• Proteins
  • DNA sequences encoding β-amyloid-related proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease are disclosed. (google.com)
  • For many genes and their corresponding proteins, an assortment of alternate names is in use across the scientific literature and public biological databases, posing a challenge to effective organization and exchange of biological information. (wikipedia.org)
  • But owing to the nature of how science has developed (with knowledge being uncovered bit by bit over decades), proteins and their corresponding genes have not always been discovered simultaneously (and not always physiologically understood when discovered), which is the largest reason why protein and gene names do not always match, or why scientists tend to favor one symbol or name for the protein and another for the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also owing to the nature of how scientific knowledge has unfolded, proteins and their corresponding genes often have several names and symbols that are synonymous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, some proteins and protein complexes are built from the products of several genes (each gene contributing a polypeptide subunit), which means that the protein or complex will not have the same name or symbol as any one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • The invention provides for transgenic plants transformed with expression vectors containing a DNA sequence encoding ferulic acid esterase I from Aspergillus, preferably A. niger. (patentgenius.com)
  • The expression vectors may optionally comprise a DNA sequence encoding xylanase from Trichoderma, preferably T. reesei. (patentgenius.com)
  • In recent gene therapy trials, the lentiviral vectors used showed no tendency to disrupt gene function or promote oncogenic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these advances, gene therapy with integrating vectors is now considered safe and is the preferred method of gene transfer due to the permanent nature of the integration compared to the transient persistence of non-integrating viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus insertional mutagenesis is possible with both replication competent virus and the self-inactivating vectors that are commonly used in gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • However, if the insertion occurs in an essential gene or a gene that is involved in cellular replication or programmed cell death, the insertion may compromise the viability of the cell or even cause the cell to replicate interminably - leading to the formation of a tumor, which may become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is an example of a significant change in cell activity due to insertion of a viral gene into a portion of the hosts genome that controls replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • however when it is turned on it is able to push the cell into the G1 phase of the cell cycle and cause the cell to begin replication, causing unchecked cell proliferation while allowing the viral gene to be replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation protein (Rep), repeating units called iterons, DnaA boxes, and an adjacent AT-rich region. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. (frontiersin.org)
  • In typical circumstances, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The enzyme URA3 also converts 5-fluoroorotic acid (5FOA) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil, so any cells carrying the URA3 gene will be killed in the presence of 5FOA (negative selection). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to β-galactosidase, pUC19 also encodes for an enzyme called β-lactamase, which can degrade ampicillin and reduce its toxicity to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 8. The cell of claim 7 wherein the first DNA fragment encodes a truncated Bt2 protein. (google.com)
  • 12. The cell of claim 11 wherein the second DNA fragment encodes a selectable or scorable marker. (google.com)
  • The method comprises obtaining a collection of cells transfected with a collection of variant nucleic acid sequences, wherein each cell in the collection is transfected with and capable of expressing one member of the collection, which encodes a distinct member of a polyclonal protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The plant of claim 1, wherein the polynucleotide further comprises a polynucleotide that encodes CTWPVAAA (SEQ ID NO:93) at the 3' end. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. An isolated polynucleotide encoding stop codons in all six reading frames, wherein the polynucleotide is from 12 to 450 nucleotides. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • organisms
  • Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the 1970s, our understanding of genetics and molecular biology was severely hampered by an inability to isolate and study individual genes from complex organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • repressor
  • In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary transcriptional repressor genes, called kor (short for "kil-override") genes, which inactivate the kil genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Using a genetically encoded RNAi construct, we knocked down ITP in the two clock cells and found that these flies show reduced evening activity and increased nocturnal activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology
  • The present invention relates to molecular biology and gene expression. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They are a type of reporter gene used in laboratory microbiology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering to indicate the success of a transfection or other procedure meant to introduce foreign DNA into a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • Insertion of foreign DNA into the MCS located within the lac Z gene causes insertional inactivation of this gene at the N-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase and abolishes intra-allelic complementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • I am trying to knockout a gene which is essential for growth of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (has no sacB gene in it). (protocol-online.org)
  • The study experimented with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and found that a disruption of relA and spoT genes produced an inactivation of the Stringent response (SR) in cells with nutrient limitation, which provides cells be more susceptible to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The faeA genes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis encode ferulic acid esterases involved in degradation of complex cell wall polysaccharides," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 63, No. 12, Dec.1997 pp. 4638-4644, XP002203731. (patentgenius.com)
  • restriction
  • The vector(also known as "destination vector"), where genes will be added, has an outward-facing BsaI restriction site with a drop-out screening cassette. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The high copy number is a result of the lack of the rop gene and a single point mutation in the ori of pMB1[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • where resistance genes are obtained either from the indigenous human microbiota or from environmental microorganisms to which an individual is exposed (e.g., via food, water or soil). (frontiersin.org)
  • genome
  • The need to develop formal guidelines for human gene names and symbols was recognized in the 1960s and full guidelines were issued in 1979 (Edinburgh Human Genome Meeting). (wikipedia.org)
  • The E. faecalis genome consists of 3.22 million base pairs with 3,113 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)