• genetics
  • Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • In RBCS-antisense plants, the levels of these mRNAs and the synthesis of the corresponding proteins declined to a similar extent. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The grapefruit IRL protein sequence has high homology also to a novel family of other isoflavone reductase-like proteins present in few non-legume plants and whose function is not clear yet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The morning loop included the dawn-expressed LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) genes, which negatively regulate their expression through activation of the inhibitor proteins, PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9 (PRR9) and PRR7. (nih.gov)
  • In most hyperaccumulating plants, the main mechanism for metal transport are the proteins coded by genes in the ZIP family, however other families such as the HMA, MATE, YSL and MTP families have also been observed to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of plant WRKY proteins have been identified in Giardia lamblia and Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major effect of gibberellins is the degradation of DELLA proteins, the absence of which then allows phytochrome interacting factors to bind to gene promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansin refers to a family of closely related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in plant cell growth, fruit softening, abscission, emergence of root hairs, pollen tube invasion of the stigma and style, meristem function, and other developmental processes where cell wall loosening occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proteins in bacteria and fungi are known to have distant sequence similarity to plant expansins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study also noted that proteins related to YOAJ were found in diverse species of plant pathogenic bacteria, but not in related bacteria that did not attack or colonize plants, thus suggesting that these bacterial expansins have a role in plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nomenclature of genes and proteins of expansins and expansin-like: e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the N-terminal signal sequences of α-expansin genes, the general absence of endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL or HDEL) confirms that the proteins are targeted to the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the genes in the mitochondrion, and in case of plants, also the chloroplast, which host their own genetic system and can produce proteins from scratch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the proteins of a cell are the product of messenger RNA transcribed from nuclear genes, including most of the proteins of the organelles, which are produced in the cytoplasm like all nuclear gene products and then transported to the organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA has been largely investigated within its role as an intermediary in the translation of genes into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • DNA blot analysis indicates that APX3 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. (harvard.edu)
  • To further understand the biological functions of these genes, KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) ontology assignments were used to classify their functional annotations. (nih.gov)
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a new "record" for the most efficient eukaryotic genome was discovered with Utricularia gibba, a bladderwort plant that has only 3% noncoding DNA and 97% of coding DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, although many of the genes of the organelles have moved to the nucleus during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encoded by eukaryotic nuclear DNA in plants and animals and by viral DNA in certain viruses whose genome is based on DNA, miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein genes
  • Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 (OsWRKY53SD) showed further-enhanced disease resistance to the blast fungus compared to native OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants, and a substantial number of defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related protein genes, were more upregulated in the OsWRKY53SD-overexpressing plants compared to the OsWRKY53-overexpressing plants. (nih.gov)
  • Besides, almost all of the defense-related genes (22 out of 23 genes) among the 151 upregulated genes fell into the group I, including several PR protein genes such as β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and PR-5 genes (Table 1). (nih.gov)
  • Oryza
  • To investigate this molecular mechanism, the protein synthesis of two subunits of Rubisco was characterized in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants with overexpression or antisense suppression of the RBCS gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Developmental
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. (harvard.edu)
  • WRKY transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been shown to play pivotal roles in the regulation of plant defense responses. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we identified OsWRKY53 as a substrate of OsMPK3/OsMPK6, components of a fungal PAMP-responsive MAPK cascade in rice, and analyzed the effect of OsWRKY53 phosphorylation on the regulation of basal defense responses to a virulence race of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae strain Ina86-137. (nih.gov)
  • These results strongly suggest that the OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 cascade regulates transactivation activity of OsWRKY53, and overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 results in a major change to the rice transcriptome at steady state that leads to activation of a defense response against the blast fungus in rice plants. (nih.gov)
  • Expression analysis of defense-related genes belonging to group I upregulated genes in W53SD-OX rice plants.qRT-PCR analysis was performed using total RNA isolated from uninfected rice leaves. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the results described above, it appears that a subset of defense-related genes is further activated in W53SD-OX rice plants compared to W53-OX plants. (nih.gov)
  • But some of these genes grouped into the following 2 non-GO categories: defense-related genes and molecular function unknown (Table S5). (nih.gov)
