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  • diethyl ether
  • It became popular as a nonflammable general anesthetic replacing other volatile anesthetics such as trichloroethylene, diethyl ether and cyclopropane. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anaesthetics have been widely used in surgery since 1842 when Crawford Long for the first time administered diethyl ether to a patient and performed a painless operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several medical anesthetics are used as recreational drugs, including diethyl ether (a drug that is no longer used medically, due to its high flammability and the development of safer alternatives) and nitrous oxide, which is widely used in the 2010s by dentists as an anti-anxiety drug during dental procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Despite the potential for renal impairment when used at anesthetic doses, no significant adverse effects have been reported in the literature when it is used at the lower doses (up to 6 milliliters) used for producing analgesia and sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketamine
  • AMONG anesthetics, ketamine is a dissociative agent uniquely featured by low cardiovascular and respiratory depression and a good analgesia but also by postanesthetic psychotomimetic effects. (asahq.org)
  • 1,2 Also, in contrast to the diffuse cerebral metabolic depression typically induced by general anesthetics, 3-6 ketamine determines both cerebral metabolic decreases and increases in the anesthetic phase 7-10 and sharp cerebral metabolic increases in the following recovery phase. (asahq.org)
  • 9 The discrepant activating features of ketamine have in the past led some authors to hypothesize that ketamine acts as an "excitatory anesthetic" 9,11 but may actually be caused by an insufficient level of anesthesia or inappropriate timing when measuring cerebral metabolism. (asahq.org)
  • 6 The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of rCMRglc during sustained anesthesia and during recovery from equivalent anesthesia with ketamine racemate and enantiomers and to compare them with those of known neurotransmitter agents and general anesthetics. (asahq.org)
  • interact
  • In the last 10 years, however, numerous studies have reported that volatile anesthetic agents interact with membrane structures of the myocardium and thereby attenuate cardiac mechanical dysfunction and limit ultrastructural abnormality on reperfusion after prolonged ischemia in the myocyte. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Biophysical studies using state-of-the-art NMR spectroscopy has provided molecular details of how inhaled anesthetics interact with three amino acid residues (G29, A30 and I31) of amyloid beta peptide and induce aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • The ideal anesthetic vapor or gas should be non-flammable, non-explosive, and lipid-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • They assumed that solubilization of lipophilic general anaesthetic in lipid bilayer of the neuron causes its malfunction and anaesthetic effect when critical concentration of anaesthetic is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • In general, twice daily dosing may provide a greater effect at the end of the dosing interval for higher doses of 40-80 mg/day. (pdr.net)
  • onset
  • They have a slower onset and longer half-life than ester anesthetics, and are usually racemic mixtures, with the exception of levobupivacaine (which is S(-) -bupivacaine) and ropivacaine (S(-)-ropivacaine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • citation needed] All these common features of general anaesthetics made it hard for early researchers to believe that general anaesthetics act in a specific manner and their action on neuronal membrane was[timeframe? (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs
  • A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATC code N01 Anesthetics is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other anesthetic drugs are considered safe[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs are generally administered by an anaesthetist/anesthesiologist in order to induce or maintain general anaesthesia to facilitate surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • anaesthesia
  • They suggested that general anaesthetics may act by dissolving in the fatty fraction of brain cells and removing fatty constituents from them, thus changing activity of brain cells and inducing anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • mepivacaine
  • procaine amethocaine lidocaine (also known as lignocaine) prilocaine bupivacaine levobupivacaine ropivacaine mepivacaine dibucaine cocaine Local anesthetics are agents that prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose-dependent
  • In a series of several hundred studies, for example, Consortium members identified dose-dependent effects of every major anesthetic and sedative on thermoregulatory control, and consequent alterations in heat balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery [neuters (spay and castration), minor mass excisions, etc.], some also perform additional procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • agents
  • 23,24 rCMRglc measures have been used to characterize and compare neuroactive agents acting on neurotransmitter systems 25-27 and general anesthetics. (asahq.org)
  • Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signs can develop any time during the administration of the anesthetic triggering agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to find confirmed cases in the postoperative period more than several minutes after discontinuation of anesthetic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partly because of its side effects, enflurane never gained widespread popularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are several key targets of general anesthetics that likely mediate their effects: GABAA receptors are chloride channels that hyperpolarize neurons and function as inhibitory CNS receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been believed that general anaesthetics exert their effects (analgesia, amnesia, immobility) by modulating the activity of membrane proteins in the neuronal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • General anaesthetics are a structurally diverse group of compounds whose mechanisms encompasses multiple biological targets involved in the control of neuronal pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • It looks like inhaled anesthetics act on multiple molecular targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, most of the halogenated anesthetics are irritating to the airway, perhaps leading to coughing, laryngospasm and overall difficult inductions. (wikipedia.org)