• expression
  • The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While previous studies have identified members of this family, a recent spurt in gene expression data coupled with genome update and reannotation calls for a reassessment of the prevalence of ARF genes and their interaction networks in M. truncatula . (frontiersin.org)
  • We performed a comprehensive analysis of the M. truncatula genome and transcriptome that entailed search for novel ARF genes and the co-expression networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our investigation revealed 8 novel M. truncatula ARF (MtARF) genes, of the total 22 identified, and uncovered novel gene co-expression networks as well. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypothesizing that the Amazonian water system differences would affect the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818), this study aimed to analyze the morphometric data and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in the white and red muscle from tambaqui obtained from clear and black Amazonian water systems. (hindawi.com)
  • The changes in MRFs gene expression in muscle fibers of tambaqui from black water system provide relevant information about the environmental influence as that of water systems on gene expression of muscle growth related genes in the C. macropomum . (hindawi.com)
  • Our results showed that the physical and chemical water characteristics change the expression of genes that promote muscle growth, and these results may be also widely applicable to future projects that aim to enhance muscle growth in fish that are of substantial interest to the aquaculture. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we explore a novel approach to neurotrophic factor-based therapy by engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) that activate the expression of the endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor, and small changes in its expression levels can have profound effects on neuronal survival. (jneurosci.org)
  • To explore new strategies exploiting the neurotrophic activity of GDNF within this therapeutic window, we set out to activate GDNF expression from its endogenous gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • In fact, the majority of oncogenic signalling pathways converge on sets of TFs that ultimately control gene expression patterns, resulting in aggressive phenotype, disease progression and increased resistance to drug therapy. (els.net)
  • TFs are essential for controlling gene expression during normal physiological conditions and disease. (els.net)
  • Hallmarks of cancer, such as control of cell cycle, protection from apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and invasion are controlled by gene expression patterns and signalling pathways that are regulated by TFs. (els.net)
  • These events lead to transcription factor aberrant expression and abnormal activity and activate an intra‐cellular signalling cascade resulting in the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of target genes involved in many aspects of tumorigenesis, inflammation and proliferation survival of cancer cells and resistance to therapeutic agents. (els.net)
  • 2007) Reduced PDEF expression increases invasion and expression of mesenchymal genes in prostate cancer cells. (els.net)
  • This work therefore emphasizes the importance of local gene expression in the neural circuits responsible for specific behaviors. (phys.org)
  • In addition, Shumyatsky said that the gene is a negative regulator of microtubule formation and consequently microtubule dynamics are important for fear expression and fear learning. (phys.org)
  • Transcriptome analysis of rice roots revealed that glutamine induced the expression of at least 35 genes involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and stress responses within 30 min. (springer.com)
  • In addition to its role as a metabolic fuel, glutamine may also function as a signaling molecule to regulate gene expression in plants. (springer.com)
  • Here, we examined the differential gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors in the liver of F. gigantica -infected buffaloes, over the course of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Levels of gene expression of nine cytokines (IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12B, IL-13 and IL-17A) and four transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3, Foxp3 and ROR-γτ) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated any correlation between gene expression of these immune-regulatory factors and the severity of liver pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterizing the temporal expression profiles for host immune genes during infection should provide important information for defining how F. gigantica adapts and survives in the liver of buffaloes and how host immune responses influence F. gigantica pathogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These genes exhibit highly correlated mRNA expression across 200 experimental conditions, and are annotated to Nitrogen Catabolite Repression (NCR), the means by which yeast cells switch between using rich and poor nitrogen sources. (bioconductor.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae, two genes have a 50% chance of having a common transcription factor binder if the correlation between their expression profiles is equal to 0.84. (bioconductor.org)
  • Network edges indicate correlated expression of the two connected genes across all 200 conditions. (bioconductor.org)
  • NCR-sensitive expression is modulated by the synchronized action of four DNA-binding GATA factors . (bioconductor.org)
  • At a molecular level, expression of the gene RUNX1 is upregulated by the RUNX1 intronic cis-regulatory element (+23 RUNX1 enhancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, binding of the promoter element leads to an increased expression of ISG (Interferon-Stimulated Genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptome instability correlates significantly with reduced expression level of splicing factor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tyrosine kinase activity, in turn, initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell - a rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis, and increases in the expression of certain genes including the gene for EGFR - that ultimately lead to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection) bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. (scielo.br)
