• viruses
  • Unique among herpesviruses, the lytic cycle of KSHV is not only required for the production of progeny viruses, but also contribute to the viral oncogenesis including the development of KS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Being obligate intracellular parasites, viruses heavily depend on host cell structures and functions to complete their life cycle, and they also use the translational apparatus of the infected cell to express their proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Viruses consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by one or more proteins. (gkhub.info)
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites: they can replicate only within cells since their nucleic acids do not encode the many enzymes necessary for protein, carbohydrate, or lipid metabolism and for the generation of highenergy phosphates. (gkhub.info)
  • Viruses have from a few to several hundred genes.These genes may be in a single-strand or double-strand DNA genome or in a single-strand sense, a single-strand or segmented antisense, or a double-strand segmented RNA genome. (gkhub.info)
  • Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the Cytomegalovirus genus of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all herpes viruses, HCMV harbors the most genes dedicated to altering (evading) innate and adaptive immunity in the host and represents a lifelong burden of antigenic T cell surveillance and immune dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAST proteins are coded for by members of the nonenveloped reoviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a shift in the ORF is not universally deleterious, as many viruses capitalize on this phenomenon by using a programmed ribosomal frameshift (PRF) to translate several proteins from the same sequence, thereby maximizing the storage capacity of their genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, many viruses (including HIV-1) are categorized as having a polycistronic genome, meaning they employ multiple active ORF's in a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major classes of methods are those that use recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and those that use naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Defects in DNA repair genes cause genetic instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, and accumulation of mutations, leading ultimately to neoplastic transformation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombination between homologous retroviral sequences has also contributed to gene shuffling and the generation of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now that the genetic material of the virus has been inserted, it can be said that the host cell has been modified to contain new genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If genetic material happens to be inserted in the middle of one of the original genes of the host cell, this gene will be disrupted (insertional mutagenesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding domains (HC). (mdpi.com)
  • ERV insertions have also been shown to generate alternative splice sites either by direct integration into the gene, as with the human leptin hormone receptor, or driven by the expression of an upstream LTR, as with the phospholipase A-2 like protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fibers to the host CAR adhesion receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • assembly
  • Here, we discuss what is known about influenza virus assembly and budding, focusing on the viral and host factors that are involved in the determination of viral morphology. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophage P2 : genes involved in baseplate assembly. (diva-portal.org)
  • The C -terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. (mdpi.com)
  • antiviral
  • Pharmaceutical intervention of any of the three steps can break the chain of viral life cycle and serve as antiviral strategies for treatment of virally associated human diseases or cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral non-structural NS1 protein is a multifunctional virulence factor that interfere IFN-mediated antiviral response. (genome.jp)
  • NS1 further inhibits the activation of IFN-induced antiviral genes. (genome.jp)
  • mRNA
  • Additionally, because the HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift signal relies on interactions between the viral mRNA and the host translational machinery, it is likely a more stable therapeutic target, because any selective pressure caused by a therapeutic compound would have to occur on the evolutionary time scale of the host instead of the rapidly evolving HIV-1 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleocapsid
  • citation needed] Teguments are rarely[citation needed] haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the nucleocapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Even though a possibility of a viral cause has been eliminated in bronchoalveolar cancer, understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to the transformation of lung epithelia by JSRV may be of interest in the context of therapeutic approaches in human lung cancers in general and bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma (BAC) in particular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Achieving this goal relies on a thorough comprehension of the processes in the viral life cycle and the underlying mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. (mdpi.com)
  • relatively conserved
  • The HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift signal has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the HIV-1 virus due to the requirement of the programmed ribosomal frameshift for the regulation of the Gag/Gag-Pol protein ratio and the relatively conserved structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The viral non-coding RNA, PAN, was demonstrated to play a central role in the epigenetic regulation by serving as a guide RNA that brought chromatin remodeling enzymes to the promoters of RTA and other lytic genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, a novel dimension of regulation by microPeptides emerged and has been shown to regulate RTA expression at the protein level. (frontiersin.org)
  • The HIV-1 virus requires a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift signal (the HIV-1 Ribosomal Frameshift Signal) for the expression of the Pol gene, which is an example of a cis-acting element of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERVs are a subclass of a type of gene called a transposon, which can be packaged and moved within the genome to serve a vital role in gene expression and in regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Following integration, expression of JSRV RNA from the viral promoter in the LTR is controlled by the host transcriptional machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • We constructed a hybrid viral vector composed of a helper-dependent adenovirus containing an SFV replicon under the transcriptional control of AFP promoter and a transgene driven by SFV subgenomic promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Solo LTRs and LTRs associated with complete retroviral sequences have been shown to act as transcriptional elements on host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • retroviruses
  • The proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol, Pro and Env) have the same function regardless of the specific virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERVs can also be partially excised from the genome by a process known as recombinational deletion, in which recombination between the identical sequences that flank newly integrated retroviruses results in deletion of the internal, protein-coding regions of the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Sense-strand RNA genomes can be translated directly into protein. (gkhub.info)
  • Sections of the NP, VP35 and the L genes from filoviruses have been identified as endogenous in the genomes of several groups of small mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenovirus
  • The ancestor of the poxviruses is not known but structural studies suggest it may have been an adenovirus or a species related to both the poxviruses and the adenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Immunosuppression, unbalanced inflammatory cytokines, and other viral co-infections also lead to the reactivation of KSHV. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transfer of genes encoding immunostimulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), to tumors has been used with remarkable success to eliminate cancer in animal models ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • vectors
  • Hybrid vectors containing murine interleukin-12 ( mIL-12 ) genes or reporter gene LacZ showed very specific and high-level expression of transgenes in AFP-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in an in vivo hepatocellular carcinoma animal model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This new type of hybrid vectors may provide a potent and safe tool for cancer gene therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, vectors being able to generate high levels of transgenic proteins in the tumor and of stimulating more intense antitumor responses should be developed ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene therapy trials using retroviral vectors to treat X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) represent the most successful application of gene therapy to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Diagnosis of FCV is difficult without specific tests, because the signs are similar to other feline respiratory diseases, especially feline viral rhinotracheitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The DNA molecule is left free in the nucleus of the host cell, and the instructions in this extra DNA molecule are transcribed just like any other gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give rise to an ERV, which can later become fixed in the gene pool of the host population. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • These are structural analogues of sialic acid, and work to inhibit the enzymatic action of NA, thus retaining newly formed virus on the host cells. (springer.com)
  • The question of how far the NP gene can cross the species barrier by reassortment and become adapted by mutation to the new host has been discussed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is caused by direct viral invasion of epithelium and endothelium and secondary host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in contrast to the more variable, terminally located genes that have been shown to encode a diverse array of proteins involved in host range restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host translation shutoff performed by the viral 100K protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this host cell divides later, its descendants will all contain the new genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • In the design of such a vector to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, we took advantage of ( a ) the high infectivity of adenoviruses for hepatic cells, ( b ) the high level of protein expression and proapoptotic properties that characterize Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon, and ( c ) tumor selectivity provided by α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The majority of these elements are inserted in the sense direction to their corresponding genes, but there has been evidence of LTRs acting in the antisense direction and as a bidirectional promoter for neighboring genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few cases, the LTR functions as the major promoter for the gene. (wikipedia.org)