• tumor
  • By using immunohistochemical and western blot analysis, there is an adverse correlation between TRIM2 and Bim in TAM-resistant breast tumor tissues and MCF-7R cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Since many cancers involve mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and the retinoblastoma (Rb), which deregulate the cell cycle, apoptotic mechanisms, and genomic stability, relevant GEM models which functionally inactive these genes through the expression of the Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag) have been developed for human prostate, breast and lung carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression profiles from three types of GEM tumors have been analyzed to identify both common and tumor-specific gene expression signatures for these three types of epithelial tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genes expressed in a tumor-specific manner were primarily related to cell-cell signaling/interaction and tissue structure, suggesting different roles for the stroma in tumorigenesis of these organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, α-catenin (CTNNA2) and the cadherins, CDH2 and CDH11, as well as genes involved in the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, were found to be up-regulated in the TRAMP prostate tumor model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In response to DNA damage, the encoded protein accumulates in the nucleus and binds the tumor suppressor protein p53, shuttling it out of the nucleus and repressing its ability to induce apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Traditional methods of gene prediction for annotation of genomic sequences have had problems when used to map the transcriptome, such as not producing an accurate structure of the genes and also missing transcripts entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paired-end tags (PET) exist in PET libraries with the intervening DNA absent, that is, a PET "represents" a larger fragment of genomic or cDNA by consisting of a short 5' linker sequence, a short 5' sequence tag, a short 3' sequence tag, and a short 3' linker sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragmented genomic DNA or complementary DNA (cDNA) of interest is cloned into plasmid vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of cloning, adaptors containing the endonuclease sequence are ligated to the ends of fragmented genomic DNA or cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • This study reveals that DENSPM potently activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in melanoma cells and investigates the role of this response in determining cellular outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results from gene profiling studies (reported here) with SK-MEL-28 and MALME-3M cells have focused our attention on EGR-1 signaling and the upstream MAPK pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among these processes, cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling consistently ranked as the highest-scoring Gene Ontology terms and Biocarta Pathways in both COX-2 expresser and nonexpresser cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, specific proteins and molecular pathways, affecting cell cycle progression and apoptosis, have been extensively studied and shown to be targeted by celecoxib ( 12 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fusarium oxysporum G-protein beta subunit Fgbl regulates hyphal growth, development, and virulence through multiple signalling pathways. (springer.com)
  • All Tag tumors demonstrated dysregulated expression of 120 genes, 85 of which involved p53, Rb, E2F4, and DNA modifying pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Efforts are currently directed towards a subset of genes and proteins involved in neuroprotective or neurodegenerative pathways, which are regulated in these disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • We have focused our efforts on a subset of genes/proteins involved in neuroprotective or neurodegenerative pathways, which we have shown to be regulated in the diseased brain. (stanford.edu)
  • mRNA
  • For proteases, specific probes for protease genes and their inhibitors have been developed to view expression patterns on the mRNA transcript level. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more sensitive approach to transcript analysis of a gene is quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which has also seen action in quantifying protease mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also examine the tissue distribution of the rat IAPs both on the mRNA and the protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microRNAs thus generated are short RNA molecules that regulate a wide variety of other genes by interacting with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to induce cleavage of complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) as part of the RNA interference pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The method of sequencing cDNA to find transcribed genes also runs into problems, such as failing to detect rare or very short RNA molecules, and so do not detect genes that are active only in response to signals or specific to a time frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are signal transduction molecules that have structural homology to SST2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and EGL-10 of Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the MAPK pathway ERK1/2 can activate the ets factor, Elk-1, which, in concert with serum response factor, participates in initiation of EGR-1 gene transcription (16) , thus placing EGR-1 downstream of MAPK activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene transcription is the most important regulatory mechanism by which a phenotype and functional state of a cell is determined. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The scope of celecoxib-modulated molecular alterations can best be studied by applying global approaches at the transcription and/or protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Earlier studies on chromosome 21 and 22 showed the power of tiling arrays for identifying transcription units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulate
  • Our present study aimed to investigate the effects of recombinant TRAIL on the expression of SOCS1 , a gene known to modulate the sensitivity of both immune cells and pancreatic β-cells to key inflammatory cytokines elevated in diabetes ( 7 - 10 ), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and purified human pancreatic islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Through this process one can rapidly identify active compounds, antibodies, or genes that modulate a particular biomolecular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide
  • Studies in rodents suggest that the full-length protein, secretogranin II, is involved in the packaging or sorting of peptide hormones and neuropeptides into secretory vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The full-length protein is cleaved to produce the active peptide secretoneurin, which exerts chemotaxic effects on specific cell types, and EM66, whose function is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribonuclease
  • Ribonuclease T2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASET2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ribonuclease gene is a novel member of the Rh/T2/S-glycoprotein class of extracellular ribonucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosha is a Class 2 ribonuclease III enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DROSHA (formerly RNASEN) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • the user specifies eigengene (principal component) of the expression data and treats it as a quantitative response SAM calculates a test statistic for relative difference in gene expression based on permutation analysis of expression data and calculates a false discovery rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altered expression of many of the genes by celecoxib was confirmed by quantitative PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the metabolism location of the extra-cellular matrix proteins in fugu (Takifugu rubripes), we cloned the cDNAs of the fugu gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and examined their expressions in various adult tissues using a quantitative real-time PCR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • encode
