• exon
  • The region cloned consisted of the SM22 alpha promoter, a 65 bp exon containing most of the 5′-untranslated region and 307 bp of the first intron. (biochemj.org)
  • proteins
  • Together the data indicate that TGF-β1 induction of the α promoter involves induction of CBFα3, which binds to the TβRE of the promoter along with one or more proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Constitutive genes are mainly house-keeping proteins that form each cell and confer its basic functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Regulated genes are proteins expressed in response to signals from the cell and its environment. (mdpi.com)
  • Commonly used reporter genes that induce visually identifiable characteristics usually involve fluorescent and luminescent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more complex use of reporter genes on a large scale is in two-hybrid screening, which aims to identify proteins that natively interact with one another in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • By initial opportunistic screening for polymorphic sites in the regulatory region of the MTP gene by gene sequencing in 20 healthy male subjects, a common functional G/T polymorphism was detected 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the importance of this region in the regulation of the UGT2B1 gene was assessed by functional and DNA binding assays. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, L2 promoter was functional in both Lineages. (usp.br)
  • It was observed that both promoters were functional in this group of strains, although L2 promoter drove higher CAT activity. (usp.br)
  • point mutations
  • this technique is able to establish point mutations, gene deletions, and short sequence insertions in several genomic loci with increased efficiency and time sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimal
  • Within the −128/+46 segment, a novel element (called TβRE) was shown to be required for TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene and, when multimerized, to be sufficient to transfer the inducibility to a minimal c- fos promoter ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • substrate
  • This enzyme causes bacteria expressing the gene to appear blue when grown on a medium that contains the substrate analog X-gal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of selectable-marker reporters such as CAT, the transfected population of bacteria can be grown on a substrate that contains chloramphenicol. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • The organization and the structure of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) were determined and the effects of elicitor and suppressor produced by a pea pathogen, Mycosphaerella pinodes, were examined by transforming a chimeric DNA containing the PAL- and CHS-promoter fragments connected to a reporter gene into tobacco or pea plant with particle gun, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, or electroporation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CAT activity was also observed with fragments containing bases +65 to -193 and +65 to -117 in smooth-muscle cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In contrast with the smooth-muscle cells, no CAT activity was detected in Rat-1 fibroblasts with the smallest two fragments. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, two-point base pair mutations in any of the three identified NFAT sites within the rat insulin I promoter resulted in a significant reduction in the combined effect of glucose and GLP-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • consensus
  • Two of the major pea CHS genes (PSCHS1, PSCHS2) from a cluster in a tandem repeat with a spacer, and an identical 31 bp sequence containing the consensus motif of box I located 5'-upstream from the putative TATA box of both CHS genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This promoter region did not contain a consensus TATAA box but contained the sequence TTTAAA 25 bp from the major start site identified by primer extension. (biochemj.org)
  • marker
  • It is important to use a reporter gene that is not natively expressed in the cell or organism under study, since the expression of the reporter is being used as a marker for successful uptake of the gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this successfully removes the selective marker from the genome, it leaves FRT scars in place of the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 1. A baculoviral vector for the production of an exogenous gene product in insect host cells wherein said host cells are incapable of permitting replication of an unmodified baculovirus which comprises an exogenous DNA sequence encoding the gene product wherein transcription of said DNA sequence is controlled by a promoter of an LTR selected from the group consisting of retroviral LTRs and transposable element LTRs. (patents.com)
  • In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Since the regeneration line of pea p … More lant has not been established from the single cell lines, we obtained Km^R calli and the induction of GUS activities were examined by the treatment with fungal elicitor and the infection of pathogens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Considerable induction of GUS activity was observed in some of the callus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Within this segment resides a TGF-β1-responsive element (TβRE) that is required for induction of the promoter by TGF-β1 and, when multimerized, is sufficient to transfer TGF-β1 inducibility to another promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutation of both sites reduces but does not eliminate induction of the GL α promoter by TGF-β1 or by overexpression of CBF, possibly due to the presence of an additional CBF site in the promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutation of these motifs eliminates TGF-β1 induction of the GL α promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether ET-1 induces NO production in cardiomyocytes and whether intracellular NO could modulate ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response, including the induction of early response gene and re-expression of fetal gene program. (aspetjournals.org)
  • activates
  • One pathway results from the direct effect of increased [Ca 2+ ] i , which activates calcineurin, and in turn, it upregulates insulin gene transcription via NFAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose metabolism activates this pathway by means of increasing [Ca 2+ ] i via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) by affecting the electrical activity of the cell. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • region
