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic changes
  • It also led him to a very early challenge (based on critical examination of the epidemiological data on breast cancer) to the prevailing confidence among physicians in the efficacy either of radical mastectomy or of mammograms (1979), and to an equally early recognition of the critical importance of epigenetic changes in the initial stages of carcinogenesis (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene therapy
  • A potential approach for treating genetic disorders is gene therapy. (ukessays.com)
  • At DKFZ, Associate Professor (PD) Dr. Stephanie Laufs and Dr. Frank Giordano are trying to find out whether AIDS viruses can be used as gene delivery vehicles in gene therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Therefore, the researchers took a very close look by starting an analysis of more than 46,000 known integration sites of HIV-based gene delivery vehicles that were determined in various gene therapy studies or are available in gene databases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He was, e.g., concerned about the biological effects of radiation, the dangers of biological warfare, the risks of gene therapy and (later) of genetic recombination, and on all these issues, he was actively involved in efforts to reduce risks and guarantee public safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs' basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • VAL401 is the reformulation of a clinical drug to enable use in the treatment of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Christian Bréchot has investigated the clinical impact of the genetic variability of HCV, his clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in treating HCV infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Harris, L., Sullivan, M. and Hickok, D. Conservation of genetic information between regulatory protein DNA binding alpha helices and their cognate operator sites: A simple code for site-specific recognition. (epress.com)
  • It thus appears that an excess of c-myc protein is a primary cause of numerous cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In breast cancer, MYC has been studied mostly at the DNA level because of the poor quality of available antibodies against the protein product. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fewer data are available on MYC expression in breast cancer than on ERBB2 and CCND1 , and almost all derive from immunochemistry-based studies at the protein level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The integration of NGS omics data related to transcription regulation, protein-protein interactions, and miRNA and methylation regulation has more predictive power than independent datasets. (docphin.com)
  • Due to the viruses' tendency to bud into the endoplasmic reticulum, the virions tend to display immature protein characteristics around the core as well as unique glycoptorien spikes on the surface of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion process is imitated when the TM protein is cleaved by the changing levels of pH which in turns creates a conformation change in the protein, fusing the membrane of the virus with the internal vessical. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 3 (PRDM3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MECOM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • In recent years, different high-throughput platforms have been used for the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and epigenomic analyses to search for new biomarkers involved in cancer and to bring new insights into the several aspects of cancer pathophysiology including angiogenesis, immune evasion, metastasis, altered cell growth, death, and metabolism [ 2 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Genomic DNA double-strand breaks are targets for hepadnaviral DNA integration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • recombination
  • Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination is also used in horizontal gene transfer to exchange genetic material between different strains and species of bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination is conserved across all three domains of life as well as viruses, suggesting that it is a nearly universal biological mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination is also used in gene targeting, a technique for introducing genetic changes into target organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1947, the microbiologist Joshua Lederberg showed that bacteria-which had been assumed to reproduce only asexually through binary fission-are capable of genetic recombination, which is more similar to sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • We assume that there is a particular mechanism at work which blocks the way for the virus," says Giordano. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which MYC is activated in breast cancer is unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The nonpathogenic human adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) has adopted a unique mechanism to site-specifically integrate its genome into the human MBS85 gene, which is embedded in AAVS1 on chromosome 19. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • humans
  • For example, adenoviruses do not cause cancer in humans but are instead responsible for colds, conjunctivitis and other acute illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies of common diseases in humans suffer significant limitations for practical and ethical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Such mice are cancer-prone but generally only develop disease after a long latency, indicating that additional somatic "hits" must occur before an overt tumor forms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • diseases
