• species
  • The histone H3 proteins have been extensively characterized in many plant species. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is the first example of cross-species gene regulation observed in a parasitic plant. (psu.edu)
  • This cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (psu.edu)
  • The gene that codes for this clotting protein has a very similar sequence across many plant species, and the researchers showed that the microRNA from dodder targets regions of the gene sequence that are the most highly conserved across plants. (psu.edu)
  • Because of this, dodder can probably silence this clotting protein in, and therefore parasitize, a wide variety of plant species. (psu.edu)
  • Along with previous examples of small RNA exchange between fungi and plants, our results imply that this cross-species gene regulation may be more widespread in other plant-parasite interactions," said Axtell. (psu.edu)
  • White Rot Fungi's Size Explained by Breadth of Gene Families Involved "Armillaria species are some of the most devastating forest pathogens, responsible for forest decline in many temperate regions. (doe.gov)
  • A large number of R genes have been characterized from numerous plant species that collectively confer resistance to a wide range of pathogens, including viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, and even to some nematodes and insects. (plantcell.org)
  • Another ramification of this observation is that the isolation of NBS-LRR R genes from other species based on degenerate primers may miss entire subgroups of R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • This is different from the patterns of evolution of these genes in other plant species. (plantcell.org)
  • The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, the control and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. (scielo.br)
  • With the advent of biotechnology, selection became possible directly in the genotype by means of molecular marker techniques and by gene introduction into unrelated species through recombinant DNA technology. (scielo.br)
  • Hooft van Huijsduijnen RAM, Alblas SW, De Rijk RH, Bol JF (1986a) Induction by salicylic acid of pathogenesis-related proteins and resistance to alfalfa mosaic virus infection in various plant species. (springer.com)
  • The assailant utilizes a highly sophisticated method of disarming its victims involving cross-species gene manipulation that has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonphagotrophic mechanisms have been seen in the transmission of transposable elements, plastid-derived endosymbiotic gene transfer, prokaryote-derived gene transfer, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA transfer, cross-species hybridization events, and gene transfer between mitochondrial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These features include: inconsistency between phylogeny across genetic elements, high DNA or amino acid similarity from phylogenetically distant organisms, irregular distribution of genetic elements in a variety of species, similar genes shared among species within a specific habitat or geography independent of their phylogenetic relationship, and gene characteristics inconsistent with the resident genome such as high guanine and cytosine content, codon usage, and introns. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a seed laboratory for testing seed quality for local use and for export, and a plant gene bank to collect, preserve, and evaluate plant species indigenous to Israel, including landraces and primitive cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene targeting methods are established for several model organisms and may vary depending on the species used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Despite the wealth of information on the structure and function of NBS-LRR genes that has come from numerous primary research and review articles in recent years, this comprehensive analysis offers novel insights into genome evolution in general and R gene evolution in particular and provides a useful World Wide Web-based resource for other researchers in the field. (plantcell.org)
  • started their analysis by manually reannotating all previously identified NBS-LRR genes and searching the genome sequence for genes missed in the earlier annotations. (plantcell.org)
  • found 51 CC-NBS-LRR-encoding (CNL) genes and 92 TIR-NBS-LRR-type (TNL) genes in the Columbia genome, plus 6 additional genes that lacked a TIR or a CC region but were classified as having TIR-type (2 genes) or CC-type (4 genes) NBS regions. (plantcell.org)
  • Lübberstedt, Thomas 2015-10-01 00:00:00 Increasing knowledge of plant genome sequences requires the development of more reliable and efficient genetic approaches for genotype-phenotype validation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Functional identification of plant genes is generally achieved by a combination of creating genetic modifications and observing the according phenotype, which begins with forward-genetic methods represented by random physical and chemical mutagenesis and move towards reverse-genetic tools as targeted genome editing. (deepdyve.com)
  • A phylogeny was constructed from 1689 identified genes and all homologs available from the rice genome (3177 gene families). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant shikimate pathway enzymes share similarities to prokaryote homologs and could have ancestry from a plastid progenitor genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Plant Genome 9, published online March 11, 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of DNA samples allowed scientists to work on the Human Genome Project, which maps out many of the genes on human DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans the relevant genes are called GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2), and there are also at least 8 GLDH pseudogenes in the human genome as well, probably reflecting microbial influences on eukaryote evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970 Hamilton Smiths lab discovered restriction enzymes, enabling scientists to isolate genes from an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Plant nucleosomes are composed of a protein octamer that contains two molecules of each of the core histone proteins: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant resistance ( R ) genes encode proteins that mediate the recognition of corresponding pathogen-encoded avirulence (Avr) proteins, triggering localized cell death (the hypersensitive response) and systemic acquired resistance. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins appear to function principally (perhaps exclusively) in signaling associated with the recognition of and resistance to pathogens and represent the largest of five known classes of R proteins (reviewed by Dangl and Jones, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Regulatory sequences in two of the corresponding genes were analysed and three of the inducible genes were constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco to test a putative role of the encoded proteins in defence mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Keller B, Sauer N, Lamb CJ (1988) Glycine-rich cell wall proteins in bean: gene structure and association of the protein with the vascular system. (springer.com)
