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  • proteins
  • During the 1940s, Boyd and Karl O. Renkonen independently discovered that lectins react differently to various blood types, after finding that the crude extracts of the lima bean and tufted vetch agglutinated the red blood cells from blood type A but not blood types B or O. This ultimately led to the disclosure of thousands of plants that contained these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The text features up-to-date discussions of classic genetic markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) along with extensive background on DNA analysis and coverage of satellite DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and Alu inserts. (oup.com)
  • At the time, two proteins had been identified as binding to DNA and controlling gene expression: the lambda repressor and the lac repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of this gene among the Hominoidea two finding unique to humans emerged: (1) an excess of non-synonymous divergence among species that appears to be caused solely by accelerated evolution and (2) the ability of the single GYPC gene to encode both the GPC and GPD proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the genes encoding the 6 major antigen-presenting proteins, there are a large number of other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by HLAs are those on the outer part of body cells that are (in effect) unique to that person. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a similar process, proteins (both native and foreign, such as the proteins of virus) produced inside most cells are displayed on HLAs (to be specific, MHC class I) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its entirety, the MHC population is like a meter indicating the balance of proteins within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The link between the Lewis blood group and secretion of the ABO blood group antigens was possibly the first example of multiple effects of a human gene: the same enzyme (fucosyltransferase2) which converts the Le-a antigen to Le-b is also responsible for the presence of soluble A, B and H antigens in bodily fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, individual cells of malignant tumors growing in animals or in humans exhibit marked biochemical heterogeneity, as reflected in their cell surface composition, enzyme levels, immunogenicity, response to anticancer drugs, and so on. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Formation of this antigen utilizes an enzyme which may also form Lea on some of the precursor substances. (upmc.edu)
  • tissues
  • Expression of human chromosome 19p alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, tissues in vivo are a mixture of cell types, and it is difficult to determine in which cells the critical transformation events are occurring and what role the microenvironment of the tissue plays. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence for new epstatic interactions in different cells and tissues. (upmc.edu)
  • Two isoforms are known and the gene is expressed in a wide variety of tissues including kidney, thymus, stomach, breast, adult liver and erythrocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performing multiple-tissue Northern Blots on a variety of human tissues lead to the discovery of 8-, 3.1- and 1.3-kb transcripts in placental tissue not expressed in heart, brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney or pancreas cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The A and B genes differ in a few single-base substitutions that change four amino-acid residues which may cause differences in A and B transferase specificity. (scielo.br)
  • Cluster
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • IgG anti-Lea has been reported, but does not bind the red blood cells as readily as the IgM, and is therefore usually only detectable using very sensitive assays. (upmc.edu)
  • Both ESL-1 and PSGL-1 should bear sialyl Lewis a/x in order to bind E/P-selectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC is the tissue-antigen that allows the immune system (more specifically T cells) to bind to, recognize, and tolerate itself (autorecognition). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Archaeogenetics provides us with genetic evidence of ancient population group migrations, domestication events, and plant and animal evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work included organizing the existing data on blood group gene frequencies, and largely contributing to the genetic map of the world through his investigation of blood groups in many populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Leb antigen is the result of genetic interaction between the Le, Se, and H genes. (upmc.edu)
  • In the field of genetic engineering, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) may be spliced together from different organisms, in an attempt to transfer hereditary traits that may increase crop yields, create a supply of stem-cells, or even clone sheep. (bloomsburguniversity.org)
  • The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Originally defined in the context of the Chido/Rodgers blood group system, the C4A-C4B genetic model is under investigation for its possible role in schizophrenia risk and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, these individuals synthesize and secrete Le(a) antigen but lack Le(b) and type 1 chain ABH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, individuals with the Le gene but no Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively-adsorbed Le(a) but no Le(b). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus soon after its description, the Ge group was shown to be subdivisible into at least two sets. (prohosting.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus binds to this antigen and infects and kills T cells bearing this antigen, thus gradually destroying the body's ability to resist infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each of these cell types is found in acute and chronic inflammatory sites in association with expression of E-selectin, thus implicating E-selectin in the recruitment of these cells to such inflammatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, all the progeny of the infected human ancestor would have this viral genome integrated into every cell in their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presented antigen can be either self or non-self, thus preventing an organism's immune system targeting its own cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple inter
  • It is commonly believed that allergies are caused by multiple interacting genes, some having a protective effect and others contributing to the disease pathogenesis with each gene being influenced by the environment in a different way. (scielo.br)
  • immune
  • The disease, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, occurs in individuals with a sensitized immune system. (scielo.br)
  • One hypothesis to explain the steep rise in allergic diseases in recent years is the 'hygiene hypothesis': the excessive 'cleanliness' of the environment has led to a decline in the infectious stimuli that are necessary in the development of the immune system. (scielo.br)
  • Receiving blood which contains an antigen which has never been in the patient's own blood causes an immune reaction due to the immune system of a hypothetical receiver producing immunoglobulins not only against antigen A and B, but also against H antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This susceptibility to sepsis is related either to the immaturity of their immune system either to the exposure to invasive NICU maneuvers. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A number of constituents of the immune system gain its complete function only long time after birth [ 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Preterm and VLBW infants are at high risk of infections because of immaturity of their immune system, reduced levels and activity of immunoglobulins and complement, invasive practices in NICU [ 5 - 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Ion Channels in the Immune System. (uci.edu)
  • In vivo imaging approaches, in combination with targeted gene deletion and specific pharmacological agents, are continuing to revealing important insights into the choreography of immune responses in vivo. (uci.edu)
