• Proboscivirus
  • The EEHVs are members of the Proboscivirus genus, a novel clade most closely related to the mammalian betaherpesviruses that have been responsible for as many as 70 deaths of both zoo and wild Asian elephants worldwide, especially in young calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of large DNA viruses, especially using methods based on alignment, is often difficult due to the presence of horizontal gene transfer events. (beds.ac.uk)
  • With composition vector approach we obtained the phylogenetic tree of large DNA viruses, which not only give results comparable to biologist's systematics but also provide a new way for recovering the phylogeny of viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Since viruses have no universal common genes just like SSU rRNA in cellular life, it is difficult to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree for distinct type of virus with most of former methods. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Diseases
  • Reactivation of latent viruses has been implicated in a number of diseases (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gammaherpesviruses are of primary interest due to the two human viruses, EBV and KSHV and the diseases they cause.The gammaherpesviruses replicate and persist in lymphoid cells but some are capable of undergoing lytic replication in epithelial or fibroblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Given the initial absence of host immunity , the lytic cycle produces large amounts of virus to infect other (presumably) B-lymphocytes within the host. (wikidoc.org)
  • The latent programs reprogram and subvert infected B-lymphocytes to proliferate and bring infected cells to the sites at which the virus presumably persists. (wikidoc.org)
  • Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system especially must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Artificial insemination is not believed to be a transmission factor, notes that when multiple calves of a single bull or cow elephant died at different times (even at the same facility) they nearly all had distinct strains of the virus, yet when two calves died or became infected at the same time at the same facility the pairs have always had identical virus strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contains live attenuated measles, mumps and rubella virus strains. (slideplayer.com)
  • latent
  • The virus can execute many distinct programs of gene expression which can be broadly categorized as being lytic cycle or latent cycle. (wikidoc.org)
  • More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one of these, and a latent form of the virus remains in most people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus can remain latent in recovered animals - shedding at times of stress, allowing the spread of disease to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to reactivation of latent measles virus in the brain. (slideplayer.com)
  • Virus was isolated from tonsils/adenoids surgically removed, indicating latent infections. (slideplayer.com)
  • infectious
  • Viruses are small, infectious, obligate intracellular parasites that are capable of replicating themselves within their host cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • infection
  • It is postulated that following natural infection with EBV, the virus executes some or all of its repertoire of gene expression programs to establish a persistent infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • These viruses tend to cause tumors when infection occurs outside of their native hosts or in the case of KSHV, in humans when the host is immunosuppressed due to AIDS, old age, or in the setting of organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because EHV-4 infection can be asymptomatic, the presence of the virus does not confirm that it was the cause of the observed clinical signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has been related to HIV infection. (pubfacts.com)
  • Genes
  • Eventually, when host immunity develops, the virus persists by turning off most (or possibly all) of its genes, only occasionally reactivating to produce fresh virions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Virus Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are large double-stranded viruses that possess up to 100 genes in a single long chromosome, which is flanked by repetitive DNA sequences called terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticoviridae
  • Bacteriophages (viruses infecting bacteria) belonging to the families Tectiviridae and Corticoviridae have a lipid bilayer membrane inside the icosahedral protein capsid and the membrane surrounds the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • Distribution is worldwide and the virus infects a range of ruminants, including bison, buffalo, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus then spreads by blood and infects the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. (slideplayer.com)
  • pathogens
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)