• FGF4
  • Studies using Fgf4 gene knockout mice showed developmental defects in embryos both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that FGF4 facilitates the survival and growth of the inner cell mass during the postimplantation phase of development by acting as an autocrine or paracrine ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the Fgf4 gene compensates for the loss of the Fgf8 gene, revealing that FGF4 and FGF8 perform similar functions in limb skeleton patterning and limb development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of zebrafish Fgf4 knockdown embryos demonstrated that when Fgf4 signaling is inhibited, randomized left-right patterning of the liver, pancreas, and heart takes place, showing that Fgf4 is a crucial gene involved in developing left-right patterning of visceral organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early stages of limb development ectopic expression of several genes, including Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 (Fgf4), was found in Dorking hindlimbs. (ufl.edu)
  • FGFs
  • Members FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, and FGF14, also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functions compared to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the ZPA and Fibroblast Growth Factors (Fgfs) from the AER. (ufl.edu)
  • FGF19
  • Several FXR / bile acid response elements have been identified in the FGF19 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In primary bile acid diarrhea, absorption of bile acids is usually normal, but defective FGF19 production can produce excessive bile acid synthesis, as shown by increased levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and excessive bile acid fecal loss, indicated by reduced SeHCAT retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse Fgf15 gene is syntenic with the human FGF19 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF15 (and FGF19 in humans) function as hormones produced in response to bile acid absorption acting on the farnesoid X receptor FXR, are secreted into the portal venous circulation and bind onto the liver membrane receptor FGFR4/β-Klotho and repress bile acid synthesis by the Cyp7a1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
  • FGFR2IIIc is found in mesenchyme, which includes craniofacial bone and for this reason the mutations of this gene and isoform are associated with craniosynostosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFR3
  • Achondroplasia is due to a mutation in the FGFR3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal development FGFR3 has a negative regulatory effect on bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect is genetically dominant, with one mutant copy of the FGFR3 gene being sufficient to cause achondroplasia, while two copies of the mutant gene are invariably fatal (recessive lethal) before or shortly after birth (known as a lethal allele). (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF18 signals through fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3 to promote chondrogenesis and has been shown to cause thickening of cartilage in a murine model of osteoarthritis, and the recombinant version of it (sprifermin) will soon enter trials as a potential treatment for osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • p>Used to describe "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors and synthetic lethals as well as other techniques such as functional complementation, rescue experiments, or inferences about a gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene. (uniprot.org)
  • There is no known cure for achondroplasia even though the cause of the mutation in the growth factor receptor has been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in this gene is associated with autosomal dominant cerebral ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Mechanical regulation of perlecan expression in endothelial cells was governed by a mechanotransduction pathway requiring autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling and intracellular signaling through the ERK pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • tumorigenesis
  • Retroviral insertional mutagenesis (IM) screens provide one of the most efficient tools to identify genes involved in tumorigenesis and from there the specific oncogenic pathways involved. (springer.com)
  • MMTV-induced mammary tumorigenesis: Gene discovery, progression to malignancy and cellular pathways. (springer.com)
  • differentiation
  • The mouse homolog of this gene exhibits a restricted expression profile predominantly in the myogenic lineage, which suggested a role in muscle regeneration or differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a molecular level these signals mediate cell division, growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Gene expression profiling of neu-induced mammary tumors from transgenic mice reveals genetic and morphological similarities to ErbB2-expressing human breast cancers. (springer.com)
  • Evidence of this activity was initially gathered via targeted disruption of the homolog of the FGF5 gene in mice, which resulted in a phenotype with abnormally long hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We tested the hypothesis that floral transition is stimulated by high resource availabiltiy in Fagus crenata based on a new technique, the expression analyses of flowering genes. (jove.com)
  • We monitored the gene expression levels for 5 years and detected a cycle of on and off years, which was correlated with fluctuations of the shoot-nitrogen concentration. (jove.com)
  • Nitrogen fertilisation resulted in the significantly higher expression of flowering genes than the control, where all of the fertilised trees flowered, whereas the control did not. (jove.com)
  • This short-term expression is ideal for tissue regeneration clinical applications requiring generation of new biological structures, including promotion of new vessel growth in the heart. (medindia.net)
  • By inhibiting the expression of perlecan with an antisense vector we demonstrated that perlecan was essential to the strain-mediated effects on endothelial cell growth control. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further, we define an endothelial mechanotransduction pathway that is dependent on strain-induced autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in combination with the activation of the ERK signaling pathways, and leads to alterations in expression of growth inhibitory HSPGs. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to ectopic gene expression, a decrease in cell death in the anterior of the developing Dorking hindlimb was observed. (ufl.edu)
  • The sum of all findings is discussed within the context of establishing appropriate gene expression patterns, cell number and digit number in the developing limb. (ufl.edu)
  • Expression of this gene was detected only in fetal but not adult brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. (biologists.org)
  • Gene Expression Patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • In numerous genetic studies of long haired phenotypes of animals it has been shown that small changes in the FGF5 gene can disrupt its expression, leading to an increase in the length of the anagen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in phenotypes with extremely long hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Our findings suggest a novel feedback control mechanism in which net arterial remodeling to hemodynamic forces is controlled by a dynamic interplay between growth stimulatory signals from VSMCs and growth inhibitory signals from endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • endothelial
  • 3,4 In vitro, shear stress and stretch stimuli regulate endothelial cell production of regulatory molecules including nitric oxide, 5 reactive oxygen species, 6 inflammatory cell adhesion molecules, 7 and extracellular matrix molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Here, we show that HSPGs are a key component in an integrated feedback control loop regulating vascular remodeling through the modulation of paracrine endothelial inhibition of VSMC growth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were purchased from Cambrex, Walkersville, Md. All VSMCs were used between passage 4 and 5 and all endothelial cultures were used at passage 3 to 5. (ahajournals.org)
  • oncogenic
  • This gene was identified by its oncogenic transforming activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • To develop novel specific therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment, identification of these cancer causing genes, and subsequently the oncogenic pathways in which these genes act, is of utmost importance. (springer.com)
  • morphogenesis
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the mouse homolog suggested that this gene is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. (biologists.org)
  • chromosomal
  • This gene maps to the 165 kb WHS critical region and has also been involved in the chromosomal translocation t(4;14)(p16.3;q32.3) in multiple myelomas. (wikipedia.org)