• alleles
  • A total of 674 isolates were examined for the presence of Avr alleles AvrLm1 , AvrLm2 , AvrLm3 , AvrLm4 , AvrLm6 , AvrLm7 , AvrLm9 , AvrLepR1 , AvrLepR2 and AvrLmS using a set of differential host genotypes carrying known resistance genes or PCR amplification of AvrLm1 , AvrLm6 and AvrLm4 - Lm7 . (gc.ca)
  • Furthermore, loci are assumed to be biallelic (that is, with exactly two alleles present), although extensions for multiallelic frequency spectra exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating the frequency spectrum from observed sequence data requires one to be able to distinguish the ancestral and derived (mutant) alleles, often by comparing to an outgroup sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A*2402 appears to have evolved from A*23 alleles by a process of gene conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Recent molecular data indicate that many sets of interacting genes such as Hox genes, immunoglobulin genes, and histone genes have often existed as gene clusters for a long evolutionary time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene-culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • An evolutionary landscape is a metaphor, a construct used to think about and visualize the processes of evolution (e.g. natural selection and genetic drift) acting on a biological entity (e.g., a gene, protein, population, species). (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Other studies evaluating more markers, that could potentially modulate RANTES gene transcription alongside other genetic modifiers of malaria susceptibility, may provide further explanations to these less dramatic findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis: host genetic deficiency in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2)," International Journal of Mycobacteriology , vol. 5, Supplement 1, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The parkin gene is not a major susceptibility locus for typical late-onset Parkinson's disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Amish are protected against many types of cancer both through their lifestyle-there is very little tobacco or alcohol use and limited sexual partners-and through genes that may reduce their susceptibility to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Previous studies show that variations in the RANTES gene affect RANTES protein production, hence altering host immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Merrow's lab often uses techniques such as the insertion of Luciferase gene fusions or Green Fluroescent Protein to visualize oscillations of RNA levels, protein abundance, or protein modifications within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphisms
  • Genetic polymorphisms of IFNG and IFNGR1 in association with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis," Gene , vol. 543, no. 1, pp. 140-144, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • P. Farnia, J. Ghanavi, P. Tabasri, S. Saif, and A. A. Velayati, "The importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms in interferon gamma receptor-1 gene in pulmonary patients infected with rapid grower mycobacterium," International Journal of Mycobacteriology , vol. 5, Supplement 1, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • traits
  • With an increase in the number of candidate genes for important traits in livestock, effective strategies for incorporating such genes into selection programmes are increasingly important. (unl.edu)
  • clock gene
  • The success of this strategy and of the cloning of a clock gene sparked interest in further research and understanding of the N. crassa circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments were the first to manipulate the expression of a clock gene through means that did not themselves affect the clock and established that autoregulatory negative feedback giving rise to cyclical clock gene expression lay at the core of the circadian oscillator. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • He is the first to show mathematically that in the presence of gene interaction natural selection always tends to enhance the linkage intensity between genetic loci or maintain the same linkage relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loci contributing to the frequency spectrum are assumed to be independently changing in frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • The frq gene can be activated from two distinct cis-acting sequences in its promoter, a distal site, the clock-box, used in the context of circadian regulation, and a site close to the principal transcription start site that is used for light-induced expression (the proximal light-regulatory element or PLRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • While she was a professor of Chronobiology at University of Groningen, Merrow led Sub-Project 4: Novel Clock Genes and Principles within EUCLOCK, a European organization of researchers interested in entrainment of circadian clocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Crz1 exhibited short bursts of nuclear localization (~2 minutes) that occurred stochastically in individual cells and propagated to the expression of downstream genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • molecular
  • Molecular analysis of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcomas: molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction optimized for paraffin-embedded tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • known
  • Gene is a particular sequence of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA which represents a functional unit of inheritance, and it is not known to subdivide (Rieger et al. (dagris.info)
  • Frequency of known gene rearrangements in endometrial stromal tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • But it is not known in general how the expression levels of target genes are coordinated, allowing them to be regulated together, despite diverse promoter architectures 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • High
  • The advantages of low-frequency US, compared with high-frequency US are: (i) increased cavitation (responsible for the formation of transient pores in the cell membrane) and (ii) reduced energy losses during lung penetration. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of microbubbles, which are crucial for the commonly used high-frequency (1 MHz) sonoporation but may not be able to withstand nebulization in a clinically relevant setup. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • A24 is at very high frequencies in Austronesia and certain indigenous peoples of the Arctic, North America, South America and West Pacific Rim. (wikipedia.org)
  • bias
  • Genes may also endow individuals with certain types of transmission bias (described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • Genes constrain the brain's structure and, hence, the ability of the brain to acquire and store culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • These results suggest that FM regulation of localization bursts may be a general control strategy utilized by the cell to coordinate multi-gene responses to external signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results of their experiments led them to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, in which they postulated that every enzyme was encoded with its own gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • We investigated the parkin gene in 118 patients with typical Parkinson's disease (PD), i.e. in patients who had an onset of PD after the age of 45 years. (ebscohost.com)
  • Exhaustive analysis of BH4 and dopamine biosynthesis genes in patients with Dopa-responsive dystonia. (ebscohost.com)
  • selection
  • Selection pressure from the race-specific resistance genes carried in canola cultivars has probably played a significant role in the current Avr profile, which may have also contributed to the recent increase in blackleg observed in western Canada. (gc.ca)
  • responsible
  • A-T is caused by a defect in the ATM gene, which is responsible for managing the cell's response to multiple forms of stress including double-strand breaks in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Using an analytic model, we found that this frequency modulation (FM) of bursts ensures proportional expression of multiple target genes across a wide dynamic range of expression levels, independent of promoter characteristics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cells sense extracellular signals and respond by regulating the expression of target genes 1 , 2 , 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We find that Crz1 dynamics connect the encoding of signals and the coordination of target gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • certain
  • Because of a smaller gene pool, some groups have increased incidences of certain inheritable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • We have thus, established that low-frequency US can enhance lung gene transfer with naked pDNA and this enhancement is more effective than the previously reported 1 MHz US. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)