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  • Proteins
  • In RBCS-antisense plants, the levels of these mRNAs and the synthesis of the corresponding proteins declined to a similar extent. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The grapefruit IRL protein sequence has high homology also to a novel family of other isoflavone reductase-like proteins present in few non-legume plants and whose function is not clear yet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The positive regulatory roles of the TIFY10 proteins in plant responses to alkaline stress. (nih.gov)
  • Our previous studies indicated the potential roles of TIFY10/11 proteins in plant responses to alkaline stress. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we focused on the regulatory roles and possible physiological and molecular basis of the TIFY10 proteins in plant responses to alkaline stress. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our results provided direct evidence supporting the positive regulatory roles of the TIFY10 proteins in plant responses to alkaline stress. (nih.gov)
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that two of the Glycine soja TIFY10 proteins GsTIFY10a and GsTIFY10e positively regulated plant tolerance to alkaline stress. (nih.gov)
  • In most hyperaccumulating plants, the main mechanism for metal transport are the proteins coded by genes in the ZIP family, however other families such as the HMA, MATE, YSL and MTP families have also been observed to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of plant WRKY proteins have been identified in Giardia lamblia and Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major effect of gibberellins is the degradation of DELLA proteins, the absence of which then allows phytochrome interacting factors to bind to gene promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansin refers to a family of closely related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in plant cell growth, fruit softening, abscission, emergence of root hairs, pollen tube invasion of the stigma and style, meristem function, and other developmental processes where cell wall loosening occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proteins in bacteria and fungi are known to have distant sequence similarity to plant expansins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study also noted that proteins related to YOAJ were found in diverse species of plant pathogenic bacteria, but not in related bacteria that did not attack or colonize plants, thus suggesting that these bacterial expansins have a role in plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nomenclature of genes and proteins of expansins and expansin-like: e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the N-terminal signal sequences of α-expansin genes, the general absence of endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL or HDEL) confirms that the proteins are targeted to the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the genes in the mitochondrion, and in case of plants, also the chloroplast, which host their own genetic system and can produce proteins from scratch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the proteins of a cell are the product of messenger RNA transcribed from nuclear genes, including most of the proteins of the organelles, which are produced in the cytoplasm like all nuclear gene products and then transported to the organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA has been largely investigated within its role as an intermediary in the translation of genes into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a new "record" for the most efficient eukaryotic genome was discovered with Utricularia gibba, a bladderwort plant that has only 3% noncoding DNA and 97% of coding DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, our understanding of the genetic code permits the prediction of the amino sequence of the protein products of the tens of thousands of genes whose sequences are being determined in genome studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, although many of the genes of the organelles have moved to the nucleus during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encoded by eukaryotic nuclear DNA in plants and animals and by viral DNA in certain viruses whose genome is based on DNA, miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • The biological function of day respiratory metabolism is a major conundrum of plant photosynthesis research: because the rate of CO2 evolution is partly inhibited in the light, it is viewed as either detrimental to plant carbon balance or necessary for photosynthesis operation (e.g., in providing cytoplasmic ATP for sucrose synthesis). (biomedsearch.com)
  • WRKY transcription factors play a major role in plant defense to abiotic and biotic stresses, but also contribute to plant development and secondary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • This cellulase was only expressed during the final necrotrophic phase of Z. tritici infection and the nucleotide sequences of the gene showed signatures of diversifying selection. (ethz.ch)
  • Repressors bind to the Operator, coding sequences on the DNA strand that are close to or overlapping the promoter region, impeding RNA polymerase's progress along the strand, thus impeding the expression of the gene.The image to the right demonstrates regulation by a repressor in the lac operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other functions of noncoding DNA include the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding sequences, scaffold attachment regions, origins of DNA replication, centromeres and telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cis-regulatory elements are sequences that control the transcription of a nearby gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhancer sequences may also exert very distant effects on the transcription levels of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, differences in expression, not variation in gene sequences, have likely lead to the diverse functions of WRKY genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong evidence that at least some of these sequences are indeed expansins came in 2008 when the crystal structure of the YOAJ protein from a bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) was shown to be very similar to the structure of plant expansins, despite the low sequence similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences from different expansin genes show good correspondence, the exon/intron organization being conserved among α- and β-expansins, and expansin-like genes, although the number of introns and the length of each intron differ among genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of diverse functions have been proposed for a growing number of characterized small RNA sequences-e.g., regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • Two of the major pea CHS genes (PSCHS1, PSCHS2) from a cluster in a tandem repeat with a spacer, and an identical 31 bp sequence containing the consensus motif of box I located 5'-upstream from the putative TATA box of both CHS genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sequence analysis revealed that this cDNA represents a gene encoding for an isoflavone reductase-like protein and was termed IRL (isoflavone reductase-like). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A study on T. caerulescens identified the ZTP family as a plant specific family with high sequence similarity to other zinc transporter4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the bifunctional form), and finally the coding sequence for homoserine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications are reversible modifications on a cell's DNA or histones that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic modifications that alter gene expression that cannot be attributed to modification of the primary DNA sequence and that are heritable mitotically and meiotically are classified as epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a broad, modern working definition of a gene is any discrete locus of heritable, genomic sequence which affect an organism's traits by being expressed as a functional product or by regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • Plant Physiology 138 (1) : 276-286. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The concentration of hormones required for plant responses are very low (10−6 to 10−5 mol/L). Because of these low concentrations, it has been very difficult to study plant hormones, and only since the late 1970s have scientists been able to start piecing together their effects and relationships to plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonization
  • Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. (up.ac.za)
  • This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. (up.ac.za)
  • In summary, my PhD work demonstrated the significance of fine-tuning of gene expression regulation of various genes in plant pathogenic fungi to facilitate adaptation to different environmental conditions and host colonization. (ethz.ch)
  • Mycorrhizal symbioses, in general, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, and it is possible that these associations helped to facilitate land colonization by plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is possible that arbuscular mycorrhizas were a driving force in the plant colonization of land as an expansive new niche, while ectomycorrhizas acted to spur further speciation due to the change of earth's climate to more seasonal and arid, or perhaps simply in response to nutritionally deficient habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Total RBCS and rbcL messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and RBCS and RbcL synthesis simultaneously increased in RBCS-sense plants, although the increase in total RBCS mRNA level was greater. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The amount of RBCS synthesized was tightly correlated with rbcL mRNA level among genotypes but not associated with changes in mRNA levels of other major chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant miRNAs usually have near-perfect pairing with their mRNA targets, which induces gene repression through cleavage of the target transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The structure and the organization of three major CHS genes were determined from 38 CHS-cDNAs prepared from elicitor treated pea epicotyl tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • No SbF3'H3 expression was detected in all tissues examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones are not nutrients, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants utilize simple chemicals as hormones, which move more easily through their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hyperaccumulator is a plant capable of growing in soils with very high concentrations of metals, absorbing these metals through their roots, and concentrating extremely high levels of metals in their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plants also hold potential to be used to mine metals from soils with very high concentrations (phytomining) by growing the plants then harvesting them for the metals in their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is primarily expressed in actively growing, young plant tissues, particularly in the apical and lateral meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • accelerated evolution
  • I was able to show that the peptidases belonging to MEROPS families A1 and G1 were significantly up regulated during the asymptomatic phase of infection and displayed signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting their key role in suppression of plant defenses and host specialization. (ethz.ch)
  • mammals
  • MicroRNAs are predicted to control the translational activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals and may be vital components in the progression or treatment of various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and the immune system response to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms for RNA silencing were initially studied in plants but have since broadened to cover a variety of subjects, from fungi to mammals, providing strong evidence that these pathways are highly conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Expansins were originally discovered as mediators of acid growth, which refers to the widespread characteristic of growing plant cell walls to expand faster at low (acidic) pH than at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "gene" most often refers to nuclear genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usage of the term "having a gene" (e.g., "good genes," "hair colour gene") typically refers to containing a different allele of the same, shared gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • In some plants, fungi, and protists meiosis results in the formation of spores: haploid cells that can divide vegetatively without undergoing fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions, and in microorganisms, such as unicellular fungi and bacteria, but in these cases they play no hormonal or other immediate physiological role in the producing organism and can, thus, be regarded as secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can also affect plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • EcM plants and fungi exhibit a wide taxonomic distribution and are similarly present across all continents (apart from Antarctica), suggesting the EcM symbiosis has ancient evolutionary roots, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pinaceae represents the oldest extant plant family in which symbiosis with EcM fungi occurs, and fossils from this family date back to 156 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Rubisco is composed of eight small subunits coded for by the nuclear RBCS multigene family and eight large subunits coded for by the rbcL gene in the plastome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The structure of several plant WRKY domains has been elucidated using crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a study of Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, it was demonstrated that stable features of differentiation remain after the nucleus is transferred to a new cellular environment, suggesting that a stable and heritable mechanism of gene regulation was involved in the maintenance of the differentiated state in the absence of the DNA binding transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of a eukaryote. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Dr Juri Battilana Visiting ScientistCSIRO Plant Industry "Understanding the regulation of VvDXS gene expression" Some of the most relevant wine odor constituents are monoterpenoids which have been demonstrated to be produced via the plastid-located methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway in grapevine. (grapeandwineevents.com.au)
  • The MEP pathway biosynthetic gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS), maps to a major QTL responsible for monoterpenoid accumulation in Muscat grape varieties. (grapeandwineevents.com.au)
  • Primary and secondary ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway in plants. (ac.rs)
  • GAs are usually synthesized from the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in higher plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • While core components of the microRNA pathway are conserved between plants and animals, miRNA repertoires in the two kingdoms appear to have emerged independently with different primary modes of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. (up.ac.za)
  • The enzyme can also be found in a bifunctional form consisting of an N-terminal aspartokinase domain and a C-terminal homoserine dehydrogenase domain, as found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Parts of the noncoding DNA were being deleted by the plant and this suggested that noncoding DNA may not be as critical for plants, even though noncoding DNA is useful for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Studies of this process have indicated gibberellins cause higher levels of transcription of the gene coding for the α-amylase enzyme, to stimulate the synthesis of α-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can interfere with the insect's enzyme production and decrease the nutrition content of the ingested plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in the study of plant hormones, "phytohormone" was the commonly used term, but its use is less widely applied now. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants lack glands to produce and store hormones, because, unlike animals - which have two circulatory systems (lymphatic and cardiovascular) powered by a heart that moves fluids around the body - plants use more passive means to move chemicals around their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells produce hormones that affect even different regions of the cell producing the hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are transported within the plant by utilizing four types of movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants need hormones at very specific times during plant growth and at specific locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants can also break down hormones chemically, effectively destroying them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants also move hormones around the plant diluting their concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also linked to cell enlargement and cell wall changes induced by other plant hormones such as gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene and brassinosteroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Several gene families are involved in the processes of hyperaccumulation including upregulation of absorption and sequestration of heavy metal metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulated plant growth and development processes include growth inhibition, senescence, tendril coiling, flower development and leaf abscission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shoots
  • The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially regulated by growth regulators in shoots and roots. (ac.rs)
  • KIN and 2,4-D repressed GS and GOGAT expression in roots, with little effect on transcript levels in shoots. (ac.rs)
  • ABA induced the expression of GLN1;1 and GLU2 in whole seedlings, while GA3 enhanced the expression of all tested genes in shoots, except GLU2. (ac.rs)
  • organization
  • The organization and the structure of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) were determined and the effects of elicitor and suppressor produced by a pea pathogen, Mycosphaerella pinodes, were examined by transforming a chimeric DNA containing the PAL- and CHS-promoter fragments connected to a reporter gene into tobacco or pea plant with particle gun, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, or electroporation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • locus
  • Her team worked on genes that represses flowering (FLC and FLF, FLOWERING LOCUS C and FLOWERING LOCUS F) and showed that their effect is down-regulated by vernalisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. (up.ac.za)
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein products
  • To be designated as expansin or expansin-like, genes and their protein products must contain both domain I (N-terminal, catalytic, GH45-like - GH meaning glycoside-hydrolase) and domain II (C-terminal, distantly related to group-2 grass pollen allergens). (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • From 1857 to 1864, in Brno (Czech Republic), he studied inheritance patterns in 8000 common edible pea plants, tracking distinct traits from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Programmed cell death is a key feature of epidermal plant immunity, which is particularly effective against biotrophic microbes that depend on living host tissue. (tum.de)