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  • proteins
  • In addition, we identified a novel G→C single nucleotide polymorphism in the second repeat of 3R alleles within the USF consensus element that alters the ability of USF proteins to bind and thus alters the transcriptional activation of TS gene constructs bearing this genotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In microorganisms, these two domains are separate proteins, but, in multicellular eukaryotes, the two catalytic sites are expressed on a single protein, uridine monophosphate synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to be able to quantitate the expression of predictive factors in breast cancer, because response to therapy is often dependent upon the concentration of particular proteins within the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator E2F proteins can then transcribe S phase promoting genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When activator E2F family proteins are knocked out, repressors become active to inhibit E2F target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F targets genes that encode proteins involved in DNA replication (for example DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, dihydrofolate reductase and cdc6), and chromosomal replication (replication origin-binding protein HsOrc1 and MCM5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are constantly using a variety of tools, involving genes, proteins and altered pathways, to ensure their survival against antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • uracil-DNA glycosy
  • Using gene-targeted cell lines defective in one or both of the two mammalian uracil-DNA glycosylase repair enzymes, we were able to test this model of FU cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mRNA
  • In this study, we sought to identify the regulatory factor(s) responsible for binding within the polymorphic region and enhancing TS mRNA expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Laboratory Methods --In this trial, all specimens analyzed for TS messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were obtained by core-needle biopsy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Our laboratory s methodology for determining a relative TS mRNA ratio, which has been extensively detailed in previous publications,[5-involves the use of an internal standard gene (beta-actin) for the measurement of relative gene expression by determining a ratio between the amplified internal standard complementary DNA (cDNA) and target cDNA within a linear range. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Expression levels of TS mRNA may be helpful in predicting the malignant potential of certain cancerous cells, thus improving cancer treatment targets and yielding higher survival rates among cancer patients [Hashimoto]. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this exploratory mRNA study, 24 FFPE tumour specimens were screened by digital gene expression analysis. (jcancer.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro expression studies have shown a positive relationship between the number of tandem repeats and the transcriptional activity of TYMS , with TSER*3 having 2.6-fold greater activity than TSER*2 ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Point mutations in the P. vivax dhfr gene equivalent to antifolate resistance mutations found in P. falciparum have been associated with antifolate resistance in P. vivax in vitro [ 11 - 13 ], leading to the conclusion that wild-type P. vivax is sensitive to antifolates, and resistance develops through dhfr mutations, similar to the case in P. falciparum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • amplification
  • Since cancer is a genetic disease, two genomic events underlie acquired drug resistance: Genome alterations (e.g. gene amplification and deletion) and epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal rearrangement due to genome instability can cause gene amplification and deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determining areas of gene amplification in cells from cancer patients has huge clinical implications. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure up- or down-regulation of 16 different resistance/target genes, and when tissue was available, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 8/16 paired esophageal biopsies, there was an increase in the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) following epirubicin + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy and this was accompanied by increased expression of the MDR-1 encoded protein, P-gp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study suggests that up-regulation of resistance genes or down-regulation in target genes may occur rapidly in human solid tumors, within days of the start of treatment, and that similar changes are present in pre- and post-chemotherapy biopsy material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms involved in resistance to chemotherapy usually involve up-regulation of resistance mechanisms, or down-regulation of target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples of the former include drug efflux pump molecules such as multi-drug resistance gene 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), while the latter include topoisomerases (TOPOs), targets of drugs such as etoposide and doxorubicin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Determine the roles of high frequency gene/transcript variants for hRFC as determinants of response and resistance to methotrexate in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Multiple independent complementation groups of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were isolated, and this gene restored UV resistance to cells of complementation group 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications in antineoplastic drug resistance play a major role in cancer development and drug resistance as they contribute to the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • We screened 29 sporadic clear cell RCCs from patients for mutations of the VHL gene by direct sequencing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The VHL gene mutations were detected in peripheral and/or renal venous blood from 15 of 20 (75%) patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When the normal genes are absent, these mutations can lead to human syndromes, including Cockayne syndrome (CS) and COFS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological role of PCFT is known based upon the phenotype of subjects with loss-of-function mutations of this gene - the rare autosomal hereditary disorder, hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • All patients signed an institutional review board (IRB)-approved written informed consent for a core-needle biopsy of their tumor, performed specifically for the purpose of measuring TS expression prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • clinical
