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  • proteins
  • Previously, we showed that several genes essential for seed development, including those encoding storage proteins, fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes, and transcriptional regulators (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • In a nested case-control study of 839 prevalent breast cancer cases and 1040 controls (frequency matched to cases on year of birth in 5-year strata), we evaluated 19 SNPs in eight genes coding for base excision repair (BER), BRCA1 interacting proteins and growth regulatory pathways for associations with breast cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For BRCA1 interacting proteins and BER genes, the p-values for trend were 0.008 and 0.09, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose: Mutations in genes encoding proteins from the tri-snRNP complex of the spliceosome account for more than 12% of cases of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). (ugent.be)
  • The high glucose metabolism of cancer cells is caused by a combination of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors, activation of oncogenic proteins, and the loss of the tumor suppressor function. (scirp.org)
  • This adaptive response is activated upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is mediated by three endoplasmic reticulum-resident sensors named PERK (PRKlike ER kinase), IRE1/ERN1 (Inositol Requiring Enzyme-1/Endoplasmic Reticulum to Nuclei-1) and ATF6 (Activating Transcription Factor 6), however, endoplasmic reticulum to nuclei-1 is the dominant sensor [16- (scirp.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are a class of proteins that are essential for the regulation of gene expression and for the control of protein expression in normal physiological conditions. (els.net)
  • The transcription of RUNX1 is regulated by 2 enhancers (regulatory element 1 and regulatory element 2), and these tissue specific enhancers enable the binding of lymphoid or erythroid regulatory proteins, therefore the gene activity of RUNX1 is highly active in the haematopoietic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection) bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusions: The absence of clearly pathogenic mutations in the candidate genes screened in our cohort suggests that EFTUD2, PRPF4, NHP2L1, and AAR2 are either not involved in adRP or are associated with the disease in rare instances, at least as observed in this study in patients of European and North American origin. (ugent.be)
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the mutation of the PAX 9 gene, MSX1 gene mutations have also shown to affect dental development in fetuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Díez JJ, Hernanz A, Medina S, Bayón C, Iglesias P. Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF-alpha receptor p55 in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism before and after normalization of thyroid function. (springer.com)
  • The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene (rs2010963) and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene polymorphism (rs2071559), and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (hindawi.com)
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • All STAT molecules are phosphorylated by receptor associated kinases, that causes activation, dimerization by forming homo- or heterodimers and finally translocate to nucleus to work as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to its receptor, type I IFNs activate multiple cellular factors that transduce the signal from the cell surface into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), also known as RTR (retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor) or NR6A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR6A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor has been shown to interact with epidermal growth factor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a mitogen for endothelial cells that can potentiate the growth and permeabilizing effects on endothelium of vascular endothelial growth factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, is a homodimeric glycoprotein that acts on vascular endothelium as a potent permeability-inducing agent and mitogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Marino and coworkers have recently reported that both circulating and intraplaque polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes from subjects with carotid atherosclerosis are active producers of different inflammatory mediators including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of different vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes was studied in glioma U87 cells with endoplasmic reticulum-nuclei-1 (ERN1) loss of function and its regulation by hypoxia and glutamine or glucose deprivation conditions as model of ischemia. (scirp.org)
  • tumor
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The stimulatory effect of oncogenic Ras on the induction of PlGF expression in hypoxic cells suggests that PlGF could be an important proangiogenic factor in the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fragoso JM, Vargas-Alarcón G, Jiménez-Morales S, Reyes-Hernández OD, Ramírez-Bello J. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in autoimmune diseases (AIDs): molecular biology and genetics. (springer.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor. (springer.com)
  • Overexpression of VEGFA as well as PFKFB4, PFKFB3 and hexokinase 2 is an obligatory factor of tumor cell glycolysis and increased angiogenesis and proliferation [8- (scirp.org)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as hypoxia is an important factor of tumor growth. (scirp.org)
  • 2009) Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer. (els.net)
  • polymorphisms
  • Impact of TNF-α and LTα gene polymorphisms on genetic susceptibility in Indian SLE patients. (springer.com)
