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  • evolutionary
  • Recent molecular data indicate that many sets of interacting genes such as Hox genes, immunoglobulin genes, and histone genes have often existed as gene clusters for a long evolutionary time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene-culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Merrow's lab often uses techniques such as the insertion of Luciferase gene fusions or Green Fluroescent Protein to visualize oscillations of RNA levels, protein abundance, or protein modifications within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The frq gene can be activated from two distinct cis-acting sequences in its promoter, a distal site, the clock-box, used in the context of circadian regulation, and a site close to the principal transcription start site that is used for light-induced expression (the proximal light-regulatory element or PLRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination frequencies of targeting vectors harboring mu opioid receptor gene sequences have also been compared in embryonic stem cells derived from these strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, the search space of a gene would be all possible nucleotide sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • With an increase in the number of candidate genes for important traits in livestock, effective strategies for incorporating such genes into selection programmes are increasingly important. (unl.edu)
  • clock gene
  • The success of this strategy and of the cloning of a clock gene sparked interest in further research and understanding of the N. crassa circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments were the first to manipulate the expression of a clock gene through means that did not themselves affect the clock and established that autoregulatory negative feedback giving rise to cyclical clock gene expression lay at the core of the circadian oscillator. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • Donovan, David M. 2014-02-20 00:00:00 Chromosomal regions near the mu opioid receptor gene are implicated in morphine preference by quantitative trait loci studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • He is the first to show mathematically that in the presence of gene interaction natural selection always tends to enhance the linkage intensity between genetic loci or maintain the same linkage relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loci contributing to the frequency spectrum are assumed to be independently changing in frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • While she was a professor of Chronobiology at University of Groningen, Merrow led Sub-Project 4: Novel Clock Genes and Principles within EUCLOCK, a European organization of researchers interested in entrainment of circadian clocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Race structure and frequency of avirulence genes in the western Canadian Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen population, the causal agent of blackleg in brassica species. (gc.ca)
  • initial
  • This Demonstration allows you to adjust the values of the fitness coefficients (drag their sliders to the right to improve the fitness of a genotype), and to adjust the initial frequency of the A allele in the gene pool (vertical slider). (wolfram.com)
  • nuclear
  • Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Crz1 exhibited short bursts of nuclear localization (~2 minutes) that occurred stochastically in individual cells and propagated to the expression of downstream genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Back cross increases nuclear gene frequency His observations were 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Molecular analysis of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcomas: molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction optimized for paraffin-embedded tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • known
  • Gene is a particular sequence of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA which represents a functional unit of inheritance, and it is not known to subdivide (Rieger et al. (dagris.info)
  • Frequency of known gene rearrangements in endometrial stromal tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • But it is not known in general how the expression levels of target genes are coordinated, allowing them to be regulated together, despite diverse promoter architectures 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • often
  • Differential reproduction the fittest individuals tend to reproduce more often, passing on their genes to the next generation. (docplayer.net)
  • bias
  • Genes may also endow individuals with certain types of transmission bias (described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • This work describes 9.3 kb of DNA sequence surrounding exons 2 and 3 of the murine mu opioid receptor gene from both 129/Sv and C57BL/6 strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • pool
  • Because of a smaller gene pool, some groups have increased incidences of certain inheritable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • A mutation is caused by a unexpected change in the gene frequency. (glogster.com)
  • Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Duplications in the ATP7A gene are estimated from our material to be the disease causing mutation in 4% of the Menkes disease patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • selection
  • Selection pressure from the race-specific resistance genes carried in canola cultivars has probably played a significant role in the current Avr profile, which may have also contributed to the recent increase in blackleg observed in western Canada. (gc.ca)
  • High
