• associations
  • We created genetic propensity scores using a subset of 388 SNPs from 53 adiposity-related genes that were predictive of the exposures and outcome, and fit linear regression models both with and without genetic scores to examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with offspring change in BMI. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genome-wide linkage and positional association analyses identify associations of novel AFF3 and NTM genes with triglycerides: the GenSalt study. (tulane.edu)
  • Hypothesis
  • We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Numerous mechanistic studies in animal models have been carried out to test this hypothesis using manipulations to increase maternal glucocorticoids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genetic
  • Li C, Chen W, Jiang F, Simino J, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Mei H. Genetic association and gene-smoking interaction study of carotid intima-media thickness at five GWAS-indicated genes: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • promoter region
  • The vitamin D receptor (VDR) with vitamin D (VD) binds as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) specific sequence in the promoter region of the target gene - the vitamin D responsive element (VDRE). (intechopen.com)
  • biological
  • The UPS pathway reflects biological processes known to be associated with endothelial function, inflammation, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and b-cell apoptosis, whose derangements are central to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. (infona.pl)
  • mothers
  • 30) compared with mothers with normal BMI after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, socioeconomic status, sex of offspring, current age, birth weight, gestation at delivery, and gestation at measurement of BMI (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.55). (bmj.com)
  • fetus
  • One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • inhibition
  • Inhibition of cell cycle progresion by vitamin DOne of the factors determining the switch between G1 and S phases of the cell cycle is retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation that leads to the release of several transcription factors activating genes involved in the cell cycle progression. (intechopen.com)
  • Vitamin D with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds to the regulatory sequences in the promoters of p21 and p27 genes activating their transcription that leads to the inhibition of the CDKs, lack of Rb phosphorylation and inhibition of the cell cycle progression. (intechopen.com)
  • humans
  • Altered glucocorticoid activity or action is a good candidate mechanism in humans to link low birthweight with cardiometabolic and brain disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. (jove.com)
  • cardiovascular
  • However, the extent to which exposure is related to all-cause and deaths from cancer and cardiovascular condition in young age is unknown. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, we prospectively assessed whether long-term and recent arsenic exposures are associated with all-cause and cancer and cardiovascular mortalities in Bangladeshi childhood population. (jove.com)
  • growth
  • The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have reported significant effects of chronic social stress during lactation, an ethologically relevant and effective stressor, on maternal behavior, growth, and behavioral neuroendocrinology. (jove.com)
  • protein
  • Maternal effects often occur because the mother supplies a particular mRNA or protein to the oocyte, hence the maternal genome determines whether the molecule is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress
  • This manuscript will describe this chronic social stress paradigm using repeated exposure of a lactating dam to a novel male intruder, and the assessment of the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine effects of this model. (jove.com)
  • The exposure of pups to CSS can also be used as an early life stress that has long term effects on behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrinology. (jove.com)
  • study
  • Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • levels
  • Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na + and K + levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg 8 -vasopressin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • effect
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other maternal effect mutants either affect products that are similarly produced in the nurse cells and act in the oocyte, or parts of the transportation machinery that are required for this relocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a paternal-effect gene is the ms(3)sneaky in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Maternal body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. (bmj.com)
  • effects
  • The genes responsible for these effects are components of sperm that are involved in fertilization and early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Maternal supply of mRNAs to the early embryo is important, as in many organisms the embryo is initially transcriptionally inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Once the gene that is disrupted in the bicoid mutant was identified, it was shown that bicoid mRNA is transcribed in the nurse cells and then relocalized to the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • We recorded participants' birth weights, as determined from maternal recall at the time of admission. (scribd.com)