• protein
  • A critical single-base deletion was found in the O gene, which results in an entirely different, inactive protein incapable of modifying the H antigen. (scielo.br)
  • Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Template:Infobox gene Erythroid membrane-associated protein is a protein that in humans is responsible for the Scianna blood group system, and is encoded by the ERMAP gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Basal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCAM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may play a role in epithelial cell cancer and in vaso-occlusion of red blood cells in sickle cell disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cahalan group carried out a critical genome-wide RNAi screen that led to the co-discovery of the Ca2+ channel-forming protein Orai. (uci.edu)
  • In this protocol, we focus only on the methods that aid in the study of the interactions between CFTR carboxyl terminal tail, which possesses a protein-binding motif [referred to as PSD95/Dlg1/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif], and a group of scaffold proteins, which contain a specific binding module referred to as PDZ domains. (jove.com)
  • In the non erythroid cell lines, expression is lower than in the erythrocyte and the protein is differentially glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement component 4 (C4), in humans, is a protein involved in the intricate complement system, originating from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the earlier genetic studies on the C4 protein identified two different groups, found within a human serum, called the Chido/Rogers (Ch/Rg) blood groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using protein variants visualized by electrophoresis, the four structural genes were located between HLA-B and HLA-D. More specifically, they verified the proposed molecular map in which the gene order went from factor B, C4B, C4A, and C2 with C2 nearest to HLA-B. In another study, Law et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 31 different families of HERVs and together they make up about 8% of the human genome, which is about four times more DNA than is devoted to protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With in vitro transcription techniques three suggested ORFs on chromosome 3 (gag), 6 (pro) and 7 (env) were detected and further analyzed revealing that the ORF on chromosome 7q21.2 uniquely encoded a glycosylated Env protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a cell, protein molecules of the host's own phenotype or of other biologic entities are continually synthesized and degraded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each MHC molecule on the cell surface displays a molecular fraction of a protein, called an epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The resulting antigens are oligosaccharide chains, which are attached to lipids and proteins that are anchored in the red blood cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1940s, Boyd and Karl O. Renkonen independently discovered that lectins react differently to various blood types, after finding that the crude extracts of the lima bean and tufted vetch agglutinated the red blood cells from blood type A but not blood types B or O. This ultimately led to the disclosure of thousands of plants that contained these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The text features up-to-date discussions of classic genetic markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) along with extensive background on DNA analysis and coverage of satellite DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and Alu inserts. (oup.com)
  • At the time, two proteins had been identified as binding to DNA and controlling gene expression: the lambda repressor and the lac repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of this gene among the Hominoidea two finding unique to humans emerged: (1) an excess of non-synonymous divergence among species that appears to be caused solely by accelerated evolution and (2) the ability of the single GYPC gene to encode both the GPC and GPD proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its entirety, the MHC population is like a meter indicating the balance of proteins within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the genes encoding the 6 major antigen-presenting proteins, there are a large number of other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by HLAs are those on the outer part of body cells that are (in effect) unique to that person. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a similar process, proteins (both native and foreign, such as the proteins of virus) produced inside most cells are displayed on HLAs (to be specific, MHC class I) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • fucose
  • The addition of fucose to these disaccharide precursors creates the H antigen and further modifications to the H antigen by glycosyltransferases leads to the synthesis of the blood group antigens encoded by the ABO gene. (scielo.br)
  • This gene is a member of the fucosyltransferase family, which catalyzes the addition of fucose to precursor polysaccharides in the last step of Lewis antigen biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme fucosyltransferase 3 encoded by Le gene adds a fucose to the precursor oligosaccharide substrate in subterminal position, converting it to the Le-a antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person besides Le has the allele Se (i.e. is a secretor), their exocrine cells will also have the enzyme fucosyltransferase 2, adding fucose to the oligosaccharide precursor in terminal position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of this second fucose produces the Le(b) antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The A and B genes differ in a few single-base substitutions that change four amino-acid residues which may cause differences in A and B transferase specificity. (scielo.br)
  • MHC interacts with TCR and its co-receptors to optimize binding conditions for the TCR-antigen interaction, in terms of antigen binding affinity and specificity, and signal transduction effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • They are secondarily absorbed to red blood cells giving rise to their Lewis phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In absence of a functional Lewis gene (lele), neither Le(a) nor Le(b) are synthesized, leading to the Le(a-b-) phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • This blood phenotype was first discovered in Bombay, now known as Mumbai, in India, by Dr. Y. M. Bhende in 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first person found to have the Bombay phenotype had an interesting blood type that reacted to other blood types in a way never seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • FUT3
  • Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple inter