  • A24 is at very high frequencies in Austronesia and certain indigenous peoples of the Arctic, North America, South America and West Pacific Rim. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Using an analytic model, we found that this frequency modulation (FM) of bursts ensures proportional expression of multiple target genes across a wide dynamic range of expression levels, independent of promoter characteristics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cells sense extracellular signals and respond by regulating the expression of target genes 1 , 2 , 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Second, transcription factors activate the expression of downstream genes that will implement cellular responses 1 , 2 , 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We find that Crz1 dynamics connect the encoding of signals and the coordination of target gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • result
  • The recombination frequency between three genes A, B, and C located on the same chromosome is obtained as follows: A and C - 28% A and B - 18% B and C - 10% Based on the result, which two genes are closest to each other? (openstudy.com)
  • responsible
  • A-T is caused by a defect in the ATM gene, which is responsible for managing the cell's response to multiple forms of stress including double-strand breaks in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • In addition, the IDW-interpolation maps predicted Pi*Z frequencies throughout the world even in some areas that lack real data. (dovepress.com)
  • results
  • These results suggest that FM regulation of localization bursts may be a general control strategy utilized by the cell to coordinate multi-gene responses to external signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results of their experiments led them to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, in which they postulated that every enzyme was encoded with its own gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • a. (10pts) If mating is random, how rapidly will genetic variability, as measured by the frequency of heterozygotes, be lost from this population? (coursehero.com)
  • To help develop optimal therapies for tinnitus, it is necessary to characterize the genetic contributors to the pathophysiology and to design treatments at the level of the gene. (neurootology.org)
  • Later in the 2000's, post-genomic research in his laboratory established signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its high frequency among Kosovo Albanians (46%) is most likely a consequence of genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although its frequency is very high in Kosovo Albanians (46%) and Macedonian Romani (30%), this phenomenon is of a focal rather than a clinal nature, most likely being a consequence of genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • R1a1
  • The conclusion was drawn on the basis of: i) presence of this haplogroup in many of the tribal populations such as, Saharia (present study) and Chenchu tribe in high frequency, ii) the highest ever reported presence of R1a* (ancestral haplogroup of R1a1*) in Kashmiri Pandits (Brahmins) and Saharia tribe, and iii) associated averaged phylogenetic ages of R1a* (~18,478 years) and R1a1* (~13,768 years) in India. (blogspot.com)
  • high
  • Highest Level of Formal Schooling Frequency Percentage elementary school % high school % community college % university % Total % Annual Household Income before Taxes Frequency Percentage under $25, % $25,000 - $49, % $50,000-$74, % over $75, % Total % 1 Five participants refused to answer Thirty-seven percent of participants had a household income of $50,000 or more. (docplayer.net)
  • Masking of tinnitus is possible using high audio frequencies and low-frequency ultrasound. (neurootology.org)
  • On the high frequency side of the Q-branch the energy of rotational transitions is added to the energy of the vibrational transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The five-person FRC was given the power to grant and deny licenses, and to assign frequencies and power levels for each licensee. (wikipedia.org)
  • When such transitions emit or absorb photons (electromagnetic radiation), the frequency is proportional to the difference in energy levels and can be detected by certain kinds of spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Outside of gene exons, there exist regulatory sequence motifs and motifs within the "junk", such as satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • However, several challenges such as defining the cut-off value, test platform uniformity, and low frequencies limit their broad clinical application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • find
  • We find that private, inherited truncating SNVs in conserved genes are enriched in probands (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 0.0002) in comparison to unaffected siblings, an effect involving significant maternal transmission bias to sons. (nih.gov)
  • single
  • Marital Status Frequency Percentage single, never married 7 5.2% single, divorced / separated % single, widowed % married / cohabiting % Total % Most women were married. (docplayer.net)
  • region
  • In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Southeast Europe, the frequency of this haplogroup peaks at the region's southeastern edge and its variance peaks in the southwest of the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the early Middle Ages contributed to the frequency and variance of I2a-P37.2 in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • 5 Present Activities Frequency Percentage Homemaker % 1 Retired % 1 Volunteer Work % 1 Employed, Outside the Home % 1 Employed, Working from Home 9 6.7% 1 Caring for Someone Full-time 8 5.9% 1 Unemployed 7 5.2% 1 On Disability / Recovering from Illness 6 4.4% 1 Attending School 0 0.0% 1 1 Participants were asked to select all activities that apply Almost all of these women (95%) considered themselves to be homemakers. (docplayer.net)