• deletion
  • These results and further mapping with 5′ deletion mutants from the -738/+95 region have demonstrated that an AP-1 site at -92/-86 is essential for basal expression of the gene. (biochemj.org)
  • Second, deletion of a DNA segment containing the promoter and first exon (I or GL exon) of the GL transcript by knockout technology abrogates switching to that C H gene ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Deletion analysis showed that a fragment of the promoter from +65 to -303 was more active in both cell types than the 1.5 kb fragment suggesting that there are silencer sequences in the region 5′ to the core promoter. (biochemj.org)
  • Deletion of the promoter from -750 to -71 bp (but not from -750 to -250 bp) abolished all stimulatory effects of DEX without affecting cAMP responsiveness. (biochemj.org)
  • The λ-red recombineering system was published in 1998 and allows for insertion, deletion, or mutations to E. coli genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • exon
  • The region cloned consisted of the SM22 alpha promoter, a 65 bp exon containing most of the 5′-untranslated region and 307 bp of the first intron. (biochemj.org)
  • protein
  • We have previously identified NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) as a key regulator of insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells that is activated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) in response to increased [Ca 2+ ] i ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A common functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene influences plasma LDL levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A region between −88 and −111 base pairs upstream from the UGT2B1 gene transcription start site contains a CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-like element and was previously shown by Dnase I footprint analysis to bind to proteins in both rat liver and human hepatoma (HepG2) cell nuclear extracts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Reporter systems have been used for the determination of the efficiency of gene delivery systems, the intracellular localization of a gene product, the detection of protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, the efficiency of translation initiation signals and the success of molecular cloning efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein quantification and the assessment of protein activity are also discussed, along with the centrifugation method and applications of PCR in forensics and paternity testing. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the importance of the TβRE for GL α transcription, no protein that binds the TβRE and regulates the GL α promoter has been identified. (jimmunol.org)
  • The present invention further relates to process for cloning and expressing modified SAK gene fusion protein which imparts improved stability to the heterologous protein of interest. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Novel self-cleavage activity of Staphylokinase fusion proteins: An interesting finding and its possible applications", Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 69, 2010, pp. 191-197. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transcription of these genes is constant, at a pace depending on the need and half-life of each protein. (mdpi.com)
  • The ET-1-stimulated activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity and AP-1-mediated reporter activity were attenuated by NO. In addition, NO also significantly inhibited ET-1-stimulated promoter activity of hypertrophic marker gene β-myosin heavy chain and the enhanced protein synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the -250 to -71 bp region of the SS promoter (but not the -71 to +55 bp domain) binds specifically to a glucocorticoid response element-sensitive nuclear protein(s) from PC12 cells, suggesting a putative glucocorticoid receptor interaction with SS promoter DNA. (biochemj.org)
  • A activity, and may be mediated via protein-protein interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and the CRE binding protein. (biochemj.org)
  • Examples include the gene that encodes jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP), which causes cells that express it to glow green under blue light, the enzyme luciferase, which catalyzes a reaction with luciferin to produce light, and the red fluorescent protein from the gene dsRed (fr). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the CYP3A4 protein is encoded by the CYP3A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimal
  • Within the −128/+46 segment, a novel element (called TβRE) was shown to be required for TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene and, when multimerized, to be sufficient to transfer the inducibility to a minimal c- fos promoter ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • substrate
  • This enzyme causes bacteria expressing the gene to appear blue when grown on a medium that contains the substrate analog X-gal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of selectable-marker reporters such as CAT, the transfected population of bacteria can be grown on a substrate that contains chloramphenicol. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • The region hybridizing with a murine TIMP-1 promoter fragment has been subcloned and analysed further. (biochemj.org)
  • We have cloned and sequenced a 1.9 kb fragment of the 5′-upstream sequence of the smooth-muscle-specific gene SM22 alpha. (biochemj.org)
  • The residual promoter activity in the smallest fragment of the SM22 alpha promoter tested suggested that, unlike the smooth-muscle alpha-actin promoter, transcription from the SM22 alpha promoter can occur in smooth-muscle cells in the absence of factors binding to CC(A/Trich)6GG (CArG box) or CANNTG (E box) motifs. (biochemj.org)
  • consensus
  • This promoter region did not contain a consensus TATAA box but contained the sequence TTTAAA 25 bp from the major start site identified by primer extension. (biochemj.org)
  • marker
  • It is important to use a reporter gene that is not natively expressed in the cell or organism under study, since the expression of the reporter is being used as a marker for successful uptake of the gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this successfully removes the selective marker from the genome, it leaves FRT scars in place of the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 1. A baculoviral vector for the production of an exogenous gene product in insect host cells wherein said host cells are incapable of permitting replication of an unmodified baculovirus which comprises an exogenous DNA sequence encoding the gene product wherein transcription of said DNA sequence is controlled by a promoter of an LTR selected from the group consisting of retroviral LTRs and transposable element LTRs. (patents.com)
  • In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • One pathway results from the direct effect of increased [Ca 2+ ] i , which activates calcineurin, and in turn, it upregulates insulin gene transcription via NFAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose metabolism activates this pathway by means of increasing [Ca 2+ ] i via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) by affecting the electrical activity of the cell. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • exogenous
  • A novel viral expression vector is employed in the expression of exogenous genes in "non-permissive" hosts. (patents.com)
