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  • strains
  • For severe enterococcal infections caused by E. faecalis and ampicillin-susceptible E. faecium (i.e., endocarditis and other endovascular infections), monotherapy with ampicillin is not recommended, since cure rates are not optimal and the compound alone may not be bactericidal for many enterococcal strains. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Except for minocycline (33.5%) and sulbactam/cefoperazone (74.6%), these CRAB strains showed high resistance rates (>90%) to 16 tested antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Novel Bacillus subtilis mutant strains having good productivity of various enzymes are provided through extensive analysis of strains that are derived from Bacillus subtilis via gene disruption. (patents.com)
  • Each of these Bacillus subtilis mutant strains exerts significantly improved secretory productivity of a protein when a gene encoding such a secretory target protein is introduced so that it can be expressed, compared with a case in which the same gene is introduced into a wild-type strain. (patents.com)
  • However, beginning with the first antibiotic treatment for TB in 1943, some strains of the TB bacteria developed resistance to the standard drugs through genetic changes (see mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The application of molecular techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction to produce DNA fingerprints and other 16S ribosomal RNA gene (ribotyping) methods of strain analysis have been employed to differentiate P. penneri from P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main genetic difference between these two strains is a mutation of the global activator gene called gacA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight genes, phlHGFACBDE, are annotated in this cluster and conserved organizationally in 2,4-DAPG-producing strains of P. fluorescens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic and genomic analysis, though, has revealed that the entire phl gene cluster is ancestral to P. fluorescens, many strains have lost the capacity, and it exists on different genomic regions among strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several strains of P. fluorescens, such as Pf-5 and JL3985, have developed a natural resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lac Z fragment, whose synthesis can be induced by IPTG, is capable of intra-allelic complementation with a defective form of β-galactosidase enzyme encoded by host chromosome (mutation lacZDM15 in E. coli JM109, DH5α and XL1-Blue strains). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Once purified, plasmid DNA can be used in a wide variety of downstream applications such as sequencing, PCR, expression of proteins, transfection, and gene therapy. (qiagen.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis and further characterization of this gene suggested that AoDHN1 belongs to group II Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such features present in cloning vectors may be the lacZα fragment for α complementation in blue-white selection, and/or marker gene or reporter genes in frame with and flanking the MCS to facilitate the production of fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and contain the genes responsible for producing a group of major surface proteins, or antigens, on the bacteria that allow it to evade the immune response of its infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the bacterium, these Yops are bound by pYV-encoded Sycs (specific Yop chaperones), which prevent premature interaction with other proteins and guide the Yops to a type-III secretory apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M . mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All cloning vectors have features that allow a gene to be conveniently inserted into the vector or removed from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction sites in the MCS are first cleaved by restriction enzymes, then a PCR-amplified target gene also digested with the same enzymes is ligated into the vectors using DNA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, once cloned into the cloning vector (called entry clone in this method), may be conveniently introduced into a variety of expression vectors by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporter genes are used in some cloning vectors to facilitate the screening of successful clones by using features of these genes that allow successful clone to be easily identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent gene therapy trials, the lentiviral vectors used showed no tendency to disrupt gene function or promote oncogenic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these advances, gene therapy with integrating vectors is now considered safe and is the preferred method of gene transfer due to the permanent nature of the integration compared to the transient persistence of non-integrating viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus insertional mutagenesis is possible with both replication competent virus and the self-inactivating vectors that are commonly used in gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • aminoglycosides
  • Synergistic bactericidal therapy is also achieved with aminoglycosides, and the combination could be considered for the treatment of severe infections, including endocarditis and other endovascular infections, when ampicillin cannot be used. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Treatment schedules for MDR-TB involving fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides can run for 2 years, compared to the 6 months of first-line drug treatment, and cost over $100,000 USD.If these second-line drugs are prescribed or taken incorrectly, further resistance can develop leading to XDR-TB. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • A gene comprises the coding DNA sequence, as well as the associated regulatory elements that control gene expression. (qiagen.com)
  • The partial sequence of the gene was submitted to GenBank (Accession Number MF173059). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite this relationship, D. lykanthroporepellens is more closely related to the Dehalococcoides (class Dehalococcoidia) with 90% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation in the rpoB gene changes the sequence of amino acids and eventual conformation of the beta subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The circular sequence is numbered such that 0 is the middle of the unique EcoRI site and the count increases through the TetR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the sequence of the transposon is known, the gene can be identified, either by sequencing the whole genome and searching for the sequence, or using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify specifically that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inactivation of a gene by inserting a fragment of DNA into the middle of its coding sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each consists of a transposon backbone of about 16.3 Kb that facilitates horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • PhlD shows similarity to plant chalcone synthases and has been theorized to originate from horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • High-dose ampicillin (up to 30g/day) could be considered (in combination) for isolates with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ampicillin greater than or equal to 16 to less than or equal to 64μg/ml. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • however, the bactericidal effect may be compromised in isolates exhibiting macrolide resistance. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • The OXA-23 gene was detected at high prevalence among the CRAB isolates and the prevalence rate among the various STs differed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). (frontiersin.org)
