• adult
  • Hearts from adult mice subjected to aortic constriction showed enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, as did cardiac myocytes from neonates treated acutely with Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • Grb10 is expressed in insulin target tissues such as fat and muscle, but the highest expression of this protein is in pancreas of adult mice ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In situ hybridization revealed Tnmd expression in various parts of the adult mouse brain such as the dentate gyrus, CA regions of the hippocampus, neurons in the cerebral nuclei, cerebellum, Purkinje cells and neuronal cells in the cerebellar nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • Subsequently, the mice were inbred with Cre mice aiming to create a line with an activated construct resulting in the deletion of the major Fam161a exon (exon #3). (arvojournals.org)
  • Here, we describe the effect of PIKE deletion in mice and explore the role of PIKE-A in obesity development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, deletion of caspase-8 in mice resulted in death in utero, which was associated with cardiac deformations, neural tube defects, and hemopoietic progenitor deficiency ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To assess the role of CCR8 in vivo, we examined multiple immune and inflammatory parameters in mice with a targeted deletion of the CCR8 gene. (rupress.org)
  • Regarding upstream regulators of Tnmd expression the description of the scleraxis (Scx) knockout mouse line suggested that Scx can directly drive Tnmd transcription, because Scx deletion led to complete elimination of Tnmd expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL
  • As part of the process of generating the KO line, we identified a known CRB1 mutation in the breeding colony and bred the mice with C57BL/6J mice in order to filter out this mutation. (arvojournals.org)
  • The goal of this RFA is to improve the efficiency of germline transmission of C57BL/6 ES lines to an extent that permits the use of C57BL/6 ES cell for high throughput gene targeting and the efficient production of C57BL/6 mice carrying a null mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Applicants for this RFA must have a proven track record of producing or developing existing ES lines, preferably from C57BL/6 mice, and have themselves or their collaborators used such lines to create mutant germline competent ES cells by targeted, gene trap or transposon mutagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • embryonic
  • In the mouse, the germ cell lineage in a newly developing embryo arises as primordial germ cells (PGCs) that segregate from somatic lineages and establish at around embryonic day 7.0 (E7.0) in the posterior extraembryonic mesoderm ( Saitou and Yamaji, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • roles
  • Hence, information from knockout mouse models can shed light on the biological roles of specific genes as well as on the involvement of those genes in human disease . (britannica.com)
  • Thus, the functions of those genes cannot be studied to the full extent, and their roles in human biology and disease cannot be established through knockout approaches in animals. (britannica.com)
  • aortic
  • Next, we examined the influence of GAS6 expression in response to a cardiac stress by inducing chronic pressure overload with aortic banding in wild-type and GAS6-knockout mice or cardiac-specific GAS6 overexpressing mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Under basal conditions, the GAS6-knockout mice had normal left ventricular structure and function but after aortic banding, the mice demonstrated less hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction when compared with wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • investigate
  • To investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we examined the effect of ethanol in brain slices from MOR KO and WT mice using sharp-electrode and whole-cell patch recording techniques. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Genome
  • The foreign DNA typically is engineered to carry a reporter gene, which marks or tags the location of the existing gene, enabling researchers to track its presence in the mouse cell genome as the cells replicate. (britannica.com)
  • However, rather than targeting a specific gene, the foreign DNA is randomly incorporated into any gene in the mouse ES cell genome. (britannica.com)
  • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) downstream of exon 2 (see Fig. 1 ⇓ A ). The construct contains two DNA stretches derived from the 129 mouse genome, one fragment placed 5′ of the first loxP site and the other 3′ of the "floxed" neo cassette. (jimmunol.org)
  • models
  • Taconic designs, breeds, and validates knock-in mouse models for translational research, enabling researchers to analyze gene expression, identify regulatory elements, and model disease in humanized mice. (taconic.com)
  • We will present the success rate derived from the analysis and of over 100 independent genetic humanization projects using the two most common approaches, namely gene replacement and minigene insertion, and provide specific guidelines for generation of these preclinical models. (taconic.com)
  • Knockout mouse models also give a better understanding of the role of similar genes involved in human diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Knockout animal models also have provided a platform on which to develop and test novel drug therapies. (britannica.com)
  • Genetic studies in mice have suggested that inflammation in disease models involves soluble TNF (solTNF) and that maintenance of innate immune function involves transmembrane TNF (tmTNF). (jimmunol.org)
  • DN-TNFs blocked solTNF activity in human and mouse cells, a human blood cytokine release assay, and two mouse arthritis models. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results establish DN-TNFs as the first selective inhibitors of solTNF, demonstrate that inflammation in mouse arthritis models is primarily driven by solTNF, and suggest that the maintenance of tmTNF activity may improve the therapeutic index of future anti-inflammatory agents. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we report defective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in vivo in CCR8 −/ − mice in models of Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA)-induced granuloma formation as well as ovalbumin (OVA)- and cockroach antigen (CRA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Many knockout mouse models with tendon phenotypes have helped in understanding which upstream factors or pathways affect Tnmd expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplitudes
  • ERG analysis revealed decrease in a- and b-wave amplitudes comparing to WT mice at ages 1, 3, and 6 months (n=8 animals per group). (arvojournals.org)
  • We found that the amplitudes of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were significantly greater in MOR KO mice than WT mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, ethanol enhancements of evoked IPSP and IPSC amplitudes and the frequency of miniature IPSCs were comparable between WT and MOR KO mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • inflammation
  • Taken together with the mouse genetic data, these findings suggest that a solTNF-selective inhibitor that spares tmTNF activity might inhibit inflammation without suppressing the immune response to infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • In these mice, the response to SEA, OVA, and CRA showed impaired Th2 cytokine production that was associated with aberrant type 2 inflammation displaying a 50 to 80% reduction in eosinophils. (rupress.org)
  • significantly
  • In all cases, the effects were significantly more pronounced in AM+/− mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • TNBS administration caused a significantly more severe colitis in KO mice, and especially in females, when compared to wild type (WT) animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the baseline frequencies of spontaneous and miniature GABA A receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents were significantly greater in CeA neurons from MOR KO than WT mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Baseline spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and ethanol effects on EPSCs were not significantly different between MOR KO and WT mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although disruption of the Grb10 gene in all tissues (except the brain) significantly increases the size of pancreas in mice ( 11 , 15 ), the underlying mechanisms are unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ethanol
  • Acute colitis was induced in mice of both sexes by rectal instillation of 3 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in 100 μL of 50% ethanol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Control mice received the same volume of saline in 50% ethanol. (frontiersin.org)
  • vivo
  • Taconic was the first company to commercialize in vivo knockdown, in 2007, and has more institutional experience with knockdown mouse generation than any comparable vendor. (taconic.com)
  • Mice lacking ffar2 or ffar3 exhibited reduced SCFA-triggered GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo and a parallel impairment of glucose tolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • sequences
  • In the first approach, homologous recombination, artificial DNA with flanking sequences that are homologous (identical) to those occurring upstream and downstream of the target gene DNA sequence is introduced into the nucleus of a mouse ES cell. (britannica.com)
  • Artificial DNA sequences typically are introduced into mouse ES cells using a retrovirus or other viral vector, and the modified ES cells are then grown in cell cultures . (britannica.com)
  • model
  • Taconic Biosciences was the first vendor to utilize CRISPR in both mice and rats, and is the first commercial custom animal model developer to hold licenses from both the Broad Institute and the UC Berkley . (taconic.com)
  • We had previously relied on several other academic institutions for model generation, wasting tens of thousands of dollars and several years, with no success. (taconic.com)
  • Similarly, the generation of Tnmd knockout mouse model allowed the suggestion of possible downstream effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, DN-TNFs neither inhibited the activity of human or mouse tmTNF nor suppressed innate immunity to Listeria infection in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • increases
  • Again the effect was more pronounced in AM+/− mice, which showed increases in cardiac myocyte size, protein synthesis, and fibroblast proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • protein
  • In this study, we show that pancreas-specific knockout of growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10), which is highly expressed in pancreas and islets, leads to elevated insulin/IGF-1 signaling in islets, enhanced β-cell mass and insulin content, and increased insulin secretion in mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mouse periodontal ligaments demonstrated tenomodulin protein expression at 3 and 4 weeks postnatal, a time period corresponding to molar eruptive and post-eruptive phases when the teeth become functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Although the α9 and α10 nAChR subunits are relevant to a number of physiological measures, we chose to characterize the mouse with auditory studies to compare them to existing but different α9 and α10 nAChR knockouts (KOs). (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess the physiological role of mitochondrial fusion in vertebrates, we have generated knockout mice for Mfn1 and Mfn2. (rupress.org)
  • high-fat-diet
  • Pancreas-specific disruption of Grb10 expression also improved glucose tolerance in mice fed with a high-fat diet and protected mice from streptozotocin-induced β-cell apoptosis and body weight loss. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • function
  • Knockout of Grb10 in the pancreas protects mice from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis, suggesting that suppressing the expression levels of Grb10 in the pancreas could be a promising approach for increasing β-cell mass and improving β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cells
  • LacZ staining revealed that Fam161a is expressed in the ganglion cells, inner and outer nuclear layer in these mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Intriguingly, this differential receptor expression includes both human and mouse type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) Th cells. (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, the ligands for this receptor, I-309 in humans and T cell activation-specific gene 3 (TCA3) in mice, are chemotactic for Th2 cells in vitro ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Human ES cells measure approximately 14 μm while mouse ES cells are closer to 8 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • We show here that in mice, TDRD5 is a novel component of the intermitochondrial cements (IMCs) and the chromatoid bodies (CBs), which are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules involved in RNA processing for spermatogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • normal
  • Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) showed that all constitutive mouse strains had normal hearing. (frontiersin.org)
  • control
  • Inhibition of neurolysin has been shown to produce neurotensin-induced analgesia in mice, and control of neurotensin levels by neurolysin may serve as a potential target for antipsychotic therapies. (wikipedia.org)