  • Elevated expression of the metastasis gene metadherin (MTDH), which is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers, is associated with poor clinical outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • In repressors E2F4 and E2F5, pocket protein binding (more often p107 and p130 than pRB) mediates recruitment of repression complexes to silence target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of pRb, E2F1 (along with its binding partner DP1) mediates the trans-activation of E2F1 target genes that facilitate the G1/S transition and S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bound to E2F-3a, pRb can directly repress E2F-3a target genes by recruiting chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying activities (e.g. histone deacetylase, HDAC) to the promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • dhfr
  • Double crossover homologous recombination was used to replace the endogenous dhfr-ts of P. falciparum and P. berghei parasites with P. vivax homologous genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the permanent integration of Pvdhfr-ts gene in the genome, the transgenic Plasmodium lines expressing Pv DHFR-TS are genetically stable and will be useful for screening anti- P. vivax compounds targeting Pv DHFR-TS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissues
  • Low level of thymidylate synthase gene expression in tumor tissues is associated with response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy including S-1 or U. (esmo.org)
  • Cancer is a classic example of what evolutionary biologists call multilevel selection: at the level of the organism, cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues that suppress cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Since many chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil treat neoplastic diseases, including head and neck cancer, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer, by targeting TS in thymidylate metabolism, DUT may protect against the cytotoxic side effects by countering dUTP accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Ofverholm A, Arkblad E, Skrtic S, Albertsson P, Shubbar E, Enerback C (2010) Two cases of 5-fluorouracil toxicity linked with gene variants in the DPYD gene. (springer.com)
  • human
  • Here, we introduce a computational method for identifying gene expression signatures of response to chemotherapies and apply it to human tumors and cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human APBB1 genome location and APBB1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocyte elevated gene-1/MTDH undergoes palmitoylation in normal and abnormal physiology of the cell.The microgrooved biomaterial titanium substrata can alter the expression of AEG-1 in human primary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human purH gene product, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smug1
  • Low SMUG1 expression is also associated with BRCA1, ATM, XRCC1, implying genomic instability in SMUG1 low tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of SMUG1 expression in gastric cancers showed that overexpressed SMUG1 was correlated with patients' poor survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal growth f
  • 520:163-175 Psyrri A, Yu Z, Weinberger PM: Quantitative Determination of nuclear and cytoplasmic epidermal growth factor receptor expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer by using automated quantitative analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • These separate conformational forms display different enzymatic activities, with the UMP synthase monomer displaying low decarboxylase activity, and only the 5.6 S dimer exhibiting full decarboxylase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • To detect patients at high risk of metastasis after surgery, we developed a highly sensitive and specific nested reverse transcription-PCR method using VHL gene mutation to detect circulating cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We next examined blood samples from patients with the VHL gene mutation using mutation-specific nested reverse transcription-PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • E2F is a group of genes that codifies a family of transcription factors (TF) in higher eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation is the process of adding methyl groups to DNA, usually in the upstream promoter regions, which stops DNA transcription at the region and effectively silences individual genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • However, in most prokaryotes, NDPK expression levels are involved in the cell growth, development and differentiation of the organism, especially bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their different localizations, the two DUT isoforms display different expression patterns: while DUT-M is constitutively expressed, DUT-N is under cell cycle control and notably upregulated during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Increased toxicity seen in patients treated with CPT-11 may be explained by polymorphism in the UGT1A1 gene, which is responsible for glucuronidation of the active metabolite of CPT-11. (springer.com)
  • mutation
  • These findings indicate the presence of circulating cancer cells with VHL gene mutation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific nested RT-PCR method using VHL gene mutation to detect circulating RCC cells in the peripheral blood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • kinase
  • B-raf belongs to the the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases and plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which may be constitutively activated due to BRAF gene mutations. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • Two different classes of thymidine kinases have been identified and are included in this super family: one family groups together thymidine kinase from herpesvirus as well as cellular thymidylate kinases, the second family groups TK from various sources that include, vertebrates, bacteria, the bacteriophage T4, poxviruses, African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Since many chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil treat neoplastic diseases, including head and neck cancer, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer, by targeting TS in thymidylate metabolism, DUT may protect against the cytotoxic side effects by countering dUTP accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • Cancer is a classic example of what evolutionary biologists call multilevel selection: at the level of the organism, cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues that suppress cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • CYP27B1) which enzymatically converts the major circulating form of vitamin D 25 D3 (25D3) into the active form of vitamin D 1 25000 Parallel TLR-mediated up-regulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and activation of this receptor by 1 25000 prospects to downstream induction of the genes encoding the Bibf1120 antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and DEFB4 (5-10). (flora2world.com)
  • We found that CP-31398 upregulated transcription of the p53 downstream target gene, p21[sup Waf1/Cip (ubc.ca)
  • The isoforms are produced from alternative splicing at different 5' exons, with the first exon of DUT-N occurring 767 base pairs downstream of the first exon in DUT-M. Regulation at different promoters has been proposed to account for the differential expression of these isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • FU is thought to kill cells via the inhibition of thymidylate synthase and also deprive cells of TTP during DNA replication, which leads to the introduction of uracil in DNA causing the fragmentation of newly synthesized DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These expression patterns correspond with their roles in the DNA replication cycle of their respective genomes, and thus indicate different regulatory mechanisms affecting each isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • At the same time, it was found that PKA inhibited glycogen synthase, which was the first example of a phosphorylation event that resulted in inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • 520:163-175 Psyrri A, Yu Z, Weinberger PM: Quantitative Determination of nuclear and cytoplasmic epidermal growth factor receptor expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer by using automated quantitative analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Low SMUG1 expression is also associated with BRCA1, ATM, XRCC1, implying genomic instability in SMUG1 low tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cancer is a genetic disease, two genomic events underlie acquired drug resistance: Genome alterations (e.g. gene amplification and deletion) and epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomic DNA for ERCC1 was the first human DNA repair gene to be isolated by molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Altered gene expression of folate enzymes in adjacent mucosa is associated with outcome of colorectal cancer patients. (chalmers.se)
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether gene expression levels of folate enzymes in adjacent mucosa were associated with outcome of colorectal cancer patients. (chalmers.se)
  • Human
  • The p53 gene is the most commonly mutated gene in human malignancies. (ubc.ca)
  • Importantly MT1-MMP expression significantly correlated with decreased levels of in human PDAC tumor specimens. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Intragenic cis-acting art gene-responsive sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Human APBB2 genome location and APBB2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocyte elevated gene-1/MTDH undergoes palmitoylation in normal and abnormal physiology of the cell.The microgrooved biomaterial titanium substrata can alter the expression of AEG-1 in human primary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes of the two human isoenzymes were localized in the mid-1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP‐synthesizing complex has been built. (embopress.org)
  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene but some of their full length sequence is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • NVP-BVU972 We following examined the result of collagen on 3 people of family members based on differing expression amounts (and amounts (Fig. 1A) without impacting the expression from the precursor major type of (Supplemental Fig. 2) indicating that collagen regulates the post-transcriptional handling of through the precursor form towards the older type. (stopvivisection.info)
  • genome
  • Chromosomal rearrangement due to genome instability can cause gene amplification and deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • constitutively
  • In addition to their different localizations, the two DUT isoforms display different expression patterns: while DUT-M is constitutively expressed, DUT-N is under cell cycle control and notably upregulated during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Through its translation, TS has a varying expression in cancer cells and tumors, which leads to early cell death. (wikipedia.org)