  • Association of TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwanese patients. (springer.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for highly conserved cellular pathways may cause subtle functional deficiencies (or proficiencies) in those pathways that could increase (or decrease) susceptibility to breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As part of a European Union collaborative project, we have studied polymorphisms within the TNF gene in a large collection of well-characterised Caucasian COPD patients (n = 1,018) and control subjects (n = 911). (ersjournals.com)
  • Several environmental and genetic factors (i.e., hypoxia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, ischemia, and gene polymorphisms of VEGF) influence plasma VEGF levels [ 12 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among several polymorphisms of the VEGF gene, the rs2010963 (−634C/G polymorphism of the VEGF gene) and few others were reported to affect serum VEGF levels [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • platelet-derive
  • Specifically STAT1 can be activated by several ligands such as Interferon alpha (IFNa), Interferon gamma (IFNg), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Type I interferons (IFN-a, IFN-b) bind to receptors, cause signaling via kinases, phosphorylate and activate the Jak kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and also STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Hirankarn N, Avihingsanon Y, Wongpiyabovorn J. Genetic susceptibility to SLE is associated with TNF-alpha gene polymorphism -863, but not -308 and -238, in Thai population. (springer.com)
  • These analyses suggest a genetic complexity that may be under estimated when SNPs in single genes are analyzed or when pathway coverage is incomplete. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the exact mechanism by which splicing factor defects trigger photoreceptor death is not completely clear, their role in retinitis pigmentosa has been demonstrated by several genetic and functional studies. (ugent.be)
  • Core binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia is a cancer related to genetic changes in the CBF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors and smoking also play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetic disorder caused by the mutation of the PAX 9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF
  • Thus, the results of this study clearly demonstrated the downregulation of the expression of all three VEGF genes in glioma cells with ERN1 loss of function which correlates to the suppressed angiogenesis and proliferation rate of these cells. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, the effect of hypoxia and glutamine or glucose deprivation condition on the expression level of all VEGF genes is different and mainly depends on ERN1 signaling enzyme function. (scirp.org)
  • Glial Cell L
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutation
  • Recently, a study involving the missense mutation of a PAX 9 gene suggests that the loss of function due to the absence DNA binding domain is a mechanism that causes oligodontia. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • In fact, the majority of oncogenic signalling pathways converge on sets of TFs that ultimately control gene expression patterns, resulting in aggressive phenotype, disease progression and increased resistance to drug therapy. (els.net)
  • encodes
  • It encodes a protein known as CGRP (calcitonin gene related peptide). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparison of transcription factor genes of C. elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae was therefore carried out and revealed very few examples of functional gene duplication since the divergence of these species for most, but not all, transcription factor gene families. (harvard.edu)
  • It appears that certain lung cancer cells select for DNA copy number amplification and increased RNA/protein expression of these three coamplified genes for functional advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also observed in the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Seed DMVs are enriched in transcription factor (TF) genes and are decorated with histone marks that fluctuate developmentally, resembling their animal counterparts in significant ways. (pnas.org)
  • Mice knockout for the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) develop a resistan. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overexpression
  • Bandupriya HDD, Gibbings JG, Dunwell JM (2014) Overexpression of coconut AINTEGUMENTA - like gene, CnANT , promotes in vitro regeneration in transgenic Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • IRF9
  • In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (IRF9), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon regulatory factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF9 gene, previously known as ISGF3G. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Braybrook SA, Stone SL, Park S, Bui AQ, Le BH, Fischer RL, Goldberg RB, Harada JJ (2006) Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis. (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • Plants have evolved a number of transcription factors, many of which are implicated in signaling pathways as well as regulating diverse cellular functions. (springer.com)
  • The BBM gene has been implicated to play an important role as a gene marker in multiple signaling developmental pathways in plant development. (springer.com)
  • Hallmarks of cancer, such as control of cell cycle, protection from apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and invasion are controlled by gene expression patterns and signalling pathways that are regulated by TFs. (els.net)
  • prostate cancer
  • 2015) Improvements in radiographic progression‐free survival stratified by ERG gene status in metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate. (els.net)
  • 2007) Reduced PDEF expression increases invasion and expression of mesenchymal genes in prostate cancer cells. (els.net)
  • human
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. (aacrjournals.org)
  • sequences
  • Exon-PCR and Sanger methods were used to sequence the NHP2L1 and AAR2 genes, while the sequences of EFTUD2 and PRPF4 were obtained by using long-range PCRs spanning coding and non-coding regions followed by next-generation sequencing. (ugent.be)
