• maternal
  • Preeclampsia is a life-threatening disorder characterized by maternal gestational hypertension and proteinuria that results from placental dysfunction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate mechanisms that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Maternal sex steroids and metabolic hormones regulate placental steroidogenesis and the transport of nutrients, functions that are critical for fetal growth and development. (ki.se)
  • The overall hypothesis is that high maternal androgens and maternal obesity up-regulate placental steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, which in turn alter metabolic pathways and contribute to the development of PCOS and related symptoms in the offspring. (ki.se)
  • Cell fusion is a hallmark of placental trophoblast cell differentiation and the mature syncytiotrophoblasts play essential roles for fetal-maternal exchange and production of pregnancy-related hormones. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • J Reproduktionsmed Endokrinol - Arias F, Rodriguez L, Rayne SC, Kraus FT Maternal placental verursachen uterine Durchblutungsstörungen Grad 1a and infection: two distinct subgroups among patients with preterm labor and preterm rupture of membranes. (varizen247.de)
  • In humans and other hemochorial placentals, the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion, though no fluid is exchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in cases of very high levels of maternal cortisol, this placental enzyme's expression and activity are greatly reduced, thus buffering the fetus less from the mother's high cortisol levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The ectopic synthesis of placental proteins by non-trophoblastic neoplasms is of special interest because of the frequent association of similar characteristics in neoplastic cells and embryonic cells. (stanford.edu)
  • 2. Studies on a set of nuclear proteins which bind to the regulating sequences controlling the transcription of the placental alkaline phosphatase in response to 1,25,(OH)2D3, which down-regulates the gene and down-regulates cell division. (stanford.edu)
  • These three genes are gag (encodes for structural proteins for the viral core), pol(encodes for reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease), and env (encodes for coat proteins for the virus's exterior). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial roles in controlling cell fate in a variety of tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that each of these proteins is capable of regulating both common target genes for neurogenesis and unique target genes for neuronal subtype characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 2002), the increased levels of activin A appear to be more speci ¬ cally a re ¬‚ection of increased placental production than do the increased levels of inhibin A (Silver et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • target genes
  • Both miRNAs function in a similar way by binding with partial complementarity to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of their target genes. (mdpi.com)
  • To date, more than a 1000 human miRNAs have been identified, each potentially controlling hundreds of target genes. (mdpi.com)
  • gonadotropin-releasi
  • In his research on the control of reproduction, Fernald's research showed neurons containing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) changed size in response to an animal's social status and his group were the first to find the gene encