• Genome
  • Results: A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Welander pored over the bacteria's genome and identified hpnR, the gene that codes for the protein HpnR, which is specifically associated with C-3 methylation. (quantumday.com)
  • In genetics, the gene density of an organism's genome is the ratio of the number of genes per number of base pairs, usually written in terms of a million base pairs, or megabase (Mb). (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome has a gene density of 12-15 genes/Mb, while the genome of the C. elegans roundworm is estimated to have 200. (wikipedia.org)
  • HhMAN1 is a gene in the genome of Hypothenemus hampei, a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original GLIMMER algorithms and software were designed by Art Delcher, Simon Kasif and Steven Salzberg and applied to bacterial genome annotation in collaboration with Owen White. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER 3.0 uses a new algorithm for scanning coding regions, a new start site detection module, and architecture which integrates all gene predictions across an entire genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Background: Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 6th edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER 3.0 also improves the generated training set data by comparing the long-ORF with universal amino acid distribution of widely disparate bacterial genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Jennifer Tsang and Timothy R. Hoover, "Themes and Variations: Regulation of RpoN-Dependent Flagellar Genes across Diverse Bacterial Species," Scientifica , vol. 2014, Article ID 681754, 14 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2002, the first comprehensive proofs of multiple classes of riboswitches were published, including protein-free binding assays, and metabolite-binding riboswitches were established as a new mechanism of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this regulation, the riboswitch interferes with transcription of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • In bioinformatics, GLIMMER (Gene Locator and Interpolated Markov ModelER) is used to find genes in prokaryotic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The THI element is an extension of a previously detected thiamin-regulatory element, the thi box, there is considerable variability in the predicted length and structures of the additional and facultative stem loops represented in dark blue in the secondary structure diagram Analysis of operon structures has identified a large number of new candidate thiamin-regulated genes, mostly transporters, in various prokaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Beginning in the 1980s, after several decades of research, the understanding of this system became advanced enough that it was possible to exogenously express the full gene cassette, comprised of five genes ( luxCDABE ), in alternative host organisms such as Escherichia coli [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression data is available for 113 species, and fitness data is available for 4 organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Containing about 160 genes, these virulent viruses are among the largest, most complex viruses that are known and one of the best studied model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are usually required to be simple with as few as five genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral Gene Tra
  • Prokaryotes, whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer, display processes such as bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction, which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Light of different wavelengths can serve as a transient, noninvasive means of regulating gene expression for biotechnological purposes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, we discuss advances in multiplexing different light sensors for achieving multichromatic control of gene expression and indicate developments that could facilitate the construction of efficient systems for light-regulated, multistate control of gene expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Parts for controlling gene expression are of special importance in living systems, and specifically promoters are needed for enabling and simplifying rational design. (diva-portal.org)
  • This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues. (currentprotocols.com)
  • It is also an invaluable technique used to measure and assess the small differences in expression that can exist among a set of genes, whereas this type of analysis is not feasible using less‐sensitive techniques such as indirect immunofluorescence analysis or qualitative RT‐PCR. (currentprotocols.com)
  • While originally employed extensively as a bacterial bioreporter system for the detection of specific chemical signals in environmental samples, the use of lux as a bioreporter technology has continuously expanded over the last 30 years to include expression in eukaryotic cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even human cell lines as well. (mdpi.com)
  • Other unique features of the T-even virus is its regulated gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression platform is what regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression platforms typically turn off gene expression in response to the small molecule, but some turn it on. (wikipedia.org)
  • A TPP riboswitch in Neurospora crassa (a fungus) controls alternative splicing to conditionally produce an Upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF), thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes A TPP riboswitch in plants modifies splicing and alternative 3'-end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • A riboswitch in Listeria monocytogenes regulates the expression of its downstream gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
  • In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [ tet (M), tet (S), tet (O), tet (Q) and tet (W)] by PCR. (mdpi.com)
  • Since then important traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • annotations
  • Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the gene list view, the links "G O D H S T B..." lead the user to a locus information tool, where detailed information such as operon & regulon, domains & families, sequences, annotations, etc. are shown. (wikipedia.org)
  • cluster
  • On the other hand, the advanced search tool enables a user to search genetic information by categories, custom query, wild-card search and field-specific search, which uses the gene name, the description, the cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) id, the GO term, the KEGG enzyme commission (EC) number, etc. as key words. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • And, until recently, all was in place: intuition, formal theory, and experimental observations all supported the proposition that although higher rates of mutation can appear occasionally, mutation rates in bacterial populations would remain low and mutator alleles (alleles elevating the genomic mutation rate) would not be selected. (genetics.org)
  • protein
  • The Tar chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli is a membrane-bound sensory protein that facilitates bacterial chemotaxis in response to aspartate. (sciencemag.org)
  • The gene codes for a protein, named HpnR, that is responsible for producing bacterial lipids known as 3-methylhopanoids. (quantumday.com)
  • evolution
  • We propose an alternative to the models developed in this recent renaissance of mutator gene evolution theory and offer a resolution to the following problem. (genetics.org)
  • phages
  • Yet, T-even phages are in fact among the largest and highest complexity virus, in which these phages genetic information is made up of around 160 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Libraries of genes and monoclonal antibodies are maintained in phages. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In order for the T-even phage to infect its host and begin its life cycle it must enter the first process of infection, adsorption of the phage to the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • Conclusions: We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • clones
  • When clones carrying mutator genes are rare, however, these beneficial mutations are far more likely to arise in members of the much larger nonmutator population. (genetics.org)
  • organism
  • This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two-fold cost of sex includes this cost and the fact that any organism can only pass on 50% of its own genes to its offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. (diva-portal.org)
  • commonly
  • Bacterial bioluminescence, commonly known as the lux reaction, is the most widely distributed luminescent mechanism on the planet [ 1 ] and, although this process of bacterial light production has been observed for centuries, it was not until the mid 1900s that it began to be evaluated scientifically [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • conditions
  • I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)
  • responsible
  • The parasite Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for causing African sleeping sickness is being identified by GLIMMER 2.0" Third version of GLIMMER, "GLIMMER 3.0" was released in 2007 and it was published in the paper Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The cytoplasmic signaling domain of Tar was replaced with the carboxyl portion of EnvZ, and the resulting chimeric receptor activated transcription of the ompC gene in response to aspartate. (sciencemag.org)
  • found
  • GLIMMER algorithm found 1680 genes out of 1717 annotated genes in Haemophilus influenzae where fifth order Markov model found 1574 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLIMMER found 209 additional genes which were not included in 1717 annotated genes where fifth order Markov model found 104 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data included conserved RNA secondary structures often found in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the relevant genes and the success of procedures to create artificial small molecule-binding RNAs called aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • The bacterial luciferase gene cassette ( lux ) is unique among bioluminescent bioreporter systems due to its ability to synthesize and/or scavenge all of the substrate compounds required for its production of light. (mdpi.com)