  • Given that W53SD-OX rice plants showed further-enhanced resistance to the virulence rice blast fungus, we finally focused on the group I genes, especially those relevant to defense response. (nih.gov)
  • This was the first of many studies identifying WRKY transcription factors in regulating gene expression for plant defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • When plants are attacked by insects, they respond by releasing JA, which activates the expression of protease inhibitors, among many other anti-herbivore defense compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to its antagonistic relationship with salicylic acid (an important signal in pathogen defense) in some plant species, it may result in an increased susceptibility to viral agents and other pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Over 500 species of flowering plants have been identified as having the ability to hyperaccumulate metals in their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hyperaccumulation genes (HA genes) are found in over 450 plant species, including the model organisms Arabidopsis and Brassicaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of such genes is used to determine whether a species is capable of hyperaccumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As there is wide variety among hyperaccumulating species that span across different plant families, it is likely that HA genes were ecotypically selected for. (wikipedia.org)
  • pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of GA1 in various plant species suggests that it is a common bioactive GA. Gibberellins are involved in the natural process of breaking dormancy and other aspects of germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic activity
  • Most of the genes grouped into the following categories: binding (GO:0005488), catalytic activity (GO:0003824), nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity (GO:0001071), and transporter activity (GO:0005215). (nih.gov)
  • mammals
  • MicroRNAs are predicted to control the translational activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals and may be vital components in the progression or treatment of various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and the immune system response to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms for RNA silencing were initially studied in plants but have since broadened to cover a variety of subjects, from fungi to mammals, providing strong evidence that these pathways are highly conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • In order to gain insight into the mechanism of this UV-induced resistance we initiated a study for isolation of genes induced during this process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. (uzh.ch)
  • We previously reported that OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus. (nih.gov)
  • It has an important role in response to wounding of plants and systemic acquired resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Expansins were originally discovered as mediators of acid growth, which refers to the widespread characteristic of growing plant cell walls to expand faster at low (acidic) pH than at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "gene" most often refers to nuclear genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usage of the term "having a gene" (e.g., "good genes," "hair colour gene") typically refers to containing a different allele of the same, shared gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Dr Juri Battilana Visiting ScientistCSIRO Plant Industry "Understanding the regulation of VvDXS gene expression" Some of the most relevant wine odor constituents are monoterpenoids which have been demonstrated to be produced via the plastid-located methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway in grapevine. (grapeandwineevents.com.au)
  • The MEP pathway biosynthetic gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS), maps to a major QTL responsible for monoterpenoid accumulation in Muscat grape varieties. (grapeandwineevents.com.au)
  • GAs are usually synthesized from the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in higher plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • While core components of the microRNA pathway are conserved between plants and animals, miRNA repertoires in the two kingdoms appear to have emerged independently with different primary modes of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • The concentration of hormones required for plant responses are very low (10−6 to 10−5 mol/L). Because of these low concentrations, it has been very difficult to study plant hormones, and only since the late 1970s have scientists been able to start piecing together their effects and relationships to plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • In some plants, fungi, and protists meiosis results in the formation of spores: haploid cells that can divide vegetatively without undergoing fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions, and in microorganisms, such as unicellular fungi and bacteria, but in these cases they play no hormonal or other immediate physiological role in the producing organism and can, thus, be regarded as secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can also affect plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • EcM plants and fungi exhibit a wide taxonomic distribution and are similarly present across all continents (apart from Antarctica), suggesting the EcM symbiosis has ancient evolutionary roots, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pinaceae represents the oldest extant plant family in which symbiosis with EcM fungi occurs, and fossils from this family date back to 156 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene-environment interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • This information was then used to screen a transcription factor library using a transient-expression, dual-luciferase assay in tobacco. (grapeandwineevents.com.au)
  • When OsWRKY53 was coexpressed with a constitutively active mutant of OsMKK4 in a transient reporter gene assay, the enhanced transactivation activity of OsWRKY53 was found to be dependent on phosphorylation of the SP cluster. (nih.gov)
  • downstream
