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  • Genome
  • Based on the generated genome information, we hypothesize that the bifidobacterial genome coevolved with its animal host via gene loss and, in particular, genetic acquisition events, of which the latter events appear to be responsible for species-specific adaptations to a glycan-rich environment. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report the first high-quality genome sequence of S. scitamineum assembled de novo with a contig N 50 of 41 kb, a scaffold N 50 of 884 kb and genome size 19.8 Mb, containing an estimated 6,636 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sixty-eight candidates for secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) were found in the genome of S. scitamineum , and 32 of them expressed in the different stages of sugarcane infection, which are probably involved in infection and/or triggering defense responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome was found to contain one 16S-23S-5S rRNA operon and 44 tRNA coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Sulfurimonas is a bacterial genus within the class of Epsilonproteobacteria, known for reducing nitrate, oxidizing both sulfur and hydrogen, and containing Group IV hydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such reactions (summarized in formula below) involve the removal of two hydrogen atoms from the reactant (R), in the form of a hydride ion (H−), and a proton (H+). (wikipedia.org)
  • From the hydride electron pair, one electron is transferred to the positively charged nitrogen of the nicotinamide ring of NAD+, and the second hydrogen atom transferred to the C4 carbon atom opposite this nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Genomic studies of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in H. thermophilus also suggest that they are part of some of the earliest differentiating orders of bacteria termed the Aquificales. (wikipedia.org)
  • His final examination involved research on the adaptation of bacteria to unfavourable environments and, supported by a grant from the Medical Research Council plus a Studentship from Balliol (which the MRC deducted from his grant), he spent a year reading Microbial Chemistry before doing research for a doctorate on aspects of how bacteria adapt to resist sulphonamide drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The obtained microarray data was filtered and grouped by K-means clustering in order to obtain groups of genes behaving similarly concerning their expression levels throughout the time course. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results display a versatile response of S. meliloti 1021 represented by distinct expression profiles of subsets of genes with functional relation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes coding for proteins with functional relation were mostly cumulated in the same cluster, pointing to a characteristic expression profile for distinct cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effect of light and prey availability on gene expression of the mixotrophic chrysophyte, Ochromonas sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The availability of light led to a differential expression of only 8% of genes in the transcriptome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among them, TFs play the crucial role by enhancing or inhibiting the target gene expression by means of binding to the promoter sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of 4,390 unique genes, a total of 188 had a twofold or more up- (84) or down-regulated (104) expression level in E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants compared to wild-type lines. (biologists.org)
  • Plants adapt to changes in N availability partly by changes in global gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Global regulation of gene expression by nitrate depends largely on the experimental context. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nitrate signaling pathway is still poorly understood with only a handful regulatory factors modulating gene expression at different levels identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • Another level of control of gene expression by nitrate is carried out by transcription factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • We identify GlnR as a regulator involved in the nitrogen response, controlling the expression of at least 33 genes in response to nitrogen limitation. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Ito Y, Katsura K, Maruyama K, Taji T, Kobayashi M, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2006) Functional analysis of rice DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors involved in cold-responsive gene expression in transgenic rice. (springer.com)
  • We measured time-resolved changes in gene expression after iron depletion in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (g3journal.org)
  • synthesis
  • Our data suggest that the growth arrest observed upon E2Fa-DPa overexpression results at least partly from a nitrogen drain to the nucleotide synthesis pathway, causing decreased synthesis of other nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and storage proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The amide group of glutamate is a nitrogen source for the synthesis of glutamine pathway metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfur
  • acid precipitation Rain or any other form of precipitation containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • The data suggest that chemotaxis events appear to be specific and independent of those involved in nitrate assimilation. (mdpi.com)
  • Just like gamete formation, the change in chemotaxis mode is controlled by the sequential action of two environmental cues, removal of nitrogen from the medium and light. (mdpi.com)
  • The studies revealed individual elements of the phototropin-dependent signal transduction pathway involved in the blue-light-controlled change in chemotaxis mode of C. reinhardtii during gamete formation: three protein kinases, one operating against signal flux and two that promote signal transduction. (mdpi.com)
  • anaerobic
  • However soon it became accepted and the concept emerged of "anaerobic respiration", based on reducing nitrate, carbonate or similar oxygen-containing minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox in phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new appreciation of the importance and ubiquity of archaea came from using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect prokaryotes from environmental samples (such as water or soil) by multiplying their ribosomal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • It was found to consist of 1,743,135 base pairs arranged in a circular chromosome with an estimated 1,864 protein coding genes and 22 pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also worked in the areas of Bacillus thuringiensis, gene discovery, tissue specific promoters, protein purification and functional genomics of cotton, Ragi and brinjal. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. (wikipedia.org)
  • sticken "to choke or suffocate") and still remains in English in the common names of many nitrogen compounds, such as hydrazine and compounds of the azide ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • Genes coding for unidirectional enzymes for the utilization of glucose were upregulated in the presence of HKB, implying increased glycolytic activities during phagotrophy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • responses
  • It was shown that the short term response to acidic pH stress does not result in a simple induction or repression of genes, but in a sequence of responses varying in their intensity over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our meta-analysis highlights the role of biological processes not studied before in the context of the nitrate response such as root hair development and provides testable hypothesis to advance our understanding of nitrate responses in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • physiological
  • Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • In 1965, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling proposed instead using the sequences of the genes in different prokaryotes to work out how they are related to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • To identify genes responding to pH stress a global transcriptional analysis of S. meliloti strain 1021 following a pH shift from pH 7.0 to pH 5.75 was carried out. (biomedcentral.com)