  • Ig class switching allows the recombined variable (VDJ) region gene of the heavy chain to be expressed with a new downstream constant region (C H ) 3 gene, resulting in a change in the effector function of the Ab. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that mutually exclusive expression of Paramecium surface antigens can be overcome if two antigen genes contain the same 5' coding region. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • We have examined transcriptional interaction between glucocorticoids and the cAMP signalling pathway and mapped the 5′ upstream regulatory region of the SS gene involved in glucocorticoid transactivation. (biochemj.org)
  • The CYP3A4 gene exhibits a much more complicated upstream regulatory region in comparison with its paralogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cluster
  • Thus, it has been proposed that Synechocystis originally possessed the ability to fix nitrogen gas, but lost the genes required for a fully functioning nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is part of a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 7q21.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In this study, GLP-1 (100 nmol/l), in the presence of glucose (11 mmol/l), induced a ∼71-fold increase in insulin gene promoter activity in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells, an effect that was an order of magnitude larger than with either stimulant alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that the synergistic action of glucose and GLP-1 to promote insulin gene transcription is mediated through NFAT via PKA- and calcineurin-dependent pathways in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rate of insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells is regulated by a complex integration of signals derived from nutrients, hormones, and neurotransmitters ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These cells express high levels of renin mRNA from their endogenous renin gene and release approximately eightfold-more prorenin than active renin in culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 7 8 The As4.1 cell line maintains high expression of its endogenous renin gene in addition to the transgene over long-term culture and demonstrates several features that are characteristic of kidney juxtaglomerular cells, including the ability to store and release active renin. (ahajournals.org)
  • A 4-fold decrease in the mdr1 gene transcription rate was observed in the 30 microM VRP-treated CEM VLB100 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cytological studies showed that plants with Lux or GUS gene connected to 35S promoter as a control exhibited the distinctive GUS atibity in the cells possibly carrying the chimeric DNA, however those with PAL promoter did not exhibit GUS or Lux activities even by the treatment with fungal elicitor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SRC-1 increased AhR-mediated, TCDD-dependent reporter gene activity threefold in Hepa-1 and COS-1 cells. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Inhibitors of IF3 are expected to result in increased growth of specially-designed test cells due to higher levels of expression from the reporter gene. (google.es)
  • Cells cotransfected with the dominant negative and positive mutants of signaling molecules revealed that the Ras/Raf/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is involved in ET-induced c- fos gene expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dexamethasone (DEX) induced a dose-dependent 2.2-fold stimulation of SS gene transcription in PC12 cells, but not in A126-1B2 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Other steroid and thyroid hormones tested, and retinoic acid, were ineffective, while cAMP and forskolin stimulated gene transcription 4-5-fold in PC12 cells but not in A126-1B2 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • A novel viral expression vector is employed in the expression of exogenous genes in "non-permissive" hosts. (patents.com)
  • Exogenous genes under the control of a promoter which promotes expression in "non-permissive" hosts are thus used to expand the host range of the virus thus allowing production of polypeptides, including polypeptides which are toxic to the target host. (patents.com)
  • stimulation
  • 20-HETE has a wide range of activities that also include growth stimulation in breast and other types of cancers (see 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid#cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • The promoter segment between −130 and +46, relative to the first initiation site for mouse GL α transcripts, is sufficient for expression and TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene in B cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous work showed that the promoter segment containing nucleotides from −128 to +46, relative to the first initiation site for GL α transcripts, is sufficient for expression and TGF-β1 inducibility of a reporter gene in two different B cell lines ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Carbocyclic Puromycin Analog-6-Dimethylamino-9-{R-[2r-hydroxy-3R-(p-methoxyphenyl-L-alanylamino) ]-cyclopentyl}purine", J. of Medicinal Chem. (patents.com)
  • Thus, synthesis of mRNA is the first step that controls eukaryotic gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • cell
  • Currently there is intense interest to define the mechanism of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in regulating β-cell function, including insulin gene transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 5 9 The endogenous renin gene expressed in the As4.1 cell line is Ren-1 c . (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the mechanism of verapamil (VRP) effects on mdr1 gene expression in two leukemic multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, K562/ADR and CEM VLB100. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We propose that expression of the antigen on the cell surface is part of a self-regulatory pathway that influences transcription of the corresponding gene. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • The toxic effects are largely cell, tissue, and promoter context dependent. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • b) detecting the translation of the reporter gene mRNA, wherein a specific increase in the translation of the reporter gene mRNA in the test cell contacted with the test compound relative to the translation of the reporter gene mRNA in a test cell not contacted with the test compound, indicates that the test compound inhibits IF3 in the test cell. (google.es)
  • By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1(-/-) or nude background) deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1(-/-)), we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. (ac.be)
  • Reporter genes are often used as an indication of whether a certain gene has been taken up by or expressed in the cell or organism population. (wikipedia.org)