• RNAs
  • Small noncoding RNAs regulate epigenetic gene silencing pathways that are well-conserved in eukaryotes ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once processed bring about silencing of a target gene or genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA complementary to the desired mRNA target. (wikipedia.org)
  • This construct was designed to express three therapeutic RNAs, one of which was a shRNA, thereby combating HIV replication in three different ways: shRNA, that silences the tat and rev genes of the HIV genome CCR5 ribozyme, inhibiting viral cell entry TAR decoy RNA, inhibiting initiation of viral transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • Genes may be silenced by DNA methylation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modifications to histones, including acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation, are important because of their role in activating and deactivating genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various genes targeted by promoter hypermethylation in malignant melanoma Some of the genes affected by cytosine methylation in melanoma formation INK4A INK4A, also known as p16, is a tumor suppressor gene and is found to have hypermethylated promotor regions in 10- 20% of melanoma cells and is involved in 40- 87% of gene alterations in melanoma cases (Gonzalgo et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • SYK SYK is another gene that is affected by cytosine methylation during cancer progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Upon further examination, we observed that the primary transcripts containing the stem-loop structures of all 10 miRNAs were encoded within the promoter regions of their proximal known genes, suggesting that these miRNAs could potentially target their opposite strand sequences in cis with perfect complementarity. (pnas.org)
  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene decrease the levels of MeCP2 binding to different promoter sequences, resulting in their overall derepression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterochromatin mainly consists of genetically inactive satellite sequences, and many genes are repressed to various extents, although some cannot be expressed in euchromatin at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulator sequences may act as a barrier in rare cases where constitutive heterochromatin and highly active genes are juxtaposed (e.g. the 5'HS4 insulator upstream of the chicken β-globin locus, and loci in two Saccharomyces spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA strand 1: antisense strand (transcribed to)→ RNA strand (sense) DNA strand 2: sense strand Some regions within a double strand of DNA code for genes, which are usually instructions specifying the order of amino acids in a protein along with regulatory sequences, splicing sites, noncoding introns, and other complicating details. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both Watson and Crick strands can be either sense or antisense strands depending on the gene whose sequences are displayed in the genome sequence database. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is then transiently expressed through RNA synthesis from appropriate promoter sequences in all transfected cells (no selection for stable integration is performed). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Kun Yan Zhu, professor of entomology, and teammates Xin Zhang, graduate student in entomology from China, and Jianzhen Zhang, a visiting scientist from Shanxi University, China, investigated using nanoparticles to deliver double-stranded ribonucleic acid, dsRNA -- a molecule capable of specifically triggering gene silencing -- into mosquito larvae through their food. (innovations-report.com)
  • Suppressing the gene for an ion flux regulatory molecule protected rats against paralysis following spinal cord injury, researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Suppressing the gene for an ion flux regulatory molecule protected rats against paralysis following spinal cord injury, researchers said, a finding that could have similar implications in humans. (medpagetoday.com)
  • miRNAs
  • To address whether miRNAs might transcriptionally silence gene expression, we searched for miRNA target sites proximal to known gene transcription start sites in the human genome. (pnas.org)
  • To assess whether endogenous miRNAs might direct TGS in mammals, we performed a bioinformatic search for potential miRNA target sites with perfect sequence complementarity in the promoter regions of well-annotated University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) known human genes ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • transiently
  • Although it is not clear exactly how p19 works to suppress RNA silencing, studies have shown that transiently expressed proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves have a up to 50-fold higher yield when coinfiltrated with TBSV p19. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This occurs mostly at the cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide rich regions, known as CpG islands, and are located particularly in the promoter regions of genes in the human genome (Patino et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their preclinical proof of principle has been proven in vivo using the antiapoptotic survivin gene PPRHs can be designed for virtually any gene in the genome by searching for polypirimidine stretches in the sequence of the desired gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome contains approximately 10% prokaryote-like genes, an unusually large proportion. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterochromatin
  • Constitutive heterochromatin can affect the genes near itself (position-effect variegation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations cause heterochromatin to encroach on adjacent genes or recede from genes at the extremes of domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cells of a given species package the same regions of DNA in constitutive heterochromatin, and thus in all cells any genes contained within the constitutive heterochromatin, will be poorly expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regions of DNA packaged in facultative heterochromatin will not be consistent between the cell types within a species, and thus a sequence in one cell that is packaged in facultative heterochromatin (and the genes within are poorly expressed) may be packaged in euchromatin in another cell (and the genes within are no longer silenced). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said. (innovations-report.com)
  • sequence
  • Furthermore, in each of these species, the mature miRNA sequence is located within −1 to −200 bp of the proximal known gene TSS, suggesting the functional importance of this conserved genomic context in the antisense orientation ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 A ). miR-320 is encoded directly upstream of the cell cycle gene POLR3D, which is a conserved subunit specific to RNA polymerase III ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • IDT uses this sequence identifier to track what gene the DsiRNA targets and the actual sequence ordered. (idtdna.com)