  • Putative "driver" mutations in genes encoding splicing factors---including recurrent mutations in U2AF1, which encodes a component of the U2 auxiliary factor to regulate pre-mRNA splicing---have been identified in myeloid dysplasias, related neoplasms, and lung adenocarcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Thus, denervation of the rat iris in situ does not cause the observed accumulation of NGF by increasing the level of NGF mRNA, and the increase in NGF content must be due to other factors. (rupress.org)
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • All STAT molecules are phosphorylated by receptor associated kinases, that causes activation, dimerization by forming homo- or heterodimers and finally translocate to nucleus to work as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to its receptor, type I IFNs activate multiple cellular factors that transduce the signal from the cell surface into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor has been shown to interact with epidermal growth factor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for highly conserved cellular pathways may cause subtle functional deficiencies (or proficiencies) in those pathways that could increase (or decrease) susceptibility to breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These analyses suggest a genetic complexity that may be under estimated when SNPs in single genes are analyzed or when pathway coverage is incomplete. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The association of diabetic retinopathy with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was studied on two genes: VEGF, an important mediator of neovascularisation, and MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, the studied VEGF SNPs were not associated with the risk of diabetic retinopathy, and so it is unlikely that the VEGF gene is a major locus determining the risk of diabetic retinopathy. (bmj.com)
  • Glial Cell L
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stat1 and Stat2
  • Specifically STAT1 can be activated by several ligands such as Interferon alpha (IFNa), Interferon gamma (IFNg), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Type I interferons (IFN-a, IFN-b) bind to receptors, cause signaling via kinases, phosphorylate and activate the Jak kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and also STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • 1 studied polymorphisms in the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin A genes with respect to their effect on lung function of smokers, and failed to find any association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes. (ersjournals.com)
  • subunit
  • In fact, the RUNX family is often referred to as α-subunits, together with binding of a common β-subunit CBFβ, RUNX can behave as heterodimeric transcription factors collectively called the core binding factors (CBFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, is a homodimeric glycoprotein that acts on vascular endothelium as a potent permeability-inducing agent and mitogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • characterization
  • In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2009) Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer. (els.net)
  • Several genes activated by TNF have been identified but many more require characterization. (google.com)
  • Abstract A39: Initial characterization of genetically engineered mice carrying a conditional allele of a splicing factor gene (U2AF1) commonly mutated in myeloid disorders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transcripts
  • Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also observed in the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Though in recent years many new kinds of data have become available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) - ChIP-seq and DNase I hypersensitivity regions among them - sequence matching continues to play an important role. (bioconductor.org)
  • citation needed] Legacy-1 and Legacy-2 searched for a target organism's "X-factor," the sequence of mutant genes that gave a mutant his/her superpowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • updated cancer risk factor and family cancer history information was collected from all cases and controls at the time of blood collection by telephone interview. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It belongs to the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) family of genes which are also called core binding factor-α (CBFα). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a transcription factor (TF), its DNA binding ability is encoded by the runt domain (residues 50 - 177), which is homologous to the p53 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family history: Smoking: Smoking tobacco increases the risk of AMD by two to three times that of someone who has never smoked, and may be the most important modifiable factor in its prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides EGF itself other family members include: Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) Amphiregulin (AR) Epiregulin (EPR) Epigen Betacellulin (BTC) neuregulin-1 (NRG1) neuregulin-2 (NRG2) neuregulin-3 (NRG3) neuregulin-4 (NRG4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • C. These results seem to suggest that a SNP in the BRCA2 gene may act as a low penetrance breast cancer risk allele. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A higher frequency of the AlaAla genotype (p = 0.03) and Ala16 allele (p = 0.04) of the MnSOD gene in the DR group was found when compared with the DC group. (bmj.com)
  • variants
  • Abnormal splicing variants are also thought to contribute to the development of cancer, and splicing factor genes are frequently mutated in different types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "record-holder" for alternative splicing is a D. melanogaster gene called Dscam, which could potentially have 38,016 splice variants. (wikipedia.org)