• certain genes
  • The work also suggested that certain genes are acquired through horizontal gene transfers, such as the genes for aerobic respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a condition caused by mutations in certain genes of the major histocompatibility complex or involved with the processing and presentation of MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it has been uncovered that the DNA of certain genes is often damaged in melanoma cells, most likely as a result of damage from UV radiation, and in turn increases the likelihood of developing melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inherent in sociobiological reasoning is the idea that certain genes or gene combinations that influence particular behavioral traits can be inherited from generation to generation For example, newly dominant male lions often kill cubs in the pride that they did not sire. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • A bioinformatic analysis was performed to assess the safety for human and animal health of putative translation products of gene VI overlapping P35S. (slashdot.org)
  • proteins
  • According to the researchers, Podevin and du Jardin, the particular 'Gene VI' is responsible for a number of possible consequences that could affect human health, including inhibition of RNA silencing and production of proteins with known toxicity. (slashdot.org)
  • Visualizing nuclear proteins together with transcribed and inactive genes in structurally preserved cells. (nih.gov)
  • Later in the 2000's, post-genomic research in his laboratory established signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, one of the several proteins that are required to switch on MHC II genes in various cells types (primarily those in the immune system) is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are the product of a gene that are formed from translation of a mature mRNA molecule.Proteins contain 4 elements in regards to their structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis) are known to be caused by misfolded or mutated proteins, and there is a desire to understand what, if any, anomalous protein-protein interactions a given mutation can cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • Genomic organisation of the PAX6 locus varies considerably among species, including the number and distribution of exons , cis-regulatory elements , and transcription start sites . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences at the 9p21.3 risk locus disrupt TEAD factor binding and TEAD3-dependent TGF-beta induction of p16 in HAoSMCs. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, a multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the PHACTR1 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Genome Browser - browse the genes of C. elegans (and other species) in their genomic context Textpresso - a search tool that queries published C. elegans literature (including meeting abstracts) and a subset of nematode literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence curation at WormBase refers to the maintenance and annotation of the primary genomic sequence and a consensus gene set. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The EFSA is endorsing 'retrospective risk assessment' of CaMV promoter and its Gene VI sequences - in an attempt to give it a clean bill of health. (slashdot.org)
  • WormBase offers many ways of searching and retrieving data from the database: WormMart, Wiki - was a tool for retrieving varied information on many genes (or the sequences of those genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Association analysis of 6,736 U.K. subjects provides replication and confirms TCF7L2 as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene with a substantial effect on individual risk. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The map localization of this gene suggests it may also be a candidate gene for squamous cell epithelioma and hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. The region surrounding the FOXE1 gene has shown association in the pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate with genome-wide levels of significance in linkage analysis studies with additional fine-mapping and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • 4 These include over 100 genetic traits (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex linked) and deletions or translocations of virtually all the chromosomes 1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/OMIM/ ). (bmj.com)
  • The term "lineage-specific", since it relates to MITF, means genes or traits that are only found in a certain cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critics, led by Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould, argued that genes played a role in human behavior, but that traits such as aggressiveness could be explained by social environment rather than by biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • Insulin-regulated glycolytic genes-Gck, Aldob, Pgk1, and Pklr, hepatic glucose transporter gene - SLC2A2, and gluconeogenic genes - Fbp1 and Pck1 were repressed in livers of Nfe2l1 transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • This activation was dependent on intact binding sites for both factors in the TRAP promoter. (edu.au)
  • Three SNPs within the TOMM40 gene, one APOE promoter SNP and two SNPs within distal APOE enhancer elements (ME1 and BCR) predict CSF apoE levels. (iospress.com)
  • maternal
  • Not all cases of microphthalmia are genetic and both maternal virus infections (for example, rubella and cytomegalovirus) and drug use (for example, alcohol, thalidomide, and retinoic acid) have been implicated in the development of microphthalmia in some patients. (bmj.com)
  • pathway
  • Upregulation of PHACTR1 by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been described in breast cancer cell lines, potentially pointing to a connection with the TGF-β signaling pathway, which is also implicated in genetic predisposition to migraine9 and has a key role in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, two inherited connective tissue disorders causing aortic dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • microphthalmia
  • Other families with defects in the microphthalmia gene located on 14q32 may have a similar ocular phenotype aiding their identification. (bmj.com)
  • confer
  • Recently, variants of TCF7L2 gene were reported to confer an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in three different samples from European and European-origin populations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Local chicken breeds are often endowed with major genes that confer adaptability and improve performances or immunocompetence in tropical conditions [4, (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human