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of all downstream carotenogenic genes was lower in MT than in WT, suggesting that down-regulation is critical for the β-carotene increase in the MT pericarp. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • No SbF3'H3 expression was detected in all tissues examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones are not nutrients, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants utilize simple chemicals as hormones, which move more easily through their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hyperaccumulator is a plant capable of growing in soils with very high concentrations of metals, absorbing these metals through their roots, and concentrating extremely high levels of metals in their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plants also hold potential to be used to mine metals from soils with very high concentrations (phytomining) by growing the plants then harvesting them for the metals in their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant tissues, particularly in the apical and lateral meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Parts of the noncoding DNA were being deleted by the plant and this suggested that noncoding DNA may not be as critical for plants, even though noncoding DNA is useful for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA levels
  • Total RBCS and rbcL messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and RBCS and RbcL synthesis simultaneously increased in RBCS-sense plants, although the increase in total RBCS mRNA level was greater. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The amount of RBCS synthesized was tightly correlated with rbcL mRNA level among genotypes but not associated with changes in mRNA levels of other major chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Escherichia
  • The enzyme can also be found in a bifunctional form consisting of an N-terminal aspartokinase domain and a C-terminal homoserine dehydrogenase domain, as found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Studies of this process have indicated gibberellins cause higher levels of transcription of the gene coding for the α-amylase enzyme, to stimulate the synthesis of α-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can interfere with the insect's enzyme production and decrease the nutrition content of the ingested plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in the study of plant hormones, "phytohormone" was the commonly used term, but its use is less widely applied now. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants lack glands to produce and store hormones, because, unlike animals - which have two circulatory systems (lymphatic and cardiovascular) powered by a heart that moves fluids around the body - plants use more passive means to move chemicals around their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells produce hormones that affect even different regions of the cell producing the hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are transported within the plant by utilizing four types of movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants need hormones at very specific times during plant growth and at specific locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants can also break down hormones chemically, effectively destroying them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants also move hormones around the plant diluting their concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecule is a member of the jasmonate class of plant hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also linked to cell enlargement and cell wall changes induced by other plant hormones such as gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene and brassinosteroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • She also was involved in the research showing that all plants contain haemoglobin and that this molecule protects the plant against oxygen deprivation stress Understanding how flowering is regulated in plants is another research area she successfully tackled. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • From 1857 to 1864, in Brno (Czech Republic), he studied inheritance patterns in 8000 common edible pea plants, tracking distinct traits from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • In sorghum mesocotyls, SbF3'H1 expression was involved in light-specific anthocyanin accumulation while SbF3'H2 expression was involved in pathogen-specific 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of unprocessed glutelin precursor alters polymerization without affecting trafficking and accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, an orange-pericarp mutant (MT) which showed altered pigmentation in the pericarp was used to identify genes potentially related to the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in the pericarp. (nih.gov)
  • Thus
  • citation needed] Regulation of transcription thus controls when transcription occurs and how much RNA is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is possible that arbuscular mycorrhizas were a driving force in the plant colonization of land as an expansive new niche, while ectomycorrhizas acted to spur further speciation due to the change of earth's climate to more seasonal and arid, or perhaps simply in response to nutritionally deficient habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Three cellular component terms were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes, including microtubule cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal part and cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
  • This gene was an iron regulated transporter (IRT-protein) that encoded several primary transporters involved with cellular uptake of cations above the concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation, and are involved in numerous cellular processes such as in differentiation/development and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, while DNA binding transcription factors provide a mechanism for specific control of cellular responses, a model where DNA binding transcription factors are the sole regulators of gene activity is also unlikely. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a study of Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, it was demonstrated that stable features of differentiation remain after the nucleus is transferred to a new cellular environment, suggesting that a stable and heritable mechanism of gene regulation was involved in the maintenance of the differentiated state in the absence of the DNA binding transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Several gene families are involved in the processes of hyperaccumulation including upregulation of absorption and sequestration of heavy metal metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulated plant growth and development processes include growth inhibition, senescence, tendril coiling, flower development and leaf abscission. (wikipedia.org)