• novel
  • Although it is unclear how the remnants play a role in carcinogenesis, these genes may serve for novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets of ICC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many novel genes emerged from our analysis of global transcription patterns that were not previously reported to be affected by celecoxib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Magnaporthe grisea pth11p is a novel plasma membrane protein that mediates appressorium differentiation in response to inductive substrate cues. (springer.com)
  • Also found were novel transcripts in the centromeric regions where it was thought that no genes are actively expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007). "Integration of statistical inference methods and a novel control measure to improve sensitivity and specificity of data analysis in expression profiling studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ribonuclease gene is a novel member of the Rh/T2/S-glycoprotein class of extracellular ribonucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Due to its economic importance, Coffea arabica is becoming the subject of increasing genomic research and, in particular, the genes involved in the final chemical composition of the bean and the sensorial quality of the coffee beverage. (springer.com)
  • Paired-end tags (PET) exist in PET libraries with the intervening DNA absent, that is, a PET "represents" a larger fragment of genomic or cDNA by consisting of a short 5' linker sequence, a short 5' sequence tag, a short 3' sequence tag, and a short 3' linker sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragmented genomic DNA or complementary DNA (cDNA) of interest is cloned into plasmid vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of cloning, adaptors containing the endonuclease sequence are ligated to the ends of fragmented genomic DNA or cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • For proteases, specific probes for protease genes and their inhibitors have been developed to view expression patterns on the mRNA transcript level. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more sensitive approach to transcript analysis of a gene is quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which has also seen action in quantifying protease mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microRNAs thus generated are short RNA molecules that regulate a wide variety of other genes by interacting with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to induce cleavage of complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) as part of the RNA interference pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The method of sequencing cDNA to find transcribed genes also runs into problems, such as failing to detect rare or very short RNA molecules, and so do not detect genes that are active only in response to signals or specific to a time frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are signal transduction molecules that have structural homology to SST2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and EGL-10 of Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulate
  • Our present study aimed to investigate the effects of recombinant TRAIL on the expression of SOCS1 , a gene known to modulate the sensitivity of both immune cells and pancreatic β-cells to key inflammatory cytokines elevated in diabetes ( 7 - 10 ), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and purified human pancreatic islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Through this process one can rapidly identify active compounds, antibodies, or genes that modulate a particular biomolecular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the MAPK pathway ERK1/2 can activate the ets factor, Elk-1, which, in concert with serum response factor, participates in initiation of EGR-1 gene transcription (16) , thus placing EGR-1 downstream of MAPK activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene transcription is the most important regulatory mechanism by which a phenotype and functional state of a cell is determined. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The scope of celecoxib-modulated molecular alterations can best be studied by applying global approaches at the transcription and/or protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Earlier studies on chromosome 21 and 22 showed the power of tiling arrays for identifying transcription units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • Altered expression of many of the genes by celecoxib was confirmed by quantitative PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the metabolism location of the extra-cellular matrix proteins in fugu (Takifugu rubripes), we cloned the cDNAs of the fugu gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and examined their expressions in various adult tissues using a quantitative real-time PCR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • the user specifies eigengene (principal component) of the expression data and treats it as a quantitative response SAM calculates a test statistic for relative difference in gene expression based on permutation analysis of expression data and calculates a false discovery rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Molecular biology /məˈlɛkjʊlər/ concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the amino-terminal domain of the neuron-specific X11-like protein (X11L), inhibits the association of X11L with amyloid precursor protein through a non-competitive mechanism, and abolishes the suppression of beta-amyloid production by X11L. (wikipedia.org)
  • activators
  • Such proteins include splicing activators that promote the usage of a particular splice site, and splicing repressors that reduce the usage of a particular site. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGS proteins are involved in the regulation of heterotrimeric G proteins by acting as GTPase activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • Tiling arrays aid in transcriptome mapping as well as in discovering sites of DNA/protein interaction (ChIP-chip, DamID), of DNA methylation (MeDIP-chip) and of sensitivity to DNase (DNase Chip) and array CGH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, proteases recruited from remote sources like nearby tissues are ignored by these DNA based arrays, reiterating the need for protein based methods to confirm the presence and activity of functional enzymes when transcriptome analysis is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Second, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) led to the identification of 11 distinct patterns of gene expression during seed development as well as to the detection of genes expressed at specific developmental stages that can be used as functional markers of phenological changes. (springer.com)
  • A cDNA array representing 2927 unique genes based on a large EST (expressed sequence tag) database of M. grisea strain Y34 was constructed and used to profile the gene expression patterns at mycelium and appressorium maturation stages. (springer.com)
