• genetics
  • In honoring Campbell, ASM officials cited his "exceptional insights and achievements in the field of molecular genetics - a career of groundbreaking research that has had a profound influence on several fields, including molecular cloning and gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Extensive transcript changes also occurred for genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including multi-functional proteins and regulators putatively involved in pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of toluene, menadione reduced TodS activity whereas toluene did not stimulate activity in the presence of menadione.The opposing effects of menadione on glucose and toluene metabolism may be partially responsible for the interwoven regulation of both catabolic pathways.This work provides mechanistic detail on how complex sensor kinases integrate different types of signal molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The novel antiterminator structure consists of two small hairpins with highly conserved terminal loop residues, both features being essential for successful antitermination.Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management.These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • This regulation controls parts of the sulfur metabolism of marine bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism, while the chromosomes contain most of the housekeeping genes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome, such as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dormant form of the lambda genome was called the 'prophage' Study of phage lambda over the next 50 years provided valuable insights into virus life cycles, the regulation and expression of genetic material, and the mechanism of integration and excision of genetic material into chromosomal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods can also quickly uncover single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions by mapping unassembled reads against a well annotated reference genome, and thus provide a list of possible gene differences that may be the basis for any functional variation among strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly thereafter, a series of papers were published by Youssef Idaghdour and his colleagues looking at the role of environmental factors on gene expression throughout the genome where they found that only 5% of the variation in genomic expression was attributable to genetic factors (i.e. sequence variation in the genome) whereas, as much as half was due to the living environment of the individual, either urban or rural. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of this gene is more complex than most other genes in the E. coli genome, as FIS is an important protein which regulates expression of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of an organism contains anywhere from a few hundred to thousands of different genes, all encoding a singular product or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Research has shown that the activity of gene profiles or gene programs can be affected by the physical and social environments that humans inhabit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusters
  • The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (approximately 70) homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • Unlike the single gene cluster of E. coli, the Geobacter clusters are not all located near the flagellar genes. (nih.gov)
  • The numerous chemoreceptors and chemotaxis-like gene clusters of Geobacter appear to be responsible for a diverse set of signaling functions in addition to chemotaxis, including gene regulation and biofilm formation, through functionally and spatially distinct signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Gene positioning provides further evidence that the group A and B homologs bind to MCPs containing the C-terminal pentapeptide: these homologs are located in che clusters with pentapeptide-containing MCPs (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Social genomics researchers have thus examined the role of social factors (e.g. isolation, rejection) on the expression of individual genes, or more commonly, clusters of many genes (i.e. gene profiles, or gene programs). (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • The sequences of predicted promoter elements suggest that the alternative sigma factors sigma28 and sigma54 play a role in regulating the Geobacter chemotaxis gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Verification of eQRNA/RNAz predictions by Northern hybridization and RACE mapping led to the identification of eight previously unknown genes, with recognizable promoter and termination signatures, expressing small transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • While characterizing the outer membrane porin ompC in E.coli, some of the ompC promoter clones observed were capable of repressing the expression of other membrane porin such as ompF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by RNA polymerase at the fis promoter in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that a single gene can contain multiple promoter sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA TATA box Pribnow box SOS box CAAT box CCAAT box Operator (biology) Upstream activation sequence RNA List of cis-regulatory RNA elements Polyadenylation signals, mRNA AU-rich element, mRNA Other Regulation of gene expression cis-regulatory module Gene regulatory network Operon Promoter Trans-acting factor Rfam Transterm Butler JE, Kadonaga JT (October 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • related to nitrogen
  • Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus
  • Biochemical studies reveal that the domain is a glucosyltransferase, and it catalyses the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin, Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguinis. (nih.gov)
  • Adherence to host cells is important in microbial colonization of a mucosal surface, and Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence was significantly enhanced by expression of an extracellular pilus composed of three subunits, RrgA, RrgB and RrgC. (nih.gov)
  • polymerase
  • Only once this region has been bound with the appropriate set of TFs, and in the proper order, can RNA polymerase bind and begin transcribing the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional categories
  • Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories of genes were abundantly represented. (nih.gov)
  • Out of these, we retained 10 genes representing different functional categories, different levels of expression (low, medium, and high) and with no systematic variation in expression correlating with growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • swarming motility
  • After 20 minutes of exposure to 0.82 mM OPP, genes involved in the exhibition of swarming motility and anaerobic respiration were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • Results from this study indicate that after 20 minutes of exposure to OPP, genes that have been linked to the exhibition of anaerobic respiration and swarming motility were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • metabolic
  • Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby also affecting subsequent attachment and colonization of host tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to the discovery of riboswitches, the mechanism by which some genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways were regulated remained mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • disinfectants
  • The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. (nih.gov)
  • mutation
  • The architecture of a prototypical bacterial signaling circuit enables a single point mutation to confer novel network properties. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • Here, we present a detailed in vitro analysis of SR1, a sRNA of Bacillus subtilis that is involved in regulation of arginine catabolism by basepairing with its target, ahrC mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • A TPP riboswitch in Neurospora crassa (a fungus) controls alternative splicing to conditionally produce an Upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF), thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes A TPP riboswitch in plants modifies splicing and alternative 3'-end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on, this transcript, denoted micF, was found to be an asRNA of ompF and capable of downregulating the expression of ompF under stress by forming a duplex with the ompF mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism's
  • instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there isn't enough fixed nitrogen available for the organism's use, NtrC triggers NifA expression, and NifA activates the rest of the nif genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNAs
  • Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which sRNAs are expected to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • What is meant by the "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis (Beadle and Tatum)? (brainscape.com)
  • The primary enzyme encoded by the nif genes is the nitrogenase complex which is in charge of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to other nitrogen forms such as ammonia which the organism can use for various purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fis gene is cotranscribed with the upstream dusB gene encoding a tRNA-modifying enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • A reliable normalization of the data, using several reference genes, is critical for an accurate quantification of gene expression.The two most stable genes (ABF-0017965 (lpxC) and ABF-0020529 (yafS) were successfully used for normalization of RT-qPCR data.We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial viruses, and research on the mechanism of infection and reproduction dramatically increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conditions of social stress however, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial infection which is more likely under conditions of social stress either through hostile human contact, or increased predatory vulnerability due to separation from the social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such as the flu and the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • This study also suggests that the downregulation of the rmf and rpoS genes may be indicative of the mechanism by which OPP causes decreases in cell viability in P. aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative
  • Comparative genomics of Geobacter chemotaxis genes reveals diverse signaling function. (nih.gov)
  • In 1986, the first comparative genomic study at a larger scale was published, comparing the genomes of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus that contained more than 100 genes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomic features may include the DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, small RNA viruses infecting animals (picornaviruses) and those infecting plants (cowpea mosaic virus) were compared and turned out to share significant sequence similarity and, in part, the order of their genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Non-adherent RrgA-negative, RrgB- and RrgC-positive organisms produce pili, suggesting that pilus-mediated adherence is due to expression of RrgA, rather than the pilus backbone itself. (nih.gov)
  • The expression and regulation of nif genes, while sharing common features in all or most of the nitrogen-fixing organisms in nature, have distinct characters and qualities that differ from one diazotroph to another. (wikipedia.org)