  • It is commonly believed that allergies are caused by multiple interacting genes, some having a protective effect and others contributing to the disease pathogenesis with each gene being influenced by the environment in a different way. (scielo.br)
  • tissues
  • Expression of human chromosome 19p alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forssman antigen a heterogenetic antigen discovered in guinea pig tissues, capable of lysing sheep erythrocytes in the presence of complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two isoforms are known and the gene is expressed in a wide variety of tissues including kidney, thymus, stomach, breast, adult liver and erythrocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performing multiple-tissue Northern Blots on a variety of human tissues lead to the discovery of 8-, 3.1- and 1.3-kb transcripts in placental tissue not expressed in heart, brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney or pancreas cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • These cells have receptors that are similar to B cell receptors, and each cell recognizes only a few class II-peptide combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a T cell recognizes a peptide within an MHC class II molecule, it can stimulate B-cells that also recognize the same molecule in their B cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel located primarily at the apical membranes of epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in transepithelial fluid homeostasis 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • After separation of red cell membranes by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining with periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS) four glycophorins have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • have demonstrated that two different C4 loci express the different Ch/Rg antigens on the membranes of erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The disease, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, occurs in individuals with a sensitized immune system. (scielo.br)
  • One hypothesis to explain the steep rise in allergic diseases in recent years is the 'hygiene hypothesis': the excessive 'cleanliness' of the environment has led to a decline in the infectious stimuli that are necessary in the development of the immune system. (scielo.br)
  • Receiving blood which contains an antigen which has never been in the patient's own blood causes an immune reaction due to the immune system of a hypothetical receiver producing immunoglobulins not only against antigen A and B, but also against H antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion Channels in the Immune System. (uci.edu)
  • In vivo imaging approaches, in combination with targeted gene deletion and specific pharmacological agents, are continuing to revealing important insights into the choreography of immune responses in vivo. (uci.edu)
  • As an Assistant Professor, I decided to work on cells of the immune system, originally from my own blood, using a home-built patch-clamp rig to record from small single cells. (uci.edu)
  • 1. Functional network of ion channels in cells of the immune system. (uci.edu)
  • We were the first to show that ion channels also contribute to immune system function. (uci.edu)
  • The presented antigen can be either self or non-self, thus preventing an organism's immune system targeting its own cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system uses the HLAs to differentiate self cells and non-self cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • such distinctions are usually made along lines of cellular morphology, gene expression, and immunohistochemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling studies have also attempted to distinguish heterogeneous groups of DLBCL from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these cell types is found in acute and chronic inflammatory sites in association with expression of E-selectin, thus implicating E-selectin in the recruitment of these cells to such inflammatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that miR-155 over-expression supports the development and aggresivness of B cell malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • The function of the H antigen, apart from being an intermediate substrate in the synthesis of ABO blood group antigens, is not known, although it may be involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • E-selectin is found to mediate the adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells, by binding to E-selectin ligands on the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodily
  • If a person has Le allele and is non-secretor (homozygous for the se allele), the Le-a antigen will be present in his bodily fluids and on his erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • CD antigen any of a number of cell-surface markers expressed by leukocytes and used to distinguish cell lineages, developmental stages, and functional subsets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, an amino acid chain is the functional group transferred by a peptidyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the realization that individual enzymes were capable of such a task, it was believed that two or more enzymes enacted functional group transfers. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSGL-1 was detected on the surfaces of bone-metastatic prostate tumor cells, suggesting that it may have a functional role in the bone tropism of prostate tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • ABO is the major human blood group system, the distribution of which varies between countries. (scielo.br)
  • Ethidium bromide labelled merozoites are opsonized with human plasma samples and added to THP-1 cells. (jove.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus binds to this antigen and infects and kills T cells bearing this antigen, thus gradually destroying the body's ability to resist infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mRNA from human erythroblasts is ~1.4 kilobases long and the transcription start site in erythroid cells has been mapped to 1050 base pairs 5' of the start codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important contributors, Carroll and Porter, in their study of cloning the human C4 gene, which consists of 3 subparts (α, β, and γ subunits), showed that all six of their clones contained the same C4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • then continued to delve deeper, this time comparing the properties of both the C4A and C4B, both of which are substantial players in the human immunity system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, all the progeny of the infected human ancestor would have this viral genome integrated into every cell in their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex (often just the HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Thus, these individuals synthesize and secrete Le(a) antigen but lack Le(b) and type 1 chain ABH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, individuals with the Le gene but no Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively-adsorbed Le(a) but no Le(b). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with both the Le gene and the Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively adsorbed Le(b) and no Le(a). (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA genes have historically been identified as a result of the ability to successfully transplant organs between HLA-similar individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • The homogeneity or heterogeneity of the two loci, with the addition of these null (f0, s0) genes, allow for duplication/non-duplication of the C4 loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] When a case of DLBCL does not conform to any of these subtypes, and is also not considered unclassifiable, then it is classified as "diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified" (DLBCL, NOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Therefore, people with readily detectable Lewis-a antigen are non-secretors, i.e. do not secrete A, B or H antigens, while Lewis-b antigen is found only in secretors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 is found exclusively on the surface of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dib is common or ubiquitous in all populations which have been screened for it, while Dia has been found only in Indigenous peoples of the Americas (in both North and South America) and East Asians, and in people with some ancestors from those groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators suspected that the Diego factor might be a Mongoloid trait, and tested groups of Native Americans in the United States and people of Chinese and Japanese ancestry, and found Dia in those groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Dib was found in 1967, establishing the Diego group as a two-antigen system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dib antigen has been found in all populations tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dia antigen, however, has been found only in populations of indigenous peoples of the Americas and East Asians, and people with some ancestry in those populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Dia antigen is found at moderate to high frequencies in most populations of indigenous peoples in South America, it is absent in the Waica people, and occurs at very low frequencies in the Warao and Yaruro people of interior northern South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through experiments involving restriction mapping, nucleotide sequence analysis, and hybridization with C4A and C4B, they found that the genes are actually fairly similar though they have their differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performing a BLASTn query search with the ESTs (expressed sequence tags) database for the cDNA clones derived from the probes, revealed that 53% of related transcripts were found in placental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high laminar shear enhances acute endothelial cell response to interleukin-1β in naïve or shear-conditioned endothelial cells as may be found in the pathological setting of ischemia/reperfusion injury while conferring rapid E-selectin down regulation to protect against chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytoestrogens, plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity, such as genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as a mixture of these phytoestrogens were found able to reduce E-selectin as well as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on cell surface and in culture supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Archaeogenetics provides us with genetic evidence of ancient population group migrations, domestication events, and plant and animal evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work included organizing the existing data on blood group gene frequencies, and largely contributing to the genetic map of the world through his investigation of blood groups in many populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of genetic engineering, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) may be spliced together from different organisms, in an attempt to transfer hereditary traits that may increase crop yields, create a supply of stem-cells, or even clone sheep. (bloomsburguniversity.org)
  • The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Originally defined in the context of the Chido/Rodgers blood group system, the C4A-C4B genetic model is under investigation for its possible role in schizophrenia risk and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classification system defines more than a dozen subtypes, each of which can be differentiated based on the location of the tumor, the presence of other cells within the tumor (such as T cells), and whether the patient has certain other illnesses related to DLBCL. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tumor can be classified as immunoblastic if greater than 90% of its cells are immunoblasts.This distinction can be problematic, however, because hematopathologists reviewing the microscope slides may often disagree on whether a collection of cells is best characterized as centroblasts or immunoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third morphologic variant, anaplastic, consists of tumor cells which appear very differently from their normal B cell counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Their work resulted in another well-known series of papers on the lac repressor and bacterial gene regulation, opening up new areas of research and theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • graft
  • Current thought on this process of vascular remodeling assumes that neointimal vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and endothelium in TA are graft-derived, holding that medial VSM cells proliferate and migrate into the subendothelial space in response to signals from inflammatory cells and damaged graft endothelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Current thought on the process of TA holds that in response to signals from inflammatory cells (perivasculitis) and activated or damaged graft endothelium donor-derived medial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells of affected arteries start to proliferate and migrate from the media into the subendothelial space just beneath the endothelial cell (EC) layer ( 8 - 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To date, however, only a few studies have addressed the question of whether the neointimal VSM cells are indeed graft-derived (donor-derived), and again, results conflict ( 20 - 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • kidney
  • Since the early 1970s, several groups have studied the origin of ECs (donor vs. recipient) after solid organ transplantation (kidney, heart, and lung) in humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)