  • toxins
  • This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase, Ccda, and the parD/parE toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • The genome of Capnocytophaga canimorsus strain Cc5 consists of a single circular chromosome of 2,571,406 bp with a G+C content of 36.11%, and it encodes 2,405 open reading frames (ORFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Despite several transcriptomic studies carried out to identify genes responsible for salt tolerance in other mangroves such as Bruguiera and Aegiceras [ 22 ]-[ 24 ], the molecular mechanisms regulating salt secretion have not been established so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It does not encode any type III, IV, or VI secretion system, which are commonly linked to pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 26-kb "core region" in the pYV contains the ysc genes, which regulate the expression and secretion of Yops. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene cluster responsible for secretion of the polysaccharide capsule has been identified and shown to inhibit the antibiotic effect of complement when grown on ascites fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • repressor
  • In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary transcriptional repressor genes, called kor (short for "kil-override") genes, which inactivate the kil genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, if the viral DNA is inserted into a repressor, the gene corresponding to that promoter may be over expressed - leading to an overabundance of its product and altered cellular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Amino acid replacements in the NADH binding site of InhA apparently result in INH resistance by preventing the inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis, which the bacterium uses in its cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The enzyme URA3 also converts 5-fluoroorotic acid (5FOA) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil, so any cells carrying the URA3 gene will be killed in the presence of 5FOA (negative selection). (wikipedia.org)
  • pBR322
  • Insertional inactivation is a technique used in recombinant DNA engineering where a plasmid (such as pBR322) is used to disable expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • The vector(also known as "destination vector"), where genes will be added, has an outward-facing BsaI restriction site with a drop-out screening cassette. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two sites for restriction enzymes HindIII and ClaI within the promoter of the TetR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multiple cloning site (MCS) region is split into the lacZ gene (codons 6-7 of lacZ are replaced by MCS), where various restriction sites for many restriction endonucleases are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • This typically works by disrupting or removing the lethal gene during the cloning process, and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones are selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet many questions remain about the dynamics of gene exchange and the mechanisms underlying these DNA transfers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some mechanisms of drug resistance include: Cell wall: The cell wall of M. tuberculosis (TB) contains complex lipid molecules which act as a barrier to stop drugs from entering the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • To overcome this problem, knowledge of the pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and prospective treatment options of A. baumannii is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • 12. The cell of claim 11 wherein the second DNA fragment encodes a selectable or scorable marker. (google.com)
  • Insertion of foreign DNA into the MCS located within the lac Z gene causes insertional inactivation of this gene at the N-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase and abolishes intra-allelic complementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The resistance of P. penneri to cefuroxime and the marked inhibitory activity of cefoxitin against this species also distinguishes P. penneri from the other Proteus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, studies such as identification of genes that are specifically expressed in salt glands will contribute significantly towards resolving mangrove salt gland function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, SH technique could be exploited to identify genes that are expressed in salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove A. officinalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • organisms
  • The number of genes varies widely between different organisms. (qiagen.com)
  • Shuttle vector which is designed to be maintained in two different organisms may also require two selectable markers, although some selectable markers such as resistance to zeocin and hygromycin B are effective in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The changes in the phosphorylation status of RR orchestrate adaptive responses to the environmental cue mostly by altering its DNA binding that lead to change in the expression of downstream genes ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The development of a diploid yeast strain is another promising strategy for improving expression levels of heterologous genes and enhancing the fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae . (ukessays.com)
  • The core region also includes yopN, yopB, yopD, tyeA, lcrG, and lcrV, which also regulate Yops gene expression and help to translocate secretory Yops to the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This viral gene insertion is also known as a promoter insertion as it drives the expression of the c-myc gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus
  • whereby the chimeric gene can be expressed in the cell as an insect controlling amount of an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis polyopeptide toxin with toxicity to Lepidoptera insects. (google.com)
  • virulence
  • The 70-kb pYV is critical to Yersinia's pathogenicity, since it contains many genes known to encode virulence factors and its loss gives avirulence of all Yersinia species. (wikipedia.org)
  • baumannii
  • A. baumannii has also been identified as an ESKAPE pathogen (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), a group of pathogens with a high rate of antibiotic resistance that are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • In typical circumstances, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)