• pregnancy
  • There are now studies in humans demonstrating that high circulating levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy correlate negatively with birthweight, suggesting that excess glucocorticoids can by-pass the placental barrier. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusions This study points to the strong relationship between maternal excess weight and weight gain in pregnancy with offspring change in body size from adolescence to adulthood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypothesis
  • We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Numerous mechanistic studies in animal models have been carried out to test this hypothesis using manipulations to increase maternal glucocorticoids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genetic
  • Li C, Chen W, Jiang F, Simino J, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Mei H. Genetic association and gene-smoking interaction study of carotid intima-media thickness at five GWAS-indicated genes: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • promoter region
  • The vitamin D receptor (VDR) with vitamin D (VD) binds as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) specific sequence in the promoter region of the target gene - the vitamin D responsive element (VDRE). (intechopen.com)
  • metabolism
  • The UPS pathway reflects biological processes known to be associated with endothelial function, inflammation, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and b-cell apoptosis, whose derangements are central to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. (infona.pl)
  • The aim of this study was to determine how the expression of genes involved in the transport and metabolism of FOLFOX chemotherapy impacts on tissue injury in a murine model of CLM. (jove.com)
  • Differences in the expression of genes related to 5-fluorouracil metabolism or DNA repair did not correlate with the severity of tissue injury. (jove.com)
  • mothers
  • 30) compared with mothers with normal BMI after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, socioeconomic status, sex of offspring, current age, birth weight, gestation at delivery, and gestation at measurement of BMI (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.55). (bmj.com)
  • fetus
  • One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • inhibition
  • Inhibition of cell cycle progresion by vitamin DOne of the factors determining the switch between G1 and S phases of the cell cycle is retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation that leads to the release of several transcription factors activating genes involved in the cell cycle progression. (intechopen.com)
  • Vitamin D with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds to the regulatory sequences in the promoters of p21 and p27 genes activating their transcription that leads to the inhibition of the CDKs, lack of Rb phosphorylation and inhibition of the cell cycle progression. (intechopen.com)
  • humans
  • Altered glucocorticoid activity or action is a good candidate mechanism in humans to link low birthweight with cardiometabolic and brain disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. (jove.com)
  • growth
  • The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have reported significant effects of chronic social stress during lactation, an ethologically relevant and effective stressor, on maternal behavior, growth, and behavioral neuroendocrinology. (jove.com)
  • protein
  • Maternal effects often occur because the mother supplies a particular mRNA or protein to the oocyte, hence the maternal genome determines whether the molecule is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress
  • This manuscript will describe this chronic social stress paradigm using repeated exposure of a lactating dam to a novel male intruder, and the assessment of the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine effects of this model. (jove.com)
  • The exposure of pups to CSS can also be used as an early life stress that has long term effects on behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrinology. (jove.com)
  • Patients
  • Polymorphisms in the ATP7B gene may explain varying susceptibility to SOS among patients following oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. (jove.com)
  • study
  • Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • effect
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other maternal effect mutants either affect products that are similarly produced in the nurse cells and act in the oocyte, or parts of the transportation machinery that are required for this relocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a paternal-effect gene is the ms(3)sneaky in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Maternal body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. (bmj.com)
  • levels
  • Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na + and K + levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg 8 -vasopressin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • early
  • Maternal supply of mRNAs to the early embryo is important, as in many organisms the embryo is initially transcriptionally inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes responsible for these effects are components of sperm that are involved in fertilization and early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Once the gene that is disrupted in the bicoid mutant was identified, it was shown that bicoid mRNA is transcribed in the nurse cells and then relocalized to the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • We recorded participants' birth weights, as determined from maternal recall at the time of admission. (scribd.com)