  • proteins
  • Previously, we showed that several genes essential for seed development, including those encoding storage proteins, fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes, and transcriptional regulators (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • In a nested case-control study of 839 prevalent breast cancer cases and 1040 controls (frequency matched to cases on year of birth in 5-year strata), we evaluated 19 SNPs in eight genes coding for base excision repair (BER), BRCA1 interacting proteins and growth regulatory pathways for associations with breast cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For BRCA1 interacting proteins and BER genes, the p-values for trend were 0.008 and 0.09, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose: Mutations in genes encoding proteins from the tri-snRNP complex of the spliceosome account for more than 12% of cases of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). (ugent.be)
  • The high glucose metabolism of cancer cells is caused by a combination of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors, activation of oncogenic proteins, and the loss of the tumor suppressor function. (scirp.org)
  • This adaptive response is activated upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is mediated by three endoplasmic reticulum-resident sensors named PERK (PRKlike ER kinase), IRE1/ERN1 (Inositol Requiring Enzyme-1/Endoplasmic Reticulum to Nuclei-1) and ATF6 (Activating Transcription Factor 6), however, endoplasmic reticulum to nuclei-1 is the dominant sensor [16- (scirp.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are a class of proteins that are essential for the regulation of gene expression and for the control of protein expression in normal physiological conditions. (els.net)
  • The transcription of RUNX1 is regulated by 2 enhancers (regulatory element 1 and regulatory element 2), and these tissue specific enhancers enable the binding of lymphoid or erythroid regulatory proteins, therefore the gene activity of RUNX1 is highly active in the haematopoietic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection) bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusions: The absence of clearly pathogenic mutations in the candidate genes screened in our cohort suggests that EFTUD2, PRPF4, NHP2L1, and AAR2 are either not involved in adRP or are associated with the disease in rare instances, at least as observed in this study in patients of European and North American origin. (ugent.be)
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the mutation of the PAX 9 gene, MSX1 gene mutations have also shown to affect dental development in fetuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Díez JJ, Hernanz A, Medina S, Bayón C, Iglesias P. Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF-alpha receptor p55 in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism before and after normalization of thyroid function. (springer.com)
  • The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene (rs2010963) and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene polymorphism (rs2071559), and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (hindawi.com)
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • All STAT molecules are phosphorylated by receptor associated kinases, that causes activation, dimerization by forming homo- or heterodimers and finally translocate to nucleus to work as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to its receptor, type I IFNs activate multiple cellular factors that transduce the signal from the cell surface into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), also known as RTR (retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor) or NR6A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR6A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor has been shown to interact with epidermal growth factor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a mitogen for endothelial cells that can potentiate the growth and permeabilizing effects on endothelium of vascular endothelial growth factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, is a homodimeric glycoprotein that acts on vascular endothelium as a potent permeability-inducing agent and mitogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Marino and coworkers have recently reported that both circulating and intraplaque polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes from subjects with carotid atherosclerosis are active producers of different inflammatory mediators including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of different vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes was studied in glioma U87 cells with endoplasmic reticulum-nuclei-1 (ERN1) loss of function and its regulation by hypoxia and glutamine or glucose deprivation conditions as model of ischemia. (scirp.org)
  • tumor
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The stimulatory effect of oncogenic Ras on the induction of PlGF expression in hypoxic cells suggests that PlGF could be an important proangiogenic factor in the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fragoso JM, Vargas-Alarcón G, Jiménez-Morales S, Reyes-Hernández OD, Ramírez-Bello J. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in autoimmune diseases (AIDs): molecular biology and genetics. (springer.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor. (springer.com)
  • Overexpression of VEGFA as well as PFKFB4, PFKFB3 and hexokinase 2 is an obligatory factor of tumor cell glycolysis and increased angiogenesis and proliferation [8- (scirp.org)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as hypoxia is an important factor of tumor growth. (scirp.org)
  • 2009) Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer. (els.net)
  • polymorphisms
  • Impact of TNF-α and LTα gene polymorphisms on genetic susceptibility in Indian SLE patients. (springer.com)
