• genetics
  • In honoring Campbell, ASM officials cited his "exceptional insights and achievements in the field of molecular genetics - a career of groundbreaking research that has had a profound influence on several fields, including molecular cloning and gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dormant form of the lambda genome was called the 'prophage' Study of phage lambda over the next 50 years provided valuable insights into virus life cycles, the regulation and expression of genetic material, and the mechanism of integration and excision of genetic material into chromosomal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly thereafter, a series of papers were published by Youssef Idaghdour and his colleagues looking at the role of environmental factors on gene expression throughout the genome where they found that only 5% of the variation in genomic expression was attributable to genetic factors (i.e. sequence variation in the genome) whereas, as much as half was due to the living environment of the individual, either urban or rural. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic expression is far from random, allowing the differentiation and specialization of different cell types with identical genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most efficient way for an organism to regulate genetic expression is at the transcriptional level. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The novel antiterminator structure consists of two small hairpins with highly conserved terminal loop residues, both features being essential for successful antitermination.Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management.These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • This regulation controls parts of the sulfur metabolism of marine bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • The expression plasmid based on pDSK5191 was constructed by incorporating the upstream and downstream regions of the pscAB gene cluster on the C. tepidum genome, since these regions were considered to include a constitutive promoter and a ρ-independent terminator, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, pDSK5191-6xhis-pscAB, which incorporated the gene cluster of 6xhis-pscA and pscB, produced approximately four times more of the photosynthetic reaction center complex with His-tagged PscA as compared with that expressed in the genome by the conventional natural transformation method. (nih.gov)
  • Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome, such as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods can also quickly uncover single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions by mapping unassembled reads against a well annotated reference genome, and thus provide a list of possible gene differences that may be the basis for any functional variation among strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of an organism contains anywhere from a few hundred to thousands of different genes, all encoding a singular product or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Research has shown that the activity of gene profiles or gene programs can be affected by the physical and social environments that humans inhabit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the underlying studies revealed that CRP-cAMP controls the expression of another global regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, the leucine-responsive protein Lrp. (nih.gov)
  • An ANTAR protein, EutV, regulates the ethanolamine-utilization genes (eut) in Enterococcus faecalis. (nih.gov)
  • The aidB gene encodes a protein of ca. 60 kDa that is homologous to several mammalian acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases. (umassmed.edu)
  • Ada protein plays a direct role in aidB regulation: methylated Ada is able to bind to the aidB promoter region and to activate transcription from aidB in an in vitro transcription-translation system using crude E. coli extracts. (umassmed.edu)
  • Enhanced capsule production and reduced protein A expression in hVISA/VISA were confirmed by independent bioassays and fully supported the transcriptome data. (nih.gov)
  • B. Fold ratios for protein A production and protein A (spa) gene expression for 5 hVISA/VISA and VSSA pairs. (nih.gov)
  • To determine if the transcriptional changes that were detected in hVISA/VISA isolates resulted in changes in protein A and capsule production, as well as urease activity, expression was determined for all isolates. (nih.gov)
  • The Restriction-modification system AhdI contains two convergent transcription units, one with genes encoding methyltransferase subunits M and S and another with genes encoding the controller (C) protein and the restriction endonuclease (R). We show that AhdI transcription is controlled by two independent regulatory loops that are well-optimized to ensure successful establishment in a naïve bacterial host. (nih.gov)
  • HU is a small (10 kDa) bacterial histone-like protein that resembles the eukaryotic Histone H2B. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, the first comprehensive proofs of multiple classes of riboswitches were published, including protein-free binding assays, and metabolite-binding riboswitches were established as a new mechanism of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) from bacterial chromosomes became the focus of research over the past five years. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, bioinformatic searches using this conserved antiterminator motif identified many new ANTAR target RNAs in phylogenetically diverse bacterial species, some comprising complex regulons. (nih.gov)
  • Post-genomic research has rendered bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) as major players in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data included conserved RNA secondary structures often found in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of the relevant genes and the success of procedures to create artificial small molecule-binding RNAs called aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Although MG1655 does not encode a T7 RNA polymerase gene, the pde genes were expressed from a fortuitous promoter at sufficiently high levels to partially restore the swimming defect of MG1655 ΔyhjH in semi-solid agar. (nih.gov)
  • Only once this region has been bound with the appropriate set of TFs, and in the proper order, can RNA polymerase bind and begin transcribing the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria
  • Bacterial examples include: Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella Legionella Mycobacterium Nocardia Rhodococcus equi Yersinia Neisseria meningitidis Fungal examples include: Histoplasma capsulatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Up-regulation of genes associated with the "cell wall stimulon" and mutations in the vraSR operon have both been implicated in the development of resistance, however the molecular mechanisms of resistance are not completely understood. (nih.gov)
  • This expression system, based on conjugative plasmid, would be applicable to general molecular biological studies of green sulfur bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Infection
  • A reliable normalization of the data, using several reference genes, is critical for an accurate quantification of gene expression.The two most stable genes (ABF-0017965 (lpxC) and ABF-0020529 (yafS) were successfully used for normalization of RT-qPCR data.We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • We measured the expression of these reference gene candidates using quantitative RT-PCR in 50 different experimental conditions, mimicking the environment encountered by the bacteria in their host and directly during the infection process in planta. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • In a macrophage model of infection the changes in cell surface structures in hVISA/VISA strains were associated with significantly reduced NF-kappaB activation resulting in reduced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression. (nih.gov)
  • The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial viruses, and research on the mechanism of infection and reproduction dramatically increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conditions of social stress however, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial infection which is more likely under conditions of social stress either through hostile human contact, or increased predatory vulnerability due to separation from the social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such as the flu and the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream
  • Consequently, the new KS based method proposed here, which assigns P -values to fixed length upstream regions, provides a fast and accurate approach for predicting bacterial transcription targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA sequencing of vraSR, saeSR, mgrA, rot, and merR regulatory genes and upstream regions did not reveal any differences between VSSA and hVISA/VISA despite transcriptional changes suggesting mutations in these loci may be linked to resistance in these strains. (nih.gov)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A TPP riboswitch in Neurospora crassa (a fungus) controls alternative splicing to conditionally produce an Upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF), thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes A TPP riboswitch in plants modifies splicing and alternative 3'-end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrastingly, enhancers influence transcription of genes on the same molecule of DNA and can be found upstream, downstream, within the introns, or even relatively far away from the gene they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA TATA box Pribnow box SOS box CAAT box CCAAT box Operator (biology) Upstream activation sequence RNA List of cis-regulatory RNA elements Polyadenylation signals, mRNA AU-rich element, mRNA Other Regulation of gene expression cis-regulatory module Gene regulatory network Operon Promoter Trans-acting factor Rfam Transterm Butler JE, Kadonaga JT (October 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesins
  • CnaB domains, first identified in S. aureus (28), are commonly found in cell-surface adhesins and are thought to form a stalk presenting the ligand-binding domain away from the bacterial cell surface (29). (nih.gov)
  • flagellar
  • Unlike the single gene cluster of E. coli, the Geobacter clusters are not all located near the flagellar genes. (nih.gov)
  • transcriptional
  • A-B) fimA expression was monitored by measuring ß-galactosidase activity from a chromosomal transcriptional fimA-lacZ fusion in either phase variation proficient (A) or phase variation deficient (B) strain backgrounds. (nih.gov)
  • Structure and transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli adapt" by Paolo Landini, Laurel I. Hajec et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we show that up-regulation of vraS and the "cell wall stimulon" is not essential for acquisition of low-level vancomycin resistance and that different transcriptional responses occur, even between closely related hVISA/VISA strains. (nih.gov)
  • The pattern of social stress-related changes in gene expression has been termed by Steve Cole and George Slavich at UCLA as a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures were grown
  • Bacterial cultures were grown in LB medium at 37°C to mid-log phase. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial cultures were grown in LB medium at 37°C to an OD600nm of 0.05 before the addition of cAMP. (nih.gov)
  • lacZ were co-transformed with the pAhdIMRinC plasmid (only methylase gene is active), bacterial cultures were grown until OD600 0.5 and β-galactosidase activity was measured in three independent sets of experiments. (nih.gov)
  • swarming motility
  • After 20 minutes of exposure to 0.82 mM OPP, genes involved in the exhibition of swarming motility and anaerobic respiration were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • Results from this study indicate that after 20 minutes of exposure to OPP, genes that have been linked to the exhibition of anaerobic respiration and swarming motility were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • chromosome
  • On the other hand, the specific adsorption of the His-tagged RC complex was observed in the case of the C. tepidum 6HA strain (Figure 4, trace 3), whose authentic pscA gene on the chromosome was replaced with the 6xhis-pscA gene (see Materials and Methods). (nih.gov)
  • His most prominent discovery was the proposal of the "Campbell model" of virus insertion, where viral DNA is inserted into the host chromosome, becoming covalently bonded to the bacterial DNA, and then remains dormant until activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a transcription factor that regulates a gene on chromosome 6 might itself have been transcribed from a gene on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • The 23 pairs of DNA molecules called chromosomes contain the approximately 21,000 genes comprising the "human blueprint. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Note that genes belonging to the functional class 'hypothetical, unclassified, unknown' (137 genes) are not represented in this figure. (nih.gov)
  • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) are widely used for functional studies of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of the structure-based antisense design and extension of the lacZ assay to include gene fusions will be applicable to high-throughput gene functional screening, and to the identification of new drug targets in pathogenic microbes. (nih.gov)
  • Out of these, we retained 10 genes representing different functional categories, different levels of expression (low, medium, and high) and with no systematic variation in expression correlating with growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • plasmid
  • For complementation purposes, plasmid pCBP68 (crp+) carrying the crp gene in the vector pLG338 (v.c.) was used. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the CD2831 gene was cloned under control of the inducible Ptet promoter on a plasmid, yielding pJKP041. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmid stabilising toxin-antitoxin systems have been used as examples of selfish DNA as part of the gene centered view of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm formation
  • The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • The numerous chemoreceptors and chemotaxis-like gene clusters of Geobacter appear to be responsible for a diverse set of signaling functions in addition to chemotaxis, including gene regulation and biofilm formation, through functionally and spatially distinct signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • disinfectants
  • The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. (nih.gov)
  • Major
  • The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (approximately 70) homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • coli
  • Finally, the regulation of gene expression in Geobacter differs from E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • This assay is used for measuring the expression of Escherichia coli lacZ, the antisense target for experimental testing and validation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the Escherichia coli aidB gene is induced in vivo by alkylation damage in an ada-dependent pathway and by anaerobiosis or by acetate at pH 6.5 in an ada-independent fashion. (umassmed.edu)
  • Dr. Campbell's research was focused on a specific bacterial virus, phage lambda, and its host bacterium E. coli, but the model provided insights into how extrachromosomal DNA can be inserted and excised in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • While study of the regulation of integration and excision of phage lambda in E coli has been a primary focus of his research, Dr. Campbell and research associates also studied regulation and expression of E coli genes linked to the lambda insertion location, including the biotin (bio) and galactose (gal) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While characterizing the outer membrane porin ompC in E.coli, some of the ompC promoter clones observed were capable of repressing the expression of other membrane porin such as ompF. (wikipedia.org)
  • riboswitches
  • Prior to the discovery of riboswitches, the mechanism by which some genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways were regulated remained mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riboswitches are often conceptually divided into two parts: an aptamer and an expression platform. (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNAs
  • Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which sRNAs are expected to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • Based on the transcriptome results multiple genes were sequenced and innate immune system stimulation was assessed in the VSSA and hVISA/VISA pairs. (nih.gov)
  • The sum total of genes expressed into RNA in a particular population of cells is referred to as the transcriptome. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Adherence to host cells is important in microbial colonization of a mucosal surface, and Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence was significantly enhanced by expression of an extracellular pilus composed of three subunits, RrgA, RrgB and RrgC. (nih.gov)
  • Microscopy
  • In contrast, RrgA-positive strains with disrupted rrgB and rrgC genes exhibit wild-type adherence despite failure to produce pili by Western blot or immunoelectron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • Here, we present a detailed in vitro analysis of SR1, a sRNA of Bacillus subtilis that is involved in regulation of arginine catabolism by basepairing with its target, ahrC mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Later on, this transcript, denoted micF, was found to be an asRNA of ompF and capable of downregulating the expression of ompF under stress by forming a duplex with the ompF mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypic
  • In Bordetella species, the BvgAS system represses and activates sets of genes, and mediates a biphasic phenotypic transition. (umassmed.edu)
  • For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • An understanding of the OPP-driven gene regulation and cellular response it elicits will facilitate more effective utilization of this antimicrobial and possibly lead to the development of more effective disinfectant treatments. (nih.gov)
  • This gene expression profile can now be utilized for a better understanding of the target cellular pathways of OPP in P. aeruginosa and how this organism develops resistance to OPP. (nih.gov)
  • Their best-known accomplishment was the identification of a cellular gene (c-src) that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by Peyton Rous in 1910. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby also affecting subsequent attachment and colonization of host tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative
  • In 1986, the first comparative genomic study at a larger scale was published, comparing the genomes of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus that contained more than 100 genes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus
  • Biochemical studies reveal that the domain is a glucosyltransferase, and it catalyses the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin, Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguinis. (nih.gov)
  • clusters
  • Gene positioning provides further evidence that the group A and B homologs bind to MCPs containing the C-terminal pentapeptide: these homologs are located in che clusters with pentapeptide-containing MCPs (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • patterns
  • Different bacterial gene expression patterns and attenuated host immune responses are associated with the evolution of low-level vancomycin resistance during persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. (nih.gov)