  • VCX/Y genes encode small and highly charged proteins of unknown function. (genecards.org)
  • If the retained intron is in the coding region, the intron must encode amino acids in frame with the neighboring exons, or a stop codon or a shift in the reading frame will cause the protein to be non-functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for the Wingless type MMTV integration site family of signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • RRP1B (ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B), also known as KIAA0179, is a human gene which is located on Chromosome 21. (wikipedia.org)
  • activators
  • Such proteins include splicing activators that promote the usage of a particular splice site, and splicing repressors that reduce the usage of a particular site. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGS proteins are involved in the regulation of heterotrimeric G proteins by acting as GTPase activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid metabolism
  • The results indicated that the genes such as pyruvate carboxylase, phospholipid metabolism-related protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and glycolysis, showed differential expression in mature appressoria. (springer.com)
  • Mammary tumors demonstrated alterations in genes involved in lipid metabolism and connective tissue development, while prostate tumors exhibited gene clusters involved in skeletal and muscular system development, suggesting different roles for the stroma in tumorigenesis of these organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transcriptome
  • Tiling arrays aid in transcriptome mapping as well as in discovering sites of DNA/protein interaction (ChIP-chip, DamID), of DNA methylation (MeDIP-chip) and of sensitivity to DNase (DNase Chip) and array CGH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, proteases recruited from remote sources like nearby tissues are ignored by these DNA based arrays, reiterating the need for protein based methods to confirm the presence and activity of functional enzymes when transcriptome analysis is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A method is disclosed for rapid molecular profiling of tissue or other cellular specimens by placing a donor specimen in an assigned location in a recipient array, providing copies of the array, and performing a different biological analysis of each copy. (google.com)
  • In some embodiments, the specimens may be tissue specimens from different tumors, which are subjected to multiple parallel molecular (including genetic and immunological) analyses. (google.com)
  • The results of the parallel analyses are then used to detect common molecular characteristics of the genetic disorder type, which can subsequently be used in the diagnosis or treatment of the disease. (google.com)
  • In the future, in-depth work on selected genes will determine if these genes may serve as potential molecular targets for more effective chemopreventive strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of gene expression profiles of appressorium development provides insight into the molecular basis of pathogenicity and control of this fungal plant disease. (springer.com)
  • Molecular biology /məˈlɛkjʊlər/ concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The sources of exposure include cell phones and their base stations (towers, masts and simply antennas), bluetooth, blackberry, wireless computer networks at work, schools and homes, cordless phones in most homes, even wireless baby monitors and a whole array of new products coming into the market everyday that may or may not be apparent in their wirelessness. (freewebs.com)
  • Other data suggested that sporadic or inherited genetic mutations in some critical genes regulating cell cycle, programmed cell death or differentiation and adhesion might be the actual cause of tumorigenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, genes such as PTH11 , beta subunit of G protein and SGT1 involved in cell signalling, were expressed differentially in mature appressoria. (springer.com)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that specific protein properties strongly contribute to the etiology of B cell autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate B cell autoantibody repertoire, we have examined APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy with candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia) patients ( 2 ), defined by rare monogenic defects in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene that drives the expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mammary tumors were derived from C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice, prostate tumors came from probasin/Tag (TRAMP) mice, and lung tumors were collected from Clara cell secretory protein CC10/Tag mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is a 2D array on a solid substrate (usually a glass slide or silicon thin-film cell) that assays large amounts of biological material using high-throughput screening miniaturized, multiplexed and parallel processing and detection methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is only expressed in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, where it colocalizes with cytoplasmic tubulin and microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein can now be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of systems, such as inducible promoters and specific cell-signaling factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of human VCX/Y genes. (genecards.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Recombinant TRAIL was added in vitro to primary human and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and isolated human islets to evaluate the expression of the immunoregulatory gene SOCS1 . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The general structure of all three rat IAPs (three BIR domains, linker region and a RING zinc finger) is consistent with the human and mouse proteins indicating functional conservation of these proteins (not shown). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a single copy gene that maps to 6q27, a region associated with human malignancies and chromosomal rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • FZD10 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other two human enzymes that participate in the processing and activity of miRNA are the Dicer and Argonaute proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human TMEM8B genome location and TMEM8B gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • AIRE deficiency severely reduces thymic expression of gene-products ordinarily restricted to discrete peripheral tissues, and developing T cells reactive to those gene-products are not inactivated during their development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular
  • However, whereas our knowledge of the genetic and cellular factors contributing to multifactorial autoimmune diseases is increasing, we remain largely ignorant of properties of autoantigens and why only selected proteins are targeted in autoimmunity ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • mice
  • This mouse also displays larger brain infarctions when compared to control mice, thereby indicating a neuroprotective function for this protein. (stanford.edu)