  • Association of TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwanese patients. (springer.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for highly conserved cellular pathways may cause subtle functional deficiencies (or proficiencies) in those pathways that could increase (or decrease) susceptibility to breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As part of a European Union collaborative project, we have studied polymorphisms within the TNF gene in a large collection of well-characterised Caucasian COPD patients (n = 1,018) and control subjects (n = 911). (ersjournals.com)
  • Several environmental and genetic factors (i.e., hypoxia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, ischemia, and gene polymorphisms of VEGF) influence plasma VEGF levels [ 12 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among several polymorphisms of the VEGF gene, the rs2010963 (−634C/G polymorphism of the VEGF gene) and few others were reported to affect serum VEGF levels [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • platelet-derive
  • Specifically STAT1 can be activated by several ligands such as Interferon alpha (IFNa), Interferon gamma (IFNg), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Type I interferons (IFN-a, IFN-b) bind to receptors, cause signaling via kinases, phosphorylate and activate the Jak kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and also STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Hirankarn N, Avihingsanon Y, Wongpiyabovorn J. Genetic susceptibility to SLE is associated with TNF-alpha gene polymorphism -863, but not -308 and -238, in Thai population. (springer.com)
  • These analyses suggest a genetic complexity that may be under estimated when SNPs in single genes are analyzed or when pathway coverage is incomplete. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the exact mechanism by which splicing factor defects trigger photoreceptor death is not completely clear, their role in retinitis pigmentosa has been demonstrated by several genetic and functional studies. (ugent.be)
  • Core binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia is a cancer related to genetic changes in the CBF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors and smoking also play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetic disorder caused by the mutation of the PAX 9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF
  • Thus, the results of this study clearly demonstrated the downregulation of the expression of all three VEGF genes in glioma cells with ERN1 loss of function which correlates to the suppressed angiogenesis and proliferation rate of these cells. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, the effect of hypoxia and glutamine or glucose deprivation condition on the expression level of all VEGF genes is different and mainly depends on ERN1 signaling enzyme function. (scirp.org)
  • Glial Cell L
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutation
  • Recently, a study involving the missense mutation of a PAX 9 gene suggests that the loss of function due to the absence DNA binding domain is a mechanism that causes oligodontia. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • In fact, the majority of oncogenic signalling pathways converge on sets of TFs that ultimately control gene expression patterns, resulting in aggressive phenotype, disease progression and increased resistance to drug therapy. (els.net)
  • encodes
  • It encodes a protein known as CGRP (calcitonin gene related peptide). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparison of transcription factor genes of C. elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae was therefore carried out and revealed very few examples of functional gene duplication since the divergence of these species for most, but not all, transcription factor gene families. (harvard.edu)
  • It appears that certain lung cancer cells select for DNA copy number amplification and increased RNA/protein expression of these three coamplified genes for functional advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also observed in the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Seed DMVs are enriched in transcription factor (TF) genes and are decorated with histone marks that fluctuate developmentally, resembling their animal counterparts in significant ways. (pnas.org)
  • Mice knockout for the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) develop a resistan. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overexpression
  • Bandupriya HDD, Gibbings JG, Dunwell JM (2014) Overexpression of coconut AINTEGUMENTA - like gene, CnANT , promotes in vitro regeneration in transgenic Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • IRF9
  • In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (IRF9), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon regulatory factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF9 gene, previously known as ISGF3G. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Braybrook SA, Stone SL, Park S, Bui AQ, Le BH, Fischer RL, Goldberg RB, Harada JJ (2006) Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis. (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • Plants have evolved a number of transcription factors, many of which are implicated in signaling pathways as well as regulating diverse cellular functions. (springer.com)
  • The BBM gene has been implicated to play an important role as a gene marker in multiple signaling developmental pathways in plant development. (springer.com)
  • Hallmarks of cancer, such as control of cell cycle, protection from apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and invasion are controlled by gene expression patterns and signalling pathways that are regulated by TFs. (els.net)
  • prostate cancer
  • 2015) Improvements in radiographic progression‐free survival stratified by ERG gene status in metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate. (els.net)
  • 2007) Reduced PDEF expression increases invasion and expression of mesenchymal genes in prostate cancer cells. (els.net)
  • human
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. (aacrjournals.org)
  • sequences
  • Exon-PCR and Sanger methods were used to sequence the NHP2L1 and AAR2 genes, while the sequences of EFTUD2 and PRPF4 were obtained by using long-range PCRs spanning coding and non-coding regions followed by next-generation sequencing. (ugent.be)