  • Exogenous genes under the control of a promoter which promotes expression in "non-permissive" hosts are thus used to expand the host range of the virus thus allowing production of polypeptides, including polypeptides which are toxic to the target host. (patents.com)
  • stimulation
  • Dexamethasone (DEX) induced a dose-dependent 2.2-fold stimulation of SS gene transcription in PC12 cells, but not in A126-1B2 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • 20-HETE has a wide range of activities that also include growth stimulation in breast and other types of cancers (see 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid#cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In this study, GLP-1 (100 nmol/l), in the presence of glucose (11 mmol/l), induced a ∼71-fold increase in insulin gene promoter activity in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells, an effect that was an order of magnitude larger than with either stimulant alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that the synergistic action of glucose and GLP-1 to promote insulin gene transcription is mediated through NFAT via PKA- and calcineurin-dependent pathways in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rate of insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells is regulated by a complex integration of signals derived from nutrients, hormones, and neurotransmitters ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These cells express high levels of renin mRNA from their endogenous renin gene and release approximately eightfold-more prorenin than active renin in culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 7 8 The As4.1 cell line maintains high expression of its endogenous renin gene in addition to the transgene over long-term culture and demonstrates several features that are characteristic of kidney juxtaglomerular cells, including the ability to store and release active renin. (ahajournals.org)
  • A 4-fold decrease in the mdr1 gene transcription rate was observed in the 30 microM VRP-treated CEM VLB100 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CAT activity was also observed with fragments containing bases +65 to -193 and +65 to -117 in smooth-muscle cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Inhibitors of IF3 are expected to result in increased growth of specially-designed test cells due to higher levels of expression from the reporter gene. (google.es)
  • Cells cotransfected with the dominant negative and positive mutants of signaling molecules revealed that the Ras/Raf/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is involved in ET-induced c- fos gene expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other steroid and thyroid hormones tested, and retinoic acid, were ineffective, while cAMP and forskolin stimulated gene transcription 4-5-fold in PC12 cells but not in A126-1B2 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Within this segment resides a TGF-β1-responsive element (TβRE) that is required for induction of the promoter by TGF-β1 and, when multimerized, is sufficient to transfer TGF-β1 inducibility to another promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutation of both sites reduces but does not eliminate induction of the GL α promoter by TGF-β1 or by overexpression of CBF, possibly due to the presence of an additional CBF site in the promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutation of these motifs eliminates TGF-β1 induction of the GL α promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether ET-1 induces NO production in cardiomyocytes and whether intracellular NO could modulate ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response, including the induction of early response gene and re-expression of fetal gene program. (aspetjournals.org)
  • transcripts
  • The promoter segment between −130 and +46, relative to the first initiation site for mouse GL α transcripts, is sufficient for expression and TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene in B cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the functions of GL transcripts are unknown, transcription of unrearranged C H genes is important for regulation of class switch recombination. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous work showed that the promoter segment containing nucleotides from −128 to +46, relative to the first initiation site for GL α transcripts, is sufficient for expression and TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene in two different B cell lines ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • region
  • Ig class switching allows the recombined variable (VDJ) region gene of the heavy chain to be expressed with a new downstream constant region (C H ) 3 gene, resulting in a change in the effector function of the Ab. (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Carbocyclic Puromycin Analog-6-Dimethylamino-9-{R-[2r-hydroxy-3R-(p-methoxyphenyl-L-alanylamino) ]-cyclopentyl}purine", J. of Medicinal Chem. (patents.com)
  • Thus, synthesis of mRNA is the first step that controls eukaryotic gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • thus
  • Thus, a method for identifying those few successful gene uptake events is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it has been proposed that Synechocystis originally possessed the ability to fix nitrogen gas, but lost the genes required for a fully functioning nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • b) detecting the translation of the reporter gene mRNA, wherein a specific increase in the translation of the reporter gene mRNA in the test cell contacted with the test compound relative to the translation of the reporter gene mRNA in a test cell not contacted with the test compound, indicates that the test compound inhibits IF3 in the test cell. (google.es)
  • enzyme
  • 3 Moreover, mice with both chromosomal copies of the IL-1β-converting enzyme gene inactivated were resistant to endotoxic shock. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, two-point base pair mutations in any of the three identified NFAT sites within the rat insulin I promoter resulted in a significant reduction in the combined effect of glucose and GLP-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cell
  • Currently there is intense interest to define the mechanism of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in regulating β-cell function, including insulin gene transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 5 9 The endogenous renin gene expressed in the As4.1 cell line is Ren-1 c . (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the mechanism of verapamil (VRP) effects on mdr1 gene expression in two leukemic multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, K562/ADR and CEM VLB100. (aspetjournals.org)
  • By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1(-/-) or nude background) deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1(-/-)), we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. (ac.be)
  • Reporter genes are often used as an indication of whether a certain gene has been taken up by or expressed in the cell or organism population. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • We have also analysed the activity of both L1 and L2 promoters in a particular group of T. cruzi isolates (group 1/2) which contains two types of rRNA cistrons. (usp.br)
  • coli
  • Phage λ gamma is necessary to inhibit E. coli nuclease activity and protect the transformed linear DNA in vivo. (wikipedia.org)