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  • certain genes
  • The work also suggested that certain genes are acquired through horizontal gene transfers, such as the genes for aerobic respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a condition caused by mutations in certain genes of the major histocompatibility complex or involved with the processing and presentation of MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inherent in sociobiological reasoning is the idea that certain genes or gene combinations that influence particular behavioral traits can be inherited from generation to generation For example, newly dominant male lions often kill cubs in the pride that they did not sire. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it has been uncovered that the DNA of certain genes is often damaged in melanoma cells, most likely as a result of damage from UV radiation, and in turn increases the likelihood of developing melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Complex haploinsufficiency, which occurs when a strain containing two heterozygous mutations at distinct loci shows a phenotype that is distinct from either of the corresponding single heterozygous mutants, is an expedient approach to genetic interactions analysis in diploid organisms. (g3journal.org)
  • Mutations of the Pax6 gene are known to cause various disorders of the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in homeotic genes cause displaced body parts, such as antennae growing at the posterior of the fly instead of at the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much research has been done on homeotic genes in different organisms, ranging from basic understanding of how the molecules work to mutations to how homeotic genes affect the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human subjects, because it is known that MITF controls the expression of various genes that are essential for normal melanin synthesis in melanocytes, mutations of MITF can lead to diseases such as melanoma, Waardenburg syndrome, and Tietz syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the MITF gene have been found in certain patients with Waardenburg syndrome, type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, it has been found that a large percentage of melanomas have mutations in the B-RAF gene which leads to melanoma by causing an MEK-ERK kinase cascade when activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene cause Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome and are associated with congenital hypothyroidism and cleft palate with thyroid dysgenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • According to the researchers, Podevin and du Jardin, the particular 'Gene VI' is responsible for a number of possible consequences that could affect human health, including inhibition of RNA silencing and production of proteins with known toxicity. (slashdot.org)
  • Later in the 2000's, post-genomic research in his laboratory established signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, one of the several proteins that are required to switch on MHC II genes in various cells types (primarily those in the immune system) is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are the product of a gene that are formed from translation of a mature mRNA molecule.Proteins contain 4 elements in regards to their structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis) are known to be caused by misfolded or mutated proteins, and there is a desire to understand what, if any, anomalous protein-protein interactions a given mutation can cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • Genomic organisation of the PAX6 locus varies considerably among species, including the number and distribution of exons , cis-regulatory elements , and transcription start sites . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences at the 9p21.3 risk locus disrupt TEAD factor binding and TEAD3-dependent TGF-beta induction of p16 in HAoSMCs. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, a multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the PHACTR1 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Genome Browser - browse the genes of C. elegans (and other species) in their genomic context Textpresso - a search tool that queries published C. elegans literature (including meeting abstracts) and a subset of nematode literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence curation at WormBase refers to the maintenance and annotation of the primary genomic sequence and a consensus gene set. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The EFSA is endorsing 'retrospective risk assessment' of CaMV promoter and its Gene VI sequences - in an attempt to give it a clean bill of health. (slashdot.org)
  • WormBase offers many ways of searching and retrieving data from the database: WormMart, Wiki - was a tool for retrieving varied information on many genes (or the sequences of those genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Association analysis of 6,736 U.K. subjects provides replication and confirms TCF7L2 as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene with a substantial effect on individual risk. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The map localization of this gene suggests it may also be a candidate gene for squamous cell epithelioma and hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. The region surrounding the FOXE1 gene has shown association in the pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate with genome-wide levels of significance in linkage analysis studies with additional fine-mapping and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • 4 These include over 100 genetic traits (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex linked) and deletions or translocations of virtually all the chromosomes 1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/OMIM/ ). (bmj.com)
  • Critics, led by Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould, argued that genes played a role in human behavior, but that traits such as aggressiveness could be explained by social environment rather than by biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "lineage-specific", since it relates to MITF, means genes or traits that are only found in a certain cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • Insulin-regulated glycolytic genes-Gck, Aldob, Pgk1, and Pklr, hepatic glucose transporter gene - SLC2A2, and gluconeogenic genes - Fbp1 and Pck1 were repressed in livers of Nfe2l1 transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Genetic interaction analysis is a powerful approach to the study of complex biological processes that are dependent on multiple genes. (g3journal.org)