  • As an Assistant Professor, I decided to work on cells of the immune system, originally from my own blood, using a home-built patch-clamp rig to record from small single cells. (uci.edu)
  • 1. Functional network of ion channels in cells of the immune system. (uci.edu)
  • We were the first to show that ion channels also contribute to immune system function. (uci.edu)
  • For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system uses the HLAs to differentiate self cells and non-self cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Individuals with both the Le gene and the Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively adsorbed Le(b) and no Le(a). (wikipedia.org)
  • however, Le(a+b-) individuals can still secrete Lewis a antigen into secretions despite the fact that they are all 'nonsecretors' (sese). (upmc.edu)
  • Therefore, Le(a-b+) individuals may receive blood from Le(a+b+) or Le (a+b-) donors. (upmc.edu)
  • Despite numerous serological tests of Ge- individuals and their families little was resolved except that these factors appeared to be unrelated to any of the other known blood groups systems. (prohosting.com)
  • HLA genes have historically been identified as a result of the ability to successfully transplant organs between HLA-similar individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretors
  • ABH secretors are identified by the secretion of ABO antigens in fluids such as saliva, sweat, tears and breast milk. (scielo.br)
  • Lewis negative people (Le a-, Le b-) are homozygous for the recessive le allele and can be either secretors or non-secretors. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • After separation of red cell membranes by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining with periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS) four glycophorins have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • have demonstrated that two different C4 loci express the different Ch/Rg antigens on the membranes of erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • The target gene of scFv (3S193)-41BB-CD3ζ packaged in lentiviral particles could be used for high efficency tranduction of T cells and stably integrated expression. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (nih.gov)
  • such distinctions are usually made along lines of cellular morphology, gene expression, and immunohistochemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling studies have also attempted to distinguish heterogeneous groups of DLBCL from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that miR-155 over-expression supports the development and aggresivness of B cell malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, the H antigen is present more in blood type O and less in blood type AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most studies that are designed to identify discrete biochemical events occurring in cells during malignant transformation have therefore been done with cultured cells, because clones of relatively homogeneous cell populations can be studied and the cellular environment defined and manipulated. (nih.gov)
  • According to this concept, neointimal ECs and VSM cells in TA originate from graft tissue and are therefore donor-derived. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Any cell displaying that person's HLA type belongs to that person and, therefore, is not an invader. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Type 2 is found exclusively on the surface of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dib is common or ubiquitous in all populations which have been screened for it, while Dia has been found only in Indigenous peoples of the Americas (in both North and South America) and East Asians, and in people with some ancestors from those groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators suspected that the Diego factor might be a Mongoloid trait, and tested groups of Native Americans in the United States and people of Chinese and Japanese ancestry, and found Dia in those groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Dib was found in 1967, establishing the Diego group as a two-antigen system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dib antigen has been found in all populations tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dia antigen, however, has been found only in populations of indigenous peoples of the Americas and East Asians, and people with some ancestry in those populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Dia antigen is found at moderate to high frequencies in most populations of indigenous peoples in South America, it is absent in the Waica people, and occurs at very low frequencies in the Warao and Yaruro people of interior northern South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleghorn (1961) found that the anti-Ge producing patient reported by Barnes and Lewis (1961) was serologically reactive with the serum of one of the original three reported by Rosenfield et al. (prohosting.com)
  • The red cells of this individual where found to lack Glycophorin C and D, in addition to being elliptocytic. (prohosting.com)
  • A high laminar shear enhances acute endothelial cell response to interleukin-1β in naïve or shear-conditioned endothelial cells as may be found in the pathological setting of ischemia/reperfusion injury while conferring rapid E-selectin down regulation to protect against chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytoestrogens, plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity, such as genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as a mixture of these phytoestrogens were found able to reduce E-selectin as well as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on cell surface and in culture supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • E-selectin is found to mediate the adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells, by binding to E-selectin ligands on the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through experiments involving restriction mapping, nucleotide sequence analysis, and hybridization with C4A and C4B, they found that the genes are actually fairly similar though they have their differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performing a BLASTn query search with the ESTs (expressed sequence tags) database for the cDNA clones derived from the probes, revealed that 53% of related transcripts were found in placental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In cancer cells, CD44, death receptor-3 (DR3), LAMP1, and LAMP2 were identified as E-selectin ligands present on colon cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • The function of the H antigen, apart from being an intermediate substrate in the synthesis of ABO blood group antigens, is not known, although it may be involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • These "tissue-culture artifacts" include overgrowth of cells not characteristic of the original population of cultured cells (eg, overgrowth of fibroblasts in cultures that were originally primarily epithelial cells), selection for a small population of variant cells with continued passage in vitro, or appearance of cells with an abnormal chromosomal number or structure (karyotype). (nih.gov)
  • human
  • ABO is the major human blood group system, the distribution of which varies between countries. (scielo.br)
  • The mRNA from human erythroblasts is ~1.4 kilobases long and the transcription start site in erythroid cells has been mapped to 1050 base pairs 5' of the start codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important contributors, Carroll and Porter, in their study of cloning the human C4 gene, which consists of 3 subparts (α, β, and γ subunits), showed that all six of their clones contained the same C4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • then continued to delve deeper, this time comparing the properties of both the C4A and C4B, both of which are substantial players in the human immunity system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex (often just the HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • The homogeneity or heterogeneity of the two loci, with the addition of these null (f0, s0) genes, allow for duplication/non-duplication of the C4 loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] When a case of DLBCL does not conform to any of these subtypes, and is also not considered unclassifiable, then it is classified as "diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified" (DLBCL, NOS). (wikipedia.org)