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  • CXCR4
  • In particular the imbalanced or aberrant expression of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 strongly affects cancer cell proliferation, recruitment of immunosuppressive cells, neovascularization, and metastasization. (hindawi.com)
  • dendritic cells
  • However, some reports suggest a role for this receptor also in trafficking of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR6, a receptor for CCL20, is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR7 is a highly important receptor with a role in trafficking of B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells to and across high endothelial venules and positioning those cells correctly in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal
  • The indispensable roles of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) for the prostate organogenesis have been demonstrated by using tissue recombination from wild-type and testicular feminized mice. (wiley.com)
  • We found that loss of stromal fibromuscular AR led to suppression of PIN lesion development with alleviation of epithelium proliferation and tumour-promoting microenvironments, including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, immune cell infiltration and neovasculature formation due, in part, to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. (wiley.com)
  • reactive oxygen
  • Indirectly, Aβ and NFTs can also activate immune response and lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and neurotoxins including reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and excitatory amino acids, which may contribute to the neuronal degeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • As part of their response they secrete cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and reactive oxygen species, which help to direct the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • CCR4 is expressed on Th2 T lymphocytes and is up-regulated by T cell receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL3, also known as Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Wolpe et al. (invivosaglik.com)
  • Results confirmed for the first time that doxycycline specially targeted pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits )) receptor type 1 ( PAC1 ) imitating PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits )(30-37) and acted as an enhancer by facilitating the subsequent ligand binding and the activation of PAC1 . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Using two in vivo mouse models of optic neuropathies (traumatic optic nerve injury and glaucoma) and adeno-associated virus-mediated RGC-specific gene targeting, we now show that differential manipulation of unfolded protein response pathways in opposite directions-inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α-C/EBP homologous protein and activation of X-box binding protein 1-promotes both RGC axons and somata survival and preserves visual function. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, for the first time, we present a review of the literature linking chemokines in neuropathic pain to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines are small secreted cytokines, primarily involved in the regulation of the motility of hematopoietic cells (cells of the immune system) in their specific homing to lymphoid organs in normal hematopoiesis and during inflammation [ 1 ], through the activation of specific G-protein coupled receptors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It was previously known as Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1), alternative macrophage activation-associated CC chemokine-1 (AMAC-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-4 (MIP-4). (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a cytoplasmic domain with a partial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR4
  • Additionally, CCR4 appears to be a key receptor in the innate immune response as CCR4 −/− mice are more resistant to LPS-induced sepsis [ 16 , 18 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • binds
  • During HIV-1 infection, the Gp120 envelope glycoprotein subunit binds to a CD4 glycoprotein and a HIV-1 co-receptor expressed on a target cell- forming a heterotrimeric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Characterization of copy number variants for CCL3L1 gene in rheumatoid arthritis for French trio families and Tunisian cases and controls. (nih.gov)
  • immune
  • These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to infect the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 in these knock-out mice affects immune and a number of other physiological responses. (jax.org)
  • Chemokines are classed as a special type of cytokine that is involved in immune cell trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of β-1,3-linked and β-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, but also play important roles in immune responses to other pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and nematodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • PITPNM3 is a CCL18 receptor, but PITPNM3 is only expressed on breast cancer cells and not on T-cells nor B-cells, and PITPNM3-CCL8 binding induces Pyk2 and Src mediated signaling, a cancer related signaling pathway, and subsequent metastasis of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The envelope glycoprotein structure consists of two protein subunits cleaved from a Gp160 protein precursor encoded for by the HIV-1 env gene: the Gp120 external subunit, and the Gp41 transmembrane subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • This receptor is well defined as a major coreceptor implicated in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. (hindawi.com)
  • peptide
  • The V1-V2 stem can influence "co-receptor usage through its peptide composition as well as by the degree of N-linked glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • but, unlike other chemokines, CCL18 includes 2 pseudo-exons (exons that do not appear in the final peptide) in the first intron. (wikipedia.org)