  • Because of the largely diploid nature of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans , genetic interaction analysis has been limited to a small number of large-scale screens and a handful for gene-by-gene studies. (g3journal.org)
  • Here, we describe the construction of a barcoded-library of 133 heterozygous TF deletion mutants and deletion cassettes for designed to facilitate complex haploinsufficiency-based genetic interaction studies of the TF networks in C. albicans . (g3journal.org)
  • The genetic interaction networks at each stage of biofilm formation are significantly different indicating that the network is not static but dynamic. (g3journal.org)
  • One area of C. albicans genetic analysis that has not been extensively developed compared to other systems is genetic interaction analysis. (g3journal.org)
  • Throughout the article, epistasis refers to the general definition by Fisher and is used synonymously with genetic interaction to refer to any unanticipated combinatorial effect. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A genetic interaction is negative if the fitness observed for a double mutant is worse than expected based on the fitness of the respective single mutants. (beds.ac.uk)
  • embryonic
  • Pax6 is a transcription factor present during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Institutes of Health defines induced pluripotent stem cells as somatic (adult) cells reprogrammed to enter an embryonic stem cell-like state by being forced to express factors important for maintaining the "stemness" of embryonic stem cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • promoter
  • This activation was dependent on intact binding sites for both factors in the TRAP promoter. (edu.au)
  • Three SNPs within the TOMM40 gene, one APOE promoter SNP and two SNPs within distal APOE enhancer elements (ME1 and BCR) predict CSF apoE levels. (iospress.com)
  • maternal
  • Not all cases of microphthalmia are genetic and both maternal virus infections (for example, rubella and cytomegalovirus) and drug use (for example, alcohol, thalidomide, and retinoic acid) have been implicated in the development of microphthalmia in some patients. (bmj.com)
  • pathway
  • Upregulation of PHACTR1 by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been described in breast cancer cell lines, potentially pointing to a connection with the TGF-β signaling pathway, which is also implicated in genetic predisposition to migraine9 and has a key role in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, two inherited connective tissue disorders causing aortic dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • Genes encoding different α- and β-polypeptide chains are located in two multigene clusters on different chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • microphthalmia
  • Other families with defects in the microphthalmia gene located on 14q32 may have a similar ocular phenotype aiding their identification. (bmj.com)
  • human
  • We've shown that this genetic profile is safe in the lab, safe in the field, and safe in the human body. (slashdot.org)
  • Human placental TEF-5 transactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin gene enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • Human TEF-5 is preferentially expressed in placenta and binds to multiple functional elements of the human chorionic somatomammotropin-B gene enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • In May 2018, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt will publish his second book, "Human Errors: A Panorama of Our Glitches, from Pointless Bones to Broken Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • It acts as a "master control" gene for the development of eyes and other sensory organs, certain neural and epidermal tissues as well as other homologous structures, usually derived from ectodermal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hox genes are often conserved across species, so some of the Hox genes of Drosophila are homologous to those in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome sequence
  • In the 1990's, he organized and led the team that deciphered the first genome sequence and genetic code for a salt-loving microbe, Halobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • One of the most commonly studied model organisms in regards to homeotic genes is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • These T3SSs are similar as a result of divergent evolution and phylogenetic analysis supports a model in which gram-negative bacteria can transfer the T3SS gene cassette horizontally to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • To aid these comparisons, a coordinate re-mapping program and data are available from: http://wiki.wormbase.org/index.php/Converting_Coordinates_between_releases All the gene-sets of the WormBase species were initially generated by gene prediction programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • When genes are conserved between the available nematode species, comparative analysis can also be very informative. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules work
  • These siRNA molecules work in RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) during RNA interference by binding to a target DNA sequence to prevent transcription of a specific mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticosteroids
  • The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients' response to inhaled corticosteroids has some basis in genetic variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • This review focuses on the current state of research on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying stage-specific switching of β-globin genes. (springer.com)
  • alleles
  • Abnormal amounts of gene product can be correlated with disease-causing alleles, such as the overactivity of oncogenes which can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • They include many of the Hox and ParaHox genes that are important for segmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also include the MADS-box-containing genes involved in the ABC model of flower development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primitive markings include: Dorsal stripe (stripe down the center of the back, along the spine), seen almost universally on all duns Horizontal striping on the back of forelegs, common on most duns, although at times, rather faint Shoulder blade stripe, the least commonly seen of the primitive markings Dorsal striping does not guarantee the horse carries the dun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) inhibits vaccinia virus intermediate transcription in the absence of the viral B1 kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is unknown if the presence of the hidden viral genes were the result of laboratory contamination or a possible recombinant product of the resultant organism. (slashdot.org)