• bacteria
  • We studied the effect of light and bacteria on growth and gene expression of a predominantly phagotrophic Ochromonas species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biofertilization of maize with free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria: results of field trials on grain production. (worldcat.org)
  • Genomic studies of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in H. thermophilus also suggest that they are part of some of the earliest differentiating orders of bacteria termed the Aquificales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postgate's research in microbiology investigated nitrogen fixation, microbial survival, and sulphate reducing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • His final examination involved research on the adaptation of bacteria to unfavourable environments and, supported by a grant from the Medical Research Council plus a Studentship from Balliol (which the MRC deducted from his grant), he spent a year reading Microbial Chemistry before doing research for a doctorate on aspects of how bacteria adapt to resist sulphonamide drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • sucrose phosphat
  • Differential expression of two genes for sucrose-phosphate synthase in sugarcane:molecular cloning of the cDNAs and comparative analysis of gene expression'Plant Cell Physiol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • sulfur
  • Sulfurimonas is a bacterial genus within the class of Epsilonproteobacteria, known for reducing nitrate, oxidizing both sulfur and hydrogen, and containing Group IV hydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid precipitation Rain or any other form of precipitation containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Our data suggest that the growth arrest observed upon E2Fa-DPa overexpression results at least partly from a nitrogen drain to the nucleotide synthesis pathway, causing decreased synthesis of other nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and storage proteins. (biologists.org)
  • this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. (wikipedia.org)
  • sticken "to choke or suffocate") and still remains in English in the common names of many nitrogen compounds, such as hydrazine and compounds of the azide ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • To gain a better insight into the phenotypic behavior of E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants and to identify E2Fa-DPa target genes, a transcriptomic microarray analysis was performed. (biologists.org)
  • Detailed promoter analysis allowed the identification of novel E2Fa-DPa target genes, mainly involved in DNA replication. (biologists.org)
  • Franco-Zorrilla JM, López-Vidriero I, Carrasco JL, Godoy M, Vera P, Solano R (2014) DNA-binding specificities of plant transcription factors and their potential to define target genes. (springer.com)
  • Expression
  • These interact with each other and regulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes in response to heat stress, controlling carbon fixation and changes in stomatal conductance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effect of light and prey availability on gene expression of the mixotrophic chrysophyte, Ochromonas sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The availability of light led to a differential expression of only 8% of genes in the transcriptome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of 4,390 unique genes, a total of 188 had a twofold or more up- (84) or down-regulated (104) expression level in E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants compared to wild-type lines. (biologists.org)
  • We identify GlnR as a regulator involved in the nitrogen response, controlling the expression of at least 33 genes in response to nitrogen limitation. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Ito Y, Katsura K, Maruyama K, Taji T, Kobayashi M, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2006) Functional analysis of rice DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors involved in cold-responsive gene expression in transgenic rice. (springer.com)
  • In the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the plus and minus mating types are controlled by a complex locus, MT , where the dominant MID gene in the MT − locus has been shown to be necessary for expression of minus -specific gamete-specific genes in response to nitrogen depletion. (genetics.org)
  • We report studies on MID expression patterns during gametogenesis and on a second gene unique to the MT − locus, MTD1 . (genetics.org)
  • We propose that intermediate Mid levels are sufficient to activate MTD1 transcription and to repress plus gamete-specific genes and that MTD1 expression in turn allows the threshold-level MID expression needed to turn on minus gamete-specific genes. (genetics.org)
  • Regulation of expression of genes for three nitrogenases in Azotobacter vinelandii. (worldcat.org)
  • Involvement of GroEL in Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene expression and nitrogenase assembly. (worldcat.org)
  • physiological
  • Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatics, and reverse genetic approaches, we analyzed how the flux of carbon into lipids is influenced by nitrogen stress in a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum . (pnas.org)
  • Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • anoxic
  • Such life traits are especially important in environments that are temporarily anoxic and/or nitrate-free and they may have developed as a "life strategy" in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Figure 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • The first successful example of TF-based genetic engineering for increased NUE is the improvement of Arabidopsis growth under nitrogen-limited conditions, which was achieved using the maize TF gene Dof1 . (springer.com)
  • Guan P, Wang R, Nacry P, Breton G, Kay SA, Pruneda-Paz JL, Davani A, Crawford NM (2014) Nitrate foraging by Arabidopsis roots is mediated by the transcription factor TCP20 through the systemic signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • depletion
  • The depletion of a usable nitrogen source induces sexually incompetent gametes, named pregametes in the dark [ 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • protein
  • The studies revealed individual elements of the phototropin-dependent signal transduction pathway involved in the blue-light-controlled change in chemotaxis mode of C. reinhardtii during gamete formation: three protein kinases, one operating against signal flux and two that promote signal transduction. (mdpi.com)
  • It was found to consist of 1,743,135 base pairs arranged in a circular chromosome with an estimated 1,864 protein coding genes and 22 pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also worked in the areas of Bacillus thuringiensis, gene discovery, tissue specific promoters, protein purification and functional genomics of cotton, Ragi and brinjal. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • In 1965, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling proposed instead using the sequences of the genes in different prokaryotes to work out how they are related to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox in phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new appreciation of the importance and ubiquity of archaea came from using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect prokaryotes from environmental samples (such as water or soil) by multiplying their ribosomal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • crop
  • Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops is a hurdle that needs to be cleared in order to improve crop yields. (springer.com)
  • P. indica -mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • biomass
  • Burley tobacco required six-fold more nitrogen fertilizers than flue-cured tobacco, but both tobaccos had a similar leaf biomass. (mdpi.com)
  • Derkx AP, Orford S, Griffiths S, Foulkes MJ, Hawkesford MJ (2012) Identification of differentially senescing mutants of wheat and impacts on yield, biomass and nitrogen partitioning. (springer.com)
  • Photosynthesis
  • A number of genes associated with photosynthesis, phagotrophy, and tetrapyrrole synthesis was upregulated in the Light + HKB treatment compared to Dark + HKB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microbial
  • The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. (frontiersin.org)
  • glutamine
  • 4. A particular set of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthease isozymes, which are localized in the vascular bundle of leaf blade and maturing grains, respectively, was found to play an important role in mobilization of leaf nitrogen and its transfer to rice grains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The amide group of glutamate is a nitrogen source for the synthesis of glutamine pathway metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • identifies
  • Dash M, Yordanov YS, Georgieva T, Kumari S, Wei H, Busov V (2015) A systems biology approach identifies new regulators of poplar root development under low nitrogen. (springer.com)