• binds
  • During HIV-1 infection, the Gp120 envelope glycoprotein subunit binds to a CD4 glycoprotein and a HIV-1 co-receptor expressed on a target cell- forming a heterotrimeric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody binds to CCR 5 receptors on human peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by immunocytochemistry. (abcam.co.jp)
  • antigen receptor
  • It functions as a co-receptor for B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), regulating signal transduction. (githubusercontent.com)
  • [ 7 ] Moreover, an analysis of antigen receptor H chain gene transcripts of B and plasma cells isolated from s-IBM muscle showed evidence of clonal expansion and variation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation, indicative of a local antigen-driven humoral response. (medscape.com)
  • cells
  • Chemokines and their receptors, which mediate signal transduction, are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the site of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforin-low memory CD8+ T cells that normally synthesize MIP-1-beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to infect the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly expressed in thymus (on both immature and mature T-cells) while low in lymph nodes and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the extracellular compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted) as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells) promotes immunological tolerance (PubMed:23519706, PubMed:23446148, PubMed:23994764, PubMed:25048472). (abcam.com)
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense for protecting the host against invading microbial pathogens and involves a number of host defense systems, including chemokine-directed movement of inflammatory cells and pathogen detection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) [ 1 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C (CD45) regulates signal transduction and lymphocyte activation by specific association with receptor molecules on T and B cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Han IS, Ra JS, Kim MW, Lee EA, Jun HY, Park SK et al (2003) Differentiation of CD34 + cells from human cord blood and murine bone marrow is suppressed by C6 beta-chemokines. (springer.com)
  • In the Nature article, titled "HIV-1 Entry into CD4+ Cells is Mediated by the Chemokine Receptor CC-CKR-5 ," Progenics and ADARC scientists show for the first time that the Beta-chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5 is a second receptor for primary or clinical strains of the virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activated inflammatory cells release free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) reactive species, which in turn can cause DNA damage and lead to gene mutations, thus fostering neoplastic transformation. (hindawi.com)
  • PITPNM3 is a CCL18 receptor, but PITPNM3 is only expressed on breast cancer cells and not on T-cells nor B-cells, and PITPNM3-CCL8 binding induces Pyk2 and Src mediated signaling, a cancer related signaling pathway, and subsequent metastasis of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR8 is the most recently discovered receptor for CCL18, and the effects of CCR8-CCL18 interactions appear to be physiological, as CCL18 binding to CCR8 induces chemotaxis of Th2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By virtue of potent effects on resident and invading cells, microglial cyto- and chemokines regulate innate defense mechanisms, help the initiation and influence the type of immune responses, participate in the recruitment of leukocytes to the CNS, and support attempts of tissue repair and recovery. (jove.com)
  • humans
  • The receptor for CCL18 has been identified in humans only recently, which will help scientists understand the molecule's role in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-type lectin domain family 7 member A or Dectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC7A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophil
  • This finding contributes to an understanding of CC chemokines in eosinophil biology and to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of eosinophilic disorders. (springer.com)
  • stromal
  • The indispensable roles of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) for the prostate organogenesis have been demonstrated by using tissue recombination from wild-type and testicular feminized mice. (wiley.com)
  • leukocyte
  • Microglia can also receive cyto- and chemokine signals as part of auto- and paracrine communications with astrocytes, neurons, the endothelium, and leukocyte infiltrates. (jove.com)
  • peptide
  • The V1-V2 stem can influence "co-receptor usage through its peptide composition as well as by the degree of N-linked glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • but, unlike other chemokines, CCL18 includes 2 pseudo-exons (exons that do not appear in the final peptide) in the first intron. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • Additionally, CCR4 appears to be a key receptor in the innate immune response as CCR4 −/− mice are more resistant to LPS-induced sepsis [ 16 , 18 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of β-1,3-linked and β-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, but also play important roles in immune responses to other pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and nematodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • However, in contrast to these two endogenous pyrogens, the fever induced by MIP-1 is not inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen and CCL3 may participate in the febrile response that is not mediated through prostaglandin synthesis and clinically cannot be ablated by cyclooxygenase. (wikipedia.org)