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is common for people diagnosed with cancer to have been treated for other diseases, which were hypothesized to be causing their symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • This disease evolves by a process of clonal expansion, genetic diversification, and clonal selection. (hindawi.com)
  • The dynamics are complex and with highly variable patterns of genetic diversity and resultant clonal architecture [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The genetic profiles of primary and metastatic lesions in breast carcinomas show a large extent of clonal pertinence between lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Breast cancer is consensually considered genetically and clinically as a heterogeneous disease, in that it reflects the heterogeneity of the normal breast tissue at its origin17873350. (wikipedia.org)
  • transduction
  • Later he was to extend the powerful modes of analysis developed in this early work to the investigation of genetic modification in transduction and conjugation as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • Preclinical data indicate potential use of the reformulated drug in lung cancer, where many subsets of patients have currently a high unmet medical need. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As one example of an exogenous carcinogeneic agent, tobacco smoke causes increased DNA damage, and these DNA damages likely cause the increase of lung cancer due to smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division of Pediatrics
  • Expansão, Purificação e Avaliação Funcional de Células NK do sangue periférico Srinivas S. Somanchi 1 , Vladimir V. Senyukov 1 , Cecele J. Denman 1 , Dean A. Lee 1 1 Division of Pediatrics, MD Anderson Cancer Center - University of Texas Aqui nós descrevemos um método eficiente para expandir e purificar um grande número de células NK e avaliar a sua função. (jove.com)
  • leukemia
  • By using an adaptor-ligation/suppression-PCR, we identified four integrations into the myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4) gene from 10 HCC patients with positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). (semanticscholar.org)
  • receptor
  • Genetic information is conserved between estrogen response elements and the c-DNA encoding the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain: A code for site-specific DNA recognition. (epress.com)
  • There are two ways viruses can enter the host cell: cell receptor endocytosis or fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis is the process where the virus binds a receptor on the target cell membrane, and the virus is taken into or endocytosed into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface glycoproteins contain the major domains that interact with the host cell receptor while the transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins anchor the surface glycoproteins to the virus membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1961
  • Directly or indirectly, it led, e.g., to the search for RNA viruses by Tim Loeb (1961), to the discovery of the SOS response in bacteria by Miroslav Radman (1976), and to the development of techniques of bacterial cell fusion by Pierre Shaeffer (1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Once internalized, the virus particle must fuse with the internal vessical and allow its genetic material to escape into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • bowel
  • The trial began in early stage bowel cancer patients in 2015 and has already shown it can determine whether these patients can be divided into 'high risk' and 'low risk' groups. (edu.au)
  • AIDS
  • It is known to occur at increased frequency in people with immunodeficiency, including transplant recipients and people with AIDS, and this association suggests the possibility that a virus or other infectious agent might be involved in causing the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk of cancer
  • Results from the same test could also help to scale the dose for the patients who do need chemotherapy, depending on their risk of cancer returning. (edu.au)
  • The trial is examining whether tumour DNA can be used as a marker of a patient's risk of cancer recurrence after surgery. (edu.au)
  • The trial is determining whether the amount of ctDNA in a patient's blood indicates their risk of relapse - patients at the highest risk can be treated aggressively with chemotherapy, while patients with no detectable ctDNA in their blood are at low risk of cancer recurrence and may not need chemotherapy. (edu.au)
  • The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The trials, led by Melbourne researchers, are investigating whether patients can be assessed after cancer surgery using a simple blood test to determine whether they need chemotherapy or not. (edu.au)
  • multiple
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • In many cases, patients are receiving unnecessary chemotherapy, said the trial lead, Associate Professor Jeanne Tie , who is a clinician scientist at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and a medical oncologist at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Western Health . (edu.au)
  • The ovarian cancer arm of the trial is led by Walter and Eliza Hall Institute clinician-researcher Associate Professor Sumi Ananda , who is also medical oncologist at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Western Health. (edu.au)
  • start
  • Associate Professor Tie said the trials would test whether the 'circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) test' could reliably indicate to an oncologist whether or not a patient needed to start chemotherapy after their cancer had been surgically removed, to give the best chance of preventing recurrence. (edu.au)
  • treatment
  • Currently many early stage cancer patients who have surgical treatment also receive chemotherapy as a precaution because there is no reliable way to know which patients will have their cancer return after surgery. (edu.au)