• Tumor
  • Colocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGF-R β ) reduces pericyte ensheathment of tumor vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to healthy vessels, tumor vessels are immature, often mal-shaped, irregular, and have a tortuous structure with a leaky endothelial cell lining [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The instability of tumor blood vessels is associated with the absence of a smooth muscle cell sheath [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While the pathway is very detailed and not completely understood, in general, when Wnt is not present, GSK-3B (a member of the pathway) is able to phosphorylate β-catenin as a result of a complex formation that includes β-catenin, AXIN1, AXIN2, APC (a tumor suppressor gene product), CSNK1A1, and GSK3B. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRADD gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • IFN type II binds to IFNGR, which consists of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 chains and has a different receptor than type I IFN. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a metabolite of testosterone, and a more potent androgen than testosterone in that it binds more strongly to androgen receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • IL-23 is a heterodimeric protein composed of a p19 subunit and a p40 subunit, whereas IL-12, an important cytokine for Th1 cell differentiation, is formed when the p40 subunit dimerizes with p35 ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7, also known as 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit Rpn8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSMD7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATPs) in order to facilitate the association between 19S and 20S particles, as well as to cause confirmation changes of alpha subunit C-terminals that form the substate entrance of 20S complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms the pore through which calcium enters the cell and determines most of the channel's properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • In addition to the pruning of immature blood vessels, inhibition of VEGF expression also increases pericyte cell coverage and vessel maturation [ 25 , 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell membranes are generally impermeable to ions, thus they must diffuse through the membrane through transmembrane protein channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opening and closing of the channels are triggered by changing ion concentration, and hence charge gradient, between the sides of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane-spanning segments, designated S1-S6, all take the form of alpha helices with specialized functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the four central α-subunits, there are also regulatory β-subunits, with oxidoreductase activity, which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α-subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This movement of ions down their concentration gradients subsequently generates an electric current sufficient to depolarize the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each domain contains 6 membrane spanning alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single transmembrane domain of 22 (mostly) non-polar residues crosses the plasma membrane in a single alpha helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha II-spectrin is expressed in a variety of tissues, and is highly expressed in cardiac muscle at Z-disc structures, costameres and at the sarcolemma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac tissue, alpha II-spectrin is found in myocytes at Z-discs, costameres, and the sarcolemma membrane, and in cardiac fibroblasts along the surface of the cytoskeletal network. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Phage display was first described by George P. Smith in 1985, when he demonstrated the display of peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of filamentous phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoter
  • Lower methylation of a promoter CpG site at the TSP50 gene was detected in women with higher BPA exposure ( P = 0.005), and again an inverse correlation was identified ( r = − 0.51, P = 0.001). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • however the Tet-On 3G transactivator is expressed from an EF1-alpha promoter instead of a CMV promoter. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
  • Exon 1 contains a signal sequence that localises the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Portions of the cytosolic sequence have been found in other lipoprotein receptors, as well as in more distant receptor relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, a cardiac-specific, 21 amino acid sequence insert in the 21st spectrin repeat, termed alpha II-cardi+, was identified as an insert that modulates affinity of alpha II-spectrin for binding beta-spectrins and regulates myocyte growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At this point, β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • locus
  • At 4.7 million nucleotides in length and ~300 genes the locus had resisted the effects of recombination, either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire haplotype, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin
  • DR reduced microvessel density and VEGF expression in the astrocytoma, while increasing recruitment of pericytes, positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin ( α -SMA). (hindawi.com)
  • subunits
  • Our group is trying to understand how TCR subunits come together to form a receptor that can signal T lymphocytes. (openwetware.org)
  • We are performing fluorescence resonance transfer (FRET) experiments with fluorescently labelled TCR subunits using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to address the stoichiometry of this receptor complex during and in the absence of signaling. (openwetware.org)
  • CD3 delta knockout mice have double positive (DP) T cell precursors that express both CD4 and CD8 molecules, whereas knockouts of the other TCR subunits cannot advance to this stage of development. (openwetware.org)
  • 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent
  • Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance between genes of about 200,000 nts, which means that over 250 generations (~5000 years) one expects 1/2 of adjacent genes to have new gene-alleles, unless the genes are small and very close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • The LDLR gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in alpha II-spectrin have been associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-5, and alpha II-spectrin may be a valuable biomarker for Guillain-Barré syndrome and infantile congenital heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal models of disease and injury, alpha II-spectrin has been implicated in diverse functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some disease like coeliac disease primarily associate with certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a high affinity calcium ion-binding protein that is structurally and functionally similar to calmodulin and troponin C. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in muscle relaxation. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity . (genecards.org)
  • expression
  • Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • Re-programming by new gene expression is important for the development of the thymocyte precursors of T cells in the thymus and for the response of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs. (openwetware.org)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha II-spectrin gene expression has been shown to be upregulated in cardiac fibroblasts in response to Angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated protein expression of alpha II-spectrin has been detected in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the LDL receptor are known to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 5 broad classes of mutation of the LDL receptor: Class 1 mutations affect the synthesis of the receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Class 2 mutations prevent proper transport to the Golgi body needed for modifications to the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class 3 mutations stop the binding of LDL to the receptor. (wikipedia.org)