• propofol
  • To determine whether receptor modulation by intravenous general anesthetics also was affected by these point mutations, we examined the effects of propofol, etomidate, the barbiturate methohexital, and the steroid alphaxalone on wild-type and mutant GABA A receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • renal
  • Despite the potential for renal impairment when used at anesthetic doses, no significant adverse effects have been reported in the literature when it is used at the lower doses (up to 6 milliliters) used for producing analgesia and sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • In general, lower initial doses (e.g., 40 mg PO every 8 hours) of verapamil may be warranted. (pdr.net)
  • anaesthetic
  • An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nonspecific mechanism of general anaesthetic action was first proposed by Von Bibra and Harless in 1847. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meyer and Overton had discovered the striking correlation between the physical properties of general anaesthetic molecules and their potency: the greater is the lipid solubility of the compound in olive oil the greater is its anaesthetic potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the correlation between lipid solubility and anaesthetic potency, both Meyer and Overton had surmised a unitary mechanism of general anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They assumed that solubilization of lipophilic general anaesthetic in lipid bilayer of the neuron causes its malfunction and anaesthetic effect when critical concentration of anaesthetic is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideal volatile anaesthetic agent offers smooth and reliable induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia with minimal effects on other organ systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • In the last 10 years, however, numerous studies have reported that volatile anesthetic agents interact with membrane structures of the myocardium and thereby attenuate cardiac mechanical dysfunction and limit ultrastructural abnormality on reperfusion after prolonged ischemia in the myocyte. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Biophysical studies using state-of-the-art NMR spectroscopy has provided molecular details of how inhaled anesthetics interact with three amino acid residues (G29, A30 and I31) of amyloid beta peptide and induce aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • steady-state
  • In conclusion, general anesthetics exert a dual effect on the GABA receptor channel complex: to potentiate the nondesensitized (both peak and sustained) current and to suppress the desensitized steady-state current. (mysciencework.com)
  • anaesthesia
  • They suggested that general anaesthetics may act by dissolving in the fatty fraction of brain cells and removing fatty constituents from them, thus changing activity of brain cells and inducing anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • exert
  • It has long been believed that general anaesthetics exert their effects (analgesia, amnesia, immobility) by modulating the activity of membrane proteins in the neuronal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • They have a slower onset and longer half-life than ester anesthetics, and are usually racemic mixtures, with the exception of levobupivacaine (which is S(-) -bupivacaine) and ropivacaine (S(-)-ropivacaine). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In general, these recommendations should serve as the upper limit for dosage adjustments in order to decrease the risk of potentially serious adverse events associated with unexpected large increases in serum theophylline concentration. (rxlist.com)
  • Researchers
  • citation needed] All these common features of general anaesthetics made it hard for early researchers to believe that general anaesthetics act in a specific manner and their action on neuronal membrane was[timeframe? (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Below are several key targets of general anesthetics that likely mediate their effects: GABAA receptors are chloride channels that hyperpolarize neurons and function as inhibitory CNS receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, in addition to its opioid effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partly because of its side effects, enflurane never gained widespread popularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knill RL, Clement JL (1982) Variable effects of anesthetics on the ventilatory response to hypoxemia in man. (springer.com)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of several hundred studies, for example, Consortium members identified dose-dependent effects of every major anesthetic and sedative on thermoregulatory control, and consequent alterations in heat balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery [neuters (spay and castration), minor mass excisions, etc.], some also perform additional procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver
  • Liver and kidney: The release of fluoride, bromide, and other metabolic products of the halogenated hydrocarbons can affect these organs, especially with repeated anesthetic administration over a short period of time. (slideshare.net)
  • anaesthetics
  • General anaesthetics are a structurally diverse group of compounds whose mechanisms encompasses multiple biological targets involved in the control of neuronal pathways. (wikipedia.org)