  • Two of these genes (Tfm7 and Tfm5) have been characterized more extensively and their sequence indicates that they encode proteins corresponding to a proline-rich protein (PRP) and a glycine-rich protein (GRP). (deepdyve.com)
  • As a means to understanding the functional significance and the transcriptional contribution of these tissue-limited proteins during development, we constructed promoter-reporter gene fusions to identify which cell types express each of these sequences. (deepdyve.com)
  • In work there he cloned the E. coli LexA repressor and showed how it controlled the cell's response to DNA damage, used LexA as a repressor in yeast, and created fusion proteins that used LexA to bring portions of yeast Gal4 and other transcription regulatory proteins to synthetic reporter genes in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins in eukaryotes, and development of chimeric proteins containing prokaryotic DNA binding domains, enabled identification of other transcription regulatory domains and gene regulatory technologies including tetracycline-repressor controlled transcriptional repression and the Gal4 and LexA UAS systems used in other model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins and use of them in chimeric proteins to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes was the subject of basic patents (including U.S. Patent 4,833,080, Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression, with Mark Ptashne). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. (bio.net)
  • GUS protein produced in transgenic plants by both promoter-reporter gene constructs was detected in most tissues of the fruit including the pericarp, columella, and placental tissues of young immature fruit through the mature green stage. (deepdyve.com)
  • Plants
  • Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. (nsf.gov)
  • Plant cells, plant tissues, plant seed and whole plants containing the above DNA sequences are also claimed. (google.com)
  • 8. A method according to claim 3, wherein the plants are cotton plants, the transiently active promoter is a LEA promoter, the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences, the first gene encodes RIP, the second gene encodes CRE, and sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (google.com)
  • Unique in explaining the subject from a plant perspective, it highlights the importance of key processes, many first discovered in plants, that impact how plants develop and interact with the environment. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • If researchers can find ways to capitalize on this mutant version of the plant and alter this gene without compromising the structural integrity of the wood, they can begin the process of developing plants specifically designed for biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that causes major damage to crops in the U.S. and worldwide every year, can silence the expression of genes in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. (psu.edu)
  • So, with this knowledge, the dream is that we could eventually use gene editing technology to edit the microRNA target sites in the host plants, preventing the microRNAs from binding and silencing these genes. (psu.edu)
  • The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as 'the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit' (Bernardo 2002). (scielo.br)
  • Monsanto claims that in 1998, Schmeiser planted 1,030 acres with seed from his 1997 canola crop containing a gene or cell that was protected by Monsanto's 1993 (see February 23, 1993 ) patent on glyphosate-resistant plants and that he did so without permission from Monsanto. (historycommons.org)
  • The company further alleges that in doing so Schmeiser illegally used, reproduced, and created genes, cells, plants, and seeds containing the patent-protected genes and cells. (historycommons.org)
  • Terry Zakreski, Schmeiser's attorney, does not deny that the some of the canola plants in Schmeiser's 1998 crop contained Monsanto's patent-protected Roundup-resistant gene. (historycommons.org)
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that levies millions of dollars' worth of damage on crops each year is a stealthy invader with the ability to wage war on the genes of its host plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plants in ecosystems are simultaneously exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses, which restrict plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events are ancient and rare, but they may have provided important gene functions leading to wider substrate use and habitat spread for plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecological association can facilitate horizontal gene transfer in plants and fungi and is an unstudied factor in shared evolutionary histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most horizontal gene transfers from fungi into plants predate the rise of land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen candidate plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events were identified, nine of which showed infrequent patterns of transfer between plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • His highest cited paper is "Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants" at 355 times, according to Google Scholar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court heard the question of whether Schmeiser's intentionally growing genetically modified plants constituted "use" of Monsanto's patented genetically modified plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the question of patent rights and the farmer's right to use seed taken from his fields, Monsanto said that because they hold a patent on the gene, and on canola cells containing the gene, they have a legal right to control its use, including the intentional replanting of seed collected from plants with the gene which grew accidentally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court wrote: "Thus a farmer whose field contains seed or plants originating from seed spilled into them, or blown as seed, in swaths from a neighbour's land or even growing from germination by pollen carried into his field from elsewhere by insects, birds, or by the wind, may own the seed or plants on his land even if he did not set about to plant them. (wikipedia.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plant's root growth. (phys.org)