  • In 1998, it was found that double-stranded RNA, injected to worms influenced the natural gene sequence in such a way that it was silenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). Epigenetics is the term used to refer to stable changes in DNA that affect gene expression but do not involve changes in the underlying nucleotide sequence of the organism (Patino et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the repressor is bound upstream of a gene, such as in an operator sequence, then it would be repressing the gene's expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • For transcription to occur, RNA polymerase needs to have access to the promoter sequence of the gene or it cannot bind the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Histones are important in the process of gene expression, and their positioning as determined by chaperone proteins is essential to that role. (wikipedia.org)
  • This derepresses the CBP proteins, and allows them to perform their function of upregulating transcription of their target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TSWV and other tospovirus NSs proteins have been shown to be effective as suppressors of both local and systemic silencing, and may be a useful alternative to p19 where the latter has been shown not to be effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Gene silencing can occur during either transcription or translation and is often used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their action has been demonstrated in vitro for a number of genes involved in metabolism (DHFR), proliferation (mTOR), DNA topology (TOP1), lifespan and senescence (telomerase), apoptosis (survivin, BCL2), transcription factors (MYC), and proto-oncogenes (MDM2) as part of a cancer gene therapy strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helicase-like transcription factor is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HLTF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • MECP2
  • Another related research interest for Luger's research group is the genetic cause of Rett syndrome, the gene MECP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased expression of these MeCP2 regulated genes in neurons contribute to the Rhett syndrome phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • There has already been some nuts in the US Fundimentalists that have called anther gene, of which a mutant version produces more monogamous people, as something they wouldn't mind seeing gene therapy to induce. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • repression
  • It is usually repetitive and forms structural functions such as centromeres or telomeres, in addition to acting as an attractor for other gene-expression or repression signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • The soybean rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi may meet its match, thanks to a gene-silencing technique that scientists of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plan to deploy to identify genes that enable plants to naturally resist this fungal foe. (usda.gov)
  • Gene silencing allows scientists to identify a gene's function by disabling that gene in plants or other organisms, challenging the organism in some way such as with exposure to a pathogen and observing the consequences that result from that gene having been "missing in action. (usda.gov)
  • cells
  • Gene silencing thus may be part of an ancient immune system protecting cells from such infectious DNA and RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • This silencing of genes can be dangerous to cells, especially when the genes silenced are active in maintaining the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the method a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is introduced into a plant leaf by direct injection or by vacuum infiltration, or brought into association with plant cells immobilised on a porous support (plant cell packs), whereafter the bacteria transfer the desired gene into the plant cells via transfer of T-DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the leaf the Agrobacterium remains in the intercellular space and transfers the gene of interest as part of the Ti plasmid-derived T-DNA in high copy numbers into the plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)
  • The table below shows some of the important genes targeted by promoter hypermethylation in melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppression
  • Some findings show that normally functioning SYK genes aids in tumor suppression, while other studies find that it is a transforming factor that facilitates cancer formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Soon thereafter, biotech and pharmaceutical companies turned their attention to siRNAs-short pieces of RNA, DNA's cousin, that can prevent the activity of the specific gene they complement-as a potential therapeutic tool , but so far no one has successfully commercialized the technology. (technologyreview.com)
  • It is thus far the most effective and feasible method in inhibiting specific gene expression. (nova.edu)
  • When researchers give a cell in the lab a double-stranded RNA copy of a specific gene, the cell will prevent its native copy of that gene from being expressed. (technologyreview.com)
  • At the molecular level, RT-PCR using gene specific primers will work. (protocol-online.org)
  • In a recent study, described in a story in Technology Review, female mice lose all interest in sex when a specific gene in the brain is silenced. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Because we can select specific genes for silencing, and the nanoparticles are formed from chitosan -- a virtually non-toxic and biodegradable polymer -- this pest control technology could target specific pest species while being environmentally friendly," he said. (innovations-report.com)
  • NCBI
  • BRCA1 " indicates the NCBI gene symbol, in this example, the breast cancer associated 1 gene. (idtdna.com)
  • diseases
  • In addition, they provide a more complete view on the development of diseases since diseases are generally associated with genes that have a reduced expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated across a range of disease models, including viral diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C, or diseases associated with altered expression of endogenous genes such as drug-resistant lung cancer, neuropathic pain, advanced cancer and retinitis pigmentosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Delivery of ddRNAi DNA constructs is simplified by the existence of a number of clinically-approved and well-characterized gene therapy vectors developed for the purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • That is, a gene which would be expressed ("turned on") under normal circumstances is switched off by machinery in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). When INK4 is inactivated through hypermethylation, it causes an interruption of the CDK4 and CDK6 genes, which normally stop cell growth in the G1 phase of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • CTGF already has the attention of Pfizer, which recently acquired a company developing another gene-silencing technique to reduce its effects. (technologyreview.com)
  • An ARS researcher will use the technique known as gene silencing to identify genes that enable plants to naturally resist the fungus that causes soybean rust, the foliar disease shown here that diminishes yields. (usda.gov)