  • Gene Expression Patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • This study reveals that DENSPM potently activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in melanoma cells and investigates the role of this response in determining cellular outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results from gene profiling studies (reported here) with SK-MEL-28 and MALME-3M cells have focused our attention on EGR-1 signaling and the upstream MAPK pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A pathway/functional analysis of celecoxib-affected transcripts, using Gene Ontology and Biocarta Pathways and exploring biological association networks, revealed that celecoxib modulates expression of numerous genes involved in a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptotic signaling, cell cycle check points, lymphocyte activation, and signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among these processes, cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling consistently ranked as the highest-scoring Gene Ontology terms and Biocarta Pathways in both COX-2 expresser and nonexpresser cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, specific proteins and molecular pathways, affecting cell cycle progression and apoptosis, have been extensively studied and shown to be targeted by celecoxib ( 12 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fusarium oxysporum G-protein beta subunit Fgbl regulates hyphal growth, development, and virulence through multiple signalling pathways. (springer.com)
  • transcripts
  • Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also observed in the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 2006. Analysis of expressed sequence tag data and gene expression profiles involved in conidial germination of Fusarium oxysporum . (springer.com)
  • Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • It is a single copy gene that maps to 6q27, a region associated with human malignancies and chromosomal rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A method is disclosed for rapid molecular profiling of tissue or other cellular specimens by placing a donor specimen in an assigned location in a recipient array, providing copies of the array, and performing a different biological analysis of each copy. (google.com)
  • In some embodiments, the specimens may be tissue specimens from different tumors, which are subjected to multiple parallel molecular (including genetic and immunological) analyses. (google.com)
  • The results of the parallel analyses are then used to detect common molecular characteristics of the genetic disorder type, which can subsequently be used in the diagnosis or treatment of the disease. (google.com)
  • In the future, in-depth work on selected genes will determine if these genes may serve as potential molecular targets for more effective chemopreventive strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of gene expression profiles of appressorium development provides insight into the molecular basis of pathogenicity and control of this fungal plant disease. (springer.com)
  • The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • library
  • Bovine lactating cDNA library. (agresearch.co.nz)
  • The advantage of cloning based construction of the library is that it maintains the fragments or cDNA intact for future use. (wikipedia.org)
  • FZD10 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • First, principle component analysis (PCA) revealed a dramatic re-programming of the transcriptional machinery between early cell division and elongation, storage and maturation phases. (springer.com)
  • The sources of exposure include cell phones and their base stations (towers, masts and simply antennas), bluetooth, blackberry, wireless computer networks at work, schools and homes, cordless phones in most homes, even wireless baby monitors and a whole array of new products coming into the market everyday that may or may not be apparent in their wirelessness. (freewebs.com)
  • Other data suggested that sporadic or inherited genetic mutations in some critical genes regulating cell cycle, programmed cell death or differentiation and adhesion might be the actual cause of tumorigenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that specific protein properties strongly contribute to the etiology of B cell autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate B cell autoantibody repertoire, we have examined APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy with candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia) patients ( 2 ), defined by rare monogenic defects in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene that drives the expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is a 2D array on a solid substrate (usually a glass slide or silicon thin-film cell) that assays large amounts of biological material using high-throughput screening miniaturized, multiplexed and parallel processing and detection methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is only expressed in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, where it colocalizes with cytoplasmic tubulin and microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein can now be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of systems, such as inducible promoters and specific cell-signaling factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of human VCX/Y genes. (genecards.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Recombinant TRAIL was added in vitro to primary human and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and isolated human islets to evaluate the expression of the immunoregulatory gene SOCS1 . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RRP1B (ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B), also known as KIAA0179, is a human gene which is located on Chromosome 21. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other two human enzymes that participate in the processing and activity of miRNA are the Dicer and Argonaute proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human NECAB3 genome location and NECAB3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The gene encoding the thyroid hormone calcitonin was found to be alternatively spliced in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • This gene family has multiple members on both X and Y chromosomes, and all are expressed exclusively in male germ cells. (genecards.org)
  • Among these genes, Bim (also named BCL2-L11), a member of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein family is significantly decreased, and TRIM RING finger protein TRIM2 (a ubiquitin ligase) is highly expressed in MCF-7R. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This gene is a member of the frizzled gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for the Wingless type MMTV integration site family of signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Otherwise, a specialized automated analysis machine can run a number of experiments on the wells (such as shining polarized light on them and measuring reflectivity, which can be an indication of protein binding). (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Activation of GPER and its downstream signaling MAPK/ERK, not PI3K/AKT, led to enhanced TRIM2 protein levels and affected the binding between TRIM2 and Bim which resulted in a reduced Bim in TAM-resistant breast cancer cells. (spandidos-publications.com)