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant polymer xylan, a principal component of cell walls in woody biomass that make it resistant to biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • In their paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers identified a mutant GXMT1 plant that produces structurally modified xylan that is more easily released when the biomass is treated with hot water. (phys.org)
  • The researchers sequenced all of the microRNAs in tissue from the parasite alone, the host plant alone, and a combination of two. (psu.edu)
  • By identifying the bacterial genes that can alter how well microbes can colonize a plant, researchers can develop targeted approaches to improve plant health and growth for a number of applications, including increased biomass yield for biofuel production. (doe.gov)
  • First the researchers inserted a gene for the blue plant pigment delphinidin cloned from the pansy into a purplish-red Old Garden rose 'Cardinal de Richelieu', resulting in a dark burgundy rose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers then used RNA interference (RNAi) technology to depress all other color production by endogenous genes by blocking a crucial protein in color production, called dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and adding a variant of that protein that would not be blocked by the RNAi but that would allow the color of the delphinidin to show. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (google.com)
  • Localization and deletion analyses of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal tail is essential and sufficient for triggering the cell death phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results deliver insight into the mechanisms underlying the histone-triggered cell death phenotype and provide a foundation for further studying the variations of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes in switchgrass. (frontiersin.org)
  • The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown, i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. (scielo.br)
  • Advanced vocational training of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possible experiments. (scielo.br)
  • regulation
  • However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. (scielo.br)
  • Some success has been achieved, but much remains to be done and recent findings on gene action and regulation allow the identification of some difficulties, particularly with regard to biotechnological methods, to contribute effectively to the establishment of new cultivars. (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this review is to approach the changing concept of genes and specifically discuss the implications of current insights into gene regulation and action on the work of plant breeders in the coming years. (scielo.br)
  • The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Roger Brent (born December 28, 1955) is an American biologist known for his work on gene regulation and systems biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • EXPRESSION
  • Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. (bio.net)
  • Please mention Plant Gene Expression Position in your cover letter. (bio.net)
  • RNA-seq data derived from lowland cultivar Alamo and upland cultivar Dacotah allowed us to identify SNPs in the histone H3 genes and compare their differential gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The parasite inserts microRNAs into the host that can silence the expression of host genes. (psu.edu)
  • We were able to show that, in addition to the nutrients that flow into dodder from the host plant across the haustoria, dodder passes microRNAs into its host plant that regulate the expression of host genes in a very direct way. (psu.edu)
  • Dodder seems to turn on the expression of these microRNAs when it comes into contact with the host plant," said James H. Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science at Virginia Tech and another author of the paper. (psu.edu)
  • Memelink J (1988) Altered gene expression in T-DNA transformed tobacco tissues. (springer.com)
  • Accompanying these developmental changes are dramatic differences in gene expression, with a subset of genes being expressed early and a subset being expressed later in development. (deepdyve.com)
  • Expression analysis during development indicates that the gene encoding the PRP may be down-regulated by ethylene. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence and style-specific expression of a novel proline-rich protein gene from Nicotiana alata. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chakrabarti, M., Dinkins, R. D., and Hunt, A. G. (2016) De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover (Trifolium pratense). (wikipedia.org)
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer research often focuses on prokaryotes because of the abundant sequence data from diverse lineages, and because it is assumed not to play a significant role in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-fungus interactions could play a part in a multi-horizontal gene transfer pathway among many other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungus-plant-mediated horizontal gene transfer can occur via phagotrophic mechanisms (mediated by phagotrophic eukaryotes) and nonphagotropic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer occurs between microorganisms sharing overlapping ecological niches and associations like parasitism or symbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis incorporates the "continual hypothesis", which states that horizontal gene transfer is constantly occurring in operational genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer could take place during plant infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the phylogenetic analysis, horizontal gene transfer events could have contributed to the L-fucose permease sugar transporter, zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase, membrane transporter, phospholipase/carboxylesterase, iucA/iucC family protein in siderophore biosynthesis, DUF239 domain protein, phosphate-response 1 family protein, a hypothetical protein similar to zinc finger (C2H2-type) protein, and another conserver hypothetical protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom have their ancient origins in eukaryotes or were conveyed by eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction enzymes likely evolved from a common ancestor and became widespread via horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • zinc finger nu
  • Zinc finger nucleases have also been used in a mouse model of haemophilia and a clinical trial found CD4+ human T-cells with the CCR5 gene disrupted by zinc finger nucleases to be safe as a potential treatment for HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of gene targeting can be significantly enhanced through the use of engineered endonucleases such as zinc finger nucleases, engineered homing endonucleases, and nucleases based on engineered TAL effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (google.com)
  • Before their discovery, GXMT1 was categorized in scientific literature as a protein of unknown function, but it is now the first enzyme shown to catalyze the formation of methyl-glucuronic acid, a key structural component of xylan in plant biomass. (phys.org)
  • microRNAs
  • Importantly, the small remnants of the messenger RNA can then function like additional microRNAs, binding to other copies of the messenger RNA, causing further gene silencing. (psu.edu)
  • What was really interesting is that the microRNAs specifically target host genes that are involved in the plant's defense against the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • By comparing the sequencing data from these three sources, they were able to identify microRNAs from dodder that had entered the plant tissue. (psu.edu)
  • They then measured the amount of messenger RNA of genes that were targeted by the dodder microRNAs and saw that the level of messenger RNA from the host was reduced when the dodder microRNAs were present. (psu.edu)
  • The scientists investigated the parasite's microRNAs as they entered the host and discovered that microRNAs are shutting off specific genes in the host plant. (eurekalert.org)
  • molecular
  • In: Smith CJ (ed) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plant-pathogen interactions. (springer.com)
  • The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, which in turn, orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to maneuver stress tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • parasite
  • When a plant is attacked by a parasite it initiates a number of defense mechanisms. (psu.edu)
  • Evidence points to the fact that these targeted genes are the same genes a parasite would need to silence in order to establish dominance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Monsanto
  • Though Canada's Plant Breeders' Rights Act protects the intellectual property rights of seed developers, Monsanto felt a patent would provide more protection since it would deny farmers the right to save and re-use seeds containing the company's patented genes and cells. (historycommons.org)
  • Whether Schmeiser's possession of the gene was a result of deliberate action or uninvited contamination has no bearing on the question of infringement, according to Monsanto. (historycommons.org)
  • mechanisms
  • An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to sudden death syndrome. (phys.org)
  • Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (innovations-report.com)
  • scientists
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean ( Glycine max ) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have also been raised as potential issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mosses are haploid organisms, regenerating moss filaments (protonema) can directly be screened for gene targeting, either by treatment with antibiotics or with PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • canola
  • Schmeiser claimed that he did not plant the initial Roundup Ready canola in 1997, and that his field of custom-bred canola had been accidentally contaminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (google.com)
  • specific
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (google.com)
  • Samples from the DNA bank have been used to identify patterns and determine which genes lead to specific disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene targeting requires the creation of a specific vector for each gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene trapping is based on random insertion of a cassette while gene targeting targets a specific gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since blue roses do not exist in nature, as roses lack the specific gene that has the ability to produce a "true blue" color, blue roses are traditionally created by dyeing white roses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • The big news is that we now have evidence of a function for RNA that is being exchanged between dodder and its quarry," said Jim Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, an author of the paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • The first evidence of plant domestication comes from emmer and einkorn wheat found in pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages in Southwest Asia dated about 10,500 to 10,100 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is controlled through ADP-ribosylation, a covalent modification carried out by the gene sirt4. (wikipedia.org)
  • breeders
  • This article discusses possible implications of new insights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. (scielo.br)
  • In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. (scielo.br)
  • 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept will affect the work of breeders in the future. (scielo.br)
  • Candidates
  • York explained that the problem with many biomass plant candidates is not that they are difficult to grow or harvest, but that they are difficult to process. (phys.org)
  • intentional
  • It asserts that the mere action of planting seeds containing Monsanto's patented genes and cells-their presence intentional or not-infringed on the company's patent. (historycommons.org)
  • Sciences
  • The second , published in November 2016 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, presented the discovery that parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from their prey and then use those genes against the host plant. (eurekalert.org)
  • overexpression
  • Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of switchgrass histone H3 and CENH3 genes in N. benthamiana could trigger cell death of the transformed plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • pGreenII 0229 62-SK is derived from pGreenII 0229, the LacZ blue/white cloning selection has been replaced with a 35S-MCS-CaMV cassette that allows the insertion of a gene of interest into a 35S overexpression cassette. (wikipedia.org)
  • advances
  • Previously used to engineer rat cell models, advances in gene targeting technologies are enabling the creation of a new wave of isogenic human disease models. (wikipedia.org)