  • We've shown that this genetic profile is safe in the lab, safe in the field, and safe in the human body. (slashdot.org)
  • Human placental TEF-5 transactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin gene enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • Human TEF-5 is preferentially expressed in placenta and binds to multiple functional elements of the human chorionic somatomammotropin-B gene enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor hStaf/ZNF143 is required for expression of the human TFAM gene. (nih.gov)
  • In May 2018, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt will publish his second book, "Human Errors: A Panorama of Our Glitches, from Pointless Bones to Broken Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • It acts as a "master control" gene for the development of eyes and other sensory organs, certain neural and epidermal tissues as well as other homologous structures, usually derived from ectodermal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hox genes are often conserved across species, so some of the Hox genes of Drosophila are homologous to those in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome sequence
  • In the 1990's, he organized and led the team that deciphered the first genome sequence and genetic code for a salt-loving microbe, Halobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • These T3SSs are similar as a result of divergent evolution and phylogenetic analysis supports a model in which gram-negative bacteria can transfer the T3SS gene cassette horizontally to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • To aid these comparisons, a coordinate re-mapping program and data are available from: http://wiki.wormbase.org/index.php/Converting_Coordinates_between_releases All the gene-sets of the WormBase species were initially generated by gene prediction programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • When genes are conserved between the available nematode species, comparative analysis can also be very informative. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules work
  • These siRNA molecules work in RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) during RNA interference by binding to a target DNA sequence to prevent transcription of a specific mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticosteroids
  • The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients' response to inhaled corticosteroids has some basis in genetic variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • It is unknown if the presence of the hidden viral genes were the result of laboratory contamination or a possible recombinant product of the resultant organism. (slashdot.org)
  • They have various functions depending on the organism including flower development, proto-oncogene transcription, and gene regulation in specific cells (such as muscle cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • It is a key regulatory gene of eye and brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a transcription factor, Pax6 activates and/or deactivates gene expression patterns to ensure for proper development of the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] However it has been recognized that a suite of genes is necessary for eye development, and therefore the term of "master control" gene may be inaccurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, predisposing genetic factors have been considered important in PTDM development. (dovepress.com)
  • There is a need for large genome-wide association study to identify the genetic risk factors associated with PTDM development. (dovepress.com)
  • Alteration of balanced expression of globin genes, which usually occurs due to damage to adult β-globin genes, leads to development of severe diseases-hemoglobinopathies. (springer.com)
  • These transcription factors are Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) specific in limb development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown in zebrafish displayed that Fgf8 expression is necessary for appendage development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes & Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also include the MADS-box-containing genes involved in the ABC model of flower development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antennapedia complex consists of five genes, including proboscipedia, and is involved in the development of the front of the embryo, forming the segments of the head and thorax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bithorax complex consists of three main genes and is involved in the development of the back of the embryo, namely the abdomen and the posterior segments of the thorax. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development (starting at the blastoderm stage of the embryo), these genes are constantly expressed to assign structures and roles to the different segments of the fly's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies, along with many others, show the importance of homeotic genes even after development. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Mechanisms of expression switching, stage-specific activation, and repression of transcription of α- and β-globin genes are of interest from both theoretical and practical points of view. (springer.com)
  • This review focuses on the current state of research on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying stage-specific switching of β-globin genes. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • Show and tell: visualizing gene expression in living cells. (nih.gov)
  • Metallothioenein-1 and Metallothioenein-2 genes, which protect cells against cytotoxicity induced by toxic metals, are also direct targets of Nfe2l1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Re-establishment of Nfe2l1 function in Nfe2l1 null cells rescued proteasome expression and function, indicating Nfe2l1 was necessary for induction of proteasome genes (bounce-back response) in response to proteasome inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • One of the most commonly studied model organisms in regards to homeotic genes is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primitive markings include: Dorsal stripe (stripe down the center of the back, along the spine), seen almost universally on all duns Horizontal striping on the back of forelegs, common on most duns, although at times, rather faint Shoulder blade stripe, the least commonly seen of the primitive markings Dorsal striping does not guarantee the horse carries the dun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Its homeotic genes occur in either the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) or the Bithorax complex (BX-C) discovered by Edward B. Lewis. (wikipedia.org)