• bacteria
  • Duke University biomedical engineers have harvested genes for ion channels from bacteria that, with a few tweaks, can create and enhance electrical signaling in human cells, making the cells more electrically excitable. (innovations-report.com)
  • While bacterial genes encoding sodium channels are different than their human counterparts, evolution has conserved many similarities of ion channel design since multi-celled animals diverged from bacteria hundreds of millions of years ago. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers have developed a way to use firefly luciferase - which is much brighter than bacterial luciferase - as a chemiluminescent reporter in bacteria. (photonics.com)
  • A lab manual was published, which emphasized how genetics can be used to study pathogenic bacteria, a growing field with a dramatic need for researchers trained in bacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
  • By using the sacB gene onto the suicide plasmid will convert sucrose to levans which are toxic to the gram-ve bacteria. (protocol-online.org)
  • Herein, we review engineered light-sensor systems with potential for in vivo regulation of gene expression in bacteria, and highlight different means of extending the range of available light input and transcriptional output signals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genes that encode for ion channels in bacteria can be utilized and altered in simple ways to provide human cells with the creation or enhancement of electrical signaling, an essential part of life's most fundamental processes. (labroots.com)
  • Wiersinga and the Laboratory for Experimental Internal Medicine discovered which gene-protein combination renders the lethal bacteria B. pseudomallei harmless. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Bacteria can occasionally undergo genetic exchange due to the wide variety of accessory genetic elements available to them: integrons and gene cassettes, transposons, plasmids, and phages. (genetics.org)
  • As the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance by horizontal transfer so strikingly and frighteningly illustrates, bacteria can and often will acquire beneficial genes from external sources, so long as these genes exist somewhere in the prokaryotic world ( L evin and B ergstrom 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • What happens when bacteria are faced with novel or fluctuating environmental conditions and no external sources of beneficial genes are available? (genetics.org)
  • A broad but not mechanistic answer from the classical theory is simply that those populations probably faced environments that fluctuated rapidly enough to favor mutator genes and that such fluctuations may be very common for bacteria. (genetics.org)
  • GAINESVILLE, Fla. - By analyzing the genes of bacteria, University of Florida researchers have moved a step closer to pinpointing how two brain disorders common in small-breed dogs occur. (ufl.edu)
  • The researchers are continuing to analyze the effects of bacterial infection on immune system cells known as macrophages to determine how the bacteria could breach the blood-brain barrier. (ufl.edu)
  • Effects of Hg, CH(3)-Hg, and Temperature on the Expression of Mercury Resistance Genes in Environmental Bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Q‐RT‐PCR as a highly relevant and powerful tool used to detect gene expression by bacteria within mammalian host tissues. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Seemingly simple organisms, such as bacteria and amoebas, have a much higher gene density than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • They took a gene from a bacterium that provided resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin, inserted it into a plasmid and then induced another bacteria to uptake the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boyer and Cohen expressed other genes in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mannanase is not commonly found in similar beetles, and the characteristic of the gene is bacterial, the gene is thought to have originated from bacteria in the beetle's gut, and transposed to the beetle's genome through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes have been known to occur, albeit rarely, the HhMAN1 is the first to have a known and beneficial function to the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unique features and other features gave significance of the T-even phages, this includes transduction which is responsible for transfer of drug resistant features, lysogenic conversion is responsible for acquisition of new characteristics such as the formation of new enzymes, random insertion into bacterial chromosome can induce insertional mutation, epidemiological typing of bacteria (phage typing), phages are used extensively in genetic engineering where they serve as cloning vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equipped with this gene, the former II-R strain bacteria were now protected from the host's immune system and could kill the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • It serves as a riboswitch that binds directly to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) to regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Results: A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In genetics, the gene density of an organism's genome is the ratio of the number of genes per number of base pairs, usually written in terms of a million base pairs, or megabase (Mb). (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome has a gene density of 12-15 genes/Mb, while the genome of the C. elegans roundworm is estimated to have 200. (wikipedia.org)
  • HhMAN1 is a gene in the genome of Hypothenemus hampei, a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original GLIMMER algorithms and software were designed by Art Delcher, Simon Kasif and Steven Salzberg and applied to bacterial genome annotation in collaboration with Owen White. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER 3.0 uses a new algorithm for scanning coding regions, a new start site detection module, and architecture which integrates all gene predictions across an entire genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Background: Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 6th edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER 3.0 also improves the generated training set data by comparing the long-ORF with universal amino acid distribution of widely disparate bacterial genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • In bioinformatics, GLIMMER (Gene Locator and Interpolated Markov ModelER) is used to find genes in prokaryotic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The THI element is an extension of a previously detected thiamin-regulatory element, the thi box, there is considerable variability in the predicted length and structures of the additional and facultative stem loops represented in dark blue in the secondary structure diagram Analysis of operon structures has identified a large number of new candidate thiamin-regulated genes, mostly transporters, in various prokaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. (diva-portal.org)
  • GLIMMER 1.0" was released in 1998 and it was published in the paper Microbial gene identification using interpolated Markov model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Markov models were used to identify microbial genes in GLIMMER 1.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a comparison made between interpolated Markov model used by GLIMMER and fifth order Markov model in the paper Microbial gene identification using interpolated Markov models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • On the other hand, the advanced search tool enables a user to search genetic information by categories, custom query, wild-card search and field-specific search, which uses the gene name, the description, the cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) id, the GO term, the KEGG enzyme commission (EC) number, etc. as key words. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, T-even phages are in fact among the largest and highest complexity virus, in which these phages genetic information is made up of around 160 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes, whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer, display processes such as bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction, which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • In 2002, the first comprehensive proofs of multiple classes of riboswitches were published, including protein-free binding assays, and metabolite-binding riboswitches were established as a new mechanism of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this regulation, the riboswitch interferes with transcription of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Because gene expression within a cell population fluctuates randomly, investigators must monitor individual cells if they want to follow the activity as genes switch on and off. (photonics.com)
  • Along with graduate student Yun Zhang and professor of veterinary medicine Gregory J. Phillips, Yeung used the chemiluminescence technique to perform quantitative studies of gene expression in two bacterial lines. (photonics.com)
  • Light of different wavelengths can serve as a transient, noninvasive means of regulating gene expression for biotechnological purposes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, we discuss advances in multiplexing different light sensors for achieving multichromatic control of gene expression and indicate developments that could facilitate the construction of efficient systems for light-regulated, multistate control of gene expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Parts for controlling gene expression are of special importance in living systems, and specifically promoters are needed for enabling and simplifying rational design. (diva-portal.org)
  • This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues. (currentprotocols.com)
  • It is also an invaluable technique used to measure and assess the small differences in expression that can exist among a set of genes, whereas this type of analysis is not feasible using less‐sensitive techniques such as indirect immunofluorescence analysis or qualitative RT‐PCR. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Other unique features of the T-even virus is its regulated gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression platform is what regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression platforms typically turn off gene expression in response to the small molecule, but some turn it on. (wikipedia.org)
  • A TPP riboswitch in Neurospora crassa (a fungus) controls alternative splicing to conditionally produce an Upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF), thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes A TPP riboswitch in plants modifies splicing and alternative 3'-end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • A riboswitch in Listeria monocytogenes regulates the expression of its downstream gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Because of evolutionary conservation, when organisms along the evolutionary tree share common features that are important, there are many similarities between the human and bacterial sodium ion channels. (labroots.com)
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Containing about 160 genes, these virulent viruses are among the largest, most complex viruses that are known and one of the best studied model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are usually required to be simple with as few as five genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • When clones carrying mutator genes are rare, however, these beneficial mutations are far more likely to arise in members of the much larger nonmutator population. (genetics.org)
  • plasmid
  • The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
  • About 50% of these clones will have replaced the original wild type gene with a mutated one and at the same time got rid of the suicide plasmid backbone from the chromosme. (protocol-online.org)
  • By detection of the ipaH gene (invasion plasmid antigen H gene) EIEC/ Shigella spp. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Under such conditions, certain bacterial genes are turned on leading to the transfer of its tDNA from its root-inducing plasmid (Ri plasmid) into the plant through the wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • annotations
  • Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the gene list view, the links "G O D H S T B..." lead the user to a locus information tool, where detailed information such as operon & regulon, domains & families, sequences, annotations, etc. are shown. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • And, until recently, all was in place: intuition, formal theory, and experimental observations all supported the proposition that although higher rates of mutation can appear occasionally, mutation rates in bacterial populations would remain low and mutator alleles (alleles elevating the genomic mutation rate) would not be selected. (genetics.org)
  • Genetically
  • In 1983 an antibiotic resistant gene was inserted into tobacco, leading to the first genetically engineered plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium
  • They infected tobacco with Agrobacterium transformed with an antibiotic resistance gene and through tissue culture techniques were able to grow a new plant containing the resistance gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • I am trying to knockout a gene which is essential for growth of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (has no sacB gene in it). (protocol-online.org)
  • I check for the gene knockout in 'centrimide+kan+amp' plate with PAO1 using the gene inserted suicide vector pFS100 and get no growth (showing the gene is essential) whereas the control plate without antibiotic markers show growth. (protocol-online.org)
  • Mice with genes knocked out (knockout mouse) were created in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • riboswitches
  • Prior to the discovery of riboswitches, the mechanism by which some genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways were regulated remained mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Publishing their results in Nature Communications, the researchers maneuvered around that barrier by engineering ion channels from bacterial genes, which are smaller. (labroots.com)
  • organism
  • This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two-fold cost of sex includes this cost and the fact that any organism can only pass on 50% of its own genes to its offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. (diva-portal.org)
  • standard procedure
  • Too large, unfortunately, to be readily delivered to cells through a virus -- standard procedure in modern gene therapy techniques. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their size impedes their direct delivery into cells via virus, a standard procedure used in many current gene therapy techniques. (labroots.com)
  • Nguyen
  • You could imagine using this to alter electrically dead cardiac scar tissue after a heart attack to bridge gaps between healthy cells," said Nguyen, who also points out that all three genes are small enough to be delivered simultaneously by a single virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • You could imagine using this to alter electrically dead cardiac scar tissue after a heart attack to bridge gaps between healthy cells,' commented Nguyen, who noted that the three genes are all small enough for simultaneously delivery by one virus. (labroots.com)
  • conditions
  • But when we add the bacterial channel, we can keep them conducting electrical signals under more severe conditions. (innovations-report.com)
  • I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)
  • small
  • The pores in bacterial cell walls are too small for the charged luciferin molecules to fit through. (photonics.com)
  • firing small particles from a gene gun. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data included conserved RNA secondary structures often found in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the relevant genes and the success of procedures to create artificial small molecule-binding RNAs called aptamers. (wikipedia.org)