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  • encode
  • In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? (biologists.org)
  • similar
  • We show that overexpression of Xlim5 in prospective endoderm cells is sufficient to impair sorting of animal cells from vegetal cells but is not sufficient (at similar doses) to induce ectoderm-specific genes. (mysciencework.com)
  • differentiation
  • Accumulating evidence has suggested that homeodomain-containing proteins play critical roles in regulating the tissue-specific gene expression essential for tissue differentiation and in determining the temporal and spatial patterns of development. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, the MyoD gene family of skeletal muscle-specific transcription factors plays a critical role in skeletal muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 13 Many non- Hox class homeobox genes have been identified to date, and some of them, eg, Pit-1 , 14 TTF-1 (also called Nkx-2.1) , 15 16 or Gtx , 17 show restricted expression patterns in specific tissues or cell types, suggesting their role in the differentiation of the tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Homeodomains are also found in genes other than the HOX family, including transcription factors involved in developmental processes such as pluripotency and differentiation. (qiagen.com)
  • Genes of the LIM homeobox (Lhx) family perform fundamental roles in tissue-specific differentiation and body patterning during development in both vertebrates and invertebrates [ 21 , 22 ] (summarized in Additional file 1 , Table S1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The homeoprotein SIX1 controls cellular senescence through the regulation of p16INK4A and differentiation-related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeotic
  • During development, the homeobox gene Cdx2 exerts a homeotic function, providing the positional information necessary for correct specification of the midgut endoderm. (bmj.com)
  • 1990
  • 1990 ) Inheritance and expression of chimeric genes in the progeny of transgenic maize plants. (biologists.org)
  • Cdx2
  • This study provides the first experimental evidence that Cdx2 is a tumour suppressor gene involved in cancer progression in the distal colon. (bmj.com)
  • Knockout mice for the Cdx2 gene undergo compaction, but lose the TE epithelial integrity during the late blastocyst stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeodomain
  • Supplementary Fig. 1 Arbitrarily rooted phylogenetic tree of ANTP class genes generated by maximum likelihood based on homeodomain sequences. (springer.com)
  • The homeobox genes are molecularly characterized by the presence of a 180-nucleotide sequence element, the homeobox, which encodes a 60-amino acid structural motif, the homeodomain. (hindawi.com)
  • Being a LIM homeodomain family member, LIN-11 is likely to function as a transcriptional regulator of vulval cell-type specific genes. (biologists.org)
  • Homeobox (HOX) genes encode a group of homeodomain-containing transcription factors. (qiagen.com)
  • Söderman, Eva 2004-12-30 00:00:00 The Arabidopsis thaliana homeodomain leucine-zipper gene ATHB7, which is active specifically under water deficit conditions, is proposed to act as a negative regulator of growth (Söderman et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene, with only one of the isoforms containing the homeodomain region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The homeobox genes are essential in organizing the body plan of an organism and all contain the same conserved homeodomain of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Amplification of each isoform by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that all of the three isoforms are expressed in fetal and adult hearts and that the homeobox-containing isoform CSX1a is most abundant. (ahajournals.org)
  • Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production. (hindawi.com)
  • regulate
  • These data suggest that prx-1 and prx-2 coordinately regulate gene expression in cells that contribute to the distal aspects of the mandibular arch mesenchyme and that prx-1 and prx-2 play a role in the maintenance of cell fate within the craniofacial mesenchyme. (biologists.org)
  • amphioxus
  • Amphioxus possesses at least one member for all of the 96 homeobox gene families inferred to be present in the common ancestor of chordates, including representatives of the Msxlx, Bari, Abox, Nk7, Ro, and Repo gene families that have been lost from tunicates and vertebrates. (springer.com)
  • The analysis reveals not only the repertoire of amphioxus homeobox genes but also gives insight into the evolution of chordate homeobox genes. (springer.com)
  • These genes were first shown to be arranged into a physically-linked chromosomal cluster in amphioxus, an invertebrate with a single member of each of the three gene families. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • 14 18 Therefore, a homeobox gene of the non- Hox class whose expression is restricted to specific cell lineages may be of interest as a candidate for a "cell-type commitment" gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. (hindawi.com)
  • Crx and retina and anterior neural fold homeobox ( Rax )) [ 14 , 18 ], or expression levels may start to increase even after or concomitant with the ontogenetic onset of melatonin synthesis (e.g. (hindawi.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for homeobox gene research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • In this report we demonstrate that the paralogous gene, ATHB12, has a similar expression pattern and function. (deepdyve.com)
  • High-level expression of either gene also resulted in a delay in inflorescence stem elongation growth and caused plants to develop rosette leaves with a more rounded shape, shorter petioles, and increased branching of the inflorescence stem. (deepdyve.com)
  • paralogous gene, ATHB12, has a similar expression pattern and function. (deepdyve.com)
  • A related gene, prx-2, demonstrated overlapping expression with prx-1. (biologists.org)
  • Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Nematostella , Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Noto acts downstream of the genes Foxa2 and T, and its expression is absent in embryos with mutant forms of Foxa2 and T. However, a direct relationship for the regulation of Noto expression by Foxa2 and T has not yet been confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also interspecies variation in gene expression patterns in early embryos The ICM and the TE will generate distinctly different cell types as implantation starts and embryogenesis continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comethylation of HOX genes, including HOXA6, leads to the dysfunction of tumor suppression genes by reducing gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • 2003). "Overexpression of translocation-associated fusion genes of FGFRI, MYC, NPMI, and DEK, but absence of the translocations in acute myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Gene family support nodes are shown, except in cases where these are not recovered as monophyletic (Hox families, NK2, NK4, and Vent) due to uneven rates of sequence evolution and complex histories. (springer.com)
  • The goal of any scheme is to mirror evolutionary diversification, so that 'closely related' genes are placed in the same gene family, and related gene families are placed in the same gene class or other higher grouping. (highbeam.com)
  • This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lim gene family is a subfamily of homeobox genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis , and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1994
  • 1994 ) The TTG gene is required to specify epidermal cell fate and cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root. (biologists.org)
  • processes
  • The cardiovascular system undergoes extensive remodeling during embryogenesis and disease states such as atherosclerosis and tumor-induced angiogenesis, and homeobox genes may play an important role in regulating these processes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, homeobox genes have been detected in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and they are implicated in pathological processes such as arterial restenosis after balloon angioplasty and tumor-induced angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • HOX gene dysregulation can also affect biological processes such as apoptosis, proliferation, and signal transduction during oncogenesis. (qiagen.com)