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  • genetic
  • Because of the inheritance pattern of maternal effect mutations, special genetic screens are required to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • We created genetic propensity scores using a subset of 388 SNPs from 53 adiposity-related genes that were predictive of the exposures and outcome, and fit linear regression models both with and without genetic scores to examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with offspring change in BMI. (ahajournals.org)
  • Li C, Chen W, Jiang F, Simino J, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Mei H. Genetic association and gene-smoking interaction study of carotid intima-media thickness at five GWAS-indicated genes: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • Cells
  • Genes Cells. (epigentek.com)
  • With ChIP, the experimenter can determine if a specific protein binds to the specific sequences of a gene in living cells by combining with PCR (ChIP-PCR), microarray (ChIP-chip), or sequencing (ChIP-Seq) techniques. (epigentek.com)
  • Once the gene that is disrupted in the bicoid mutant was identified, it was shown that bicoid mRNA is transcribed in the nurse cells and then relocalized to the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other maternal effect mutants either affect products that are similarly produced in the nurse cells and act in the oocyte, or parts of the transportation machinery that are required for this relocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these genes are expressed in the (maternal) nurse cells and not in the oocyte or fertilised embryo, the maternal genotype determines whether they can function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this project, we will use state-of-the-art reagents and technologies developed in Dr. Norma Andrews' laboratory to elucidate the mechanisms by which mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene in bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells leads to bone fragility. (umaryland.edu)
  • Hypothesis
  • We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Numerous mechanistic studies in animal models have been carried out to test this hypothesis using manipulations to increase maternal glucocorticoids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • promoter region
  • For example, the measurement of the amount of methylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (meH3-K9) associated with a specific gene promoter region under various conditions can be achieved through a ChIP-PCR assay, while recruitment of meH3-K9 to the promoters on a genome-wide scale can be detected by ChIP-chip. (epigentek.com)
  • genetics
  • In genetics, maternal effects occur when an organism shows the phenotype expected from the genotype of the mother, irrespective of its own genotype, often due to the mother supplying messenger RNA or proteins to the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics, a maternal effect occurs when the phenotype of an organism is determined by the genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • mothers
  • 30) compared with mothers with normal BMI after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, socioeconomic status, sex of offspring, current age, birth weight, gestation at delivery, and gestation at measurement of BMI (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.55). (bmj.com)
  • fetus
  • One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Study
  • In a study designed to evaluate second-hand marijuana smoke exposure among children--a topic that scientists have not yet widely addressed--researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai found that nearly half of children whose parents smoked marijuana showed evidence of second-hand marijuana smoke exposure. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate whether the high E 2 maternal environment in the first trimester increases the risk of thyroid dysfunction in children born following IVF-ET. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-wide linkage and positional association analyses identify associations of novel AFF3 and NTM genes with triglycerides: the GenSalt study. (tulane.edu)
  • Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (tulane.edu)
  • protein
  • Maternal effects often occur because the mother supplies a particular mRNA or protein to the oocyte, hence the maternal genome determines whether the molecule is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • These adaptive maternal effects lead to phenotypes of offspring that increase their fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that maternal effects are important for the evolution of adaptive responses to environmental heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • However, the extent to which exposure is related to all-cause and deaths from cancer and cardiovascular condition in young age is unknown. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, we prospectively assessed whether long-term and recent arsenic exposures are associated with all-cause and cancer and cardiovascular mortalities in Bangladeshi childhood population. (jove.com)
  • levels
  • Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na + and K + levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg 8 -vasopressin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • environment
  • A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal effects can also be caused by the maternal environment independent of genotype, sometimes controlling the size, sex, or behaviour of the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maternal high E 2 environment in the first trimester is correlated with increased risk of thyroid dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • effect
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a paternal-effect gene is the ms(3)sneaky in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maternal body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. (bmj.com)
  • important
  • Maternal supply of mRNAs to the early embryo is important, as in many organisms the embryo is initially transcriptionally inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The genes responsible for these effects are components of sperm that are involved in fertilization and early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • We recorded participants' birth weights, as determined from maternal recall at the time of admission. (scribd.com)
  • Alterations
  • Bringhenti I, Schultz A, Rachid T, Bomfim MA, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA, Aguila MB (2011) An early fish oil-enriched diet reverses biochemical, liver and adipose tissue alterations in male offspring from maternal protein restriction in mice. (springer.com)
  • less
  • The microbiota in the pathogenesis of liver disease and its complications The human intestinal microbiota consists of trillions of microorganisms including prevalent and 1000 less common bacterial species, harbouring over 100-fold more genes than those present in the human genome [11 (docplayer.net)
  • affect
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, we previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a paternal-effect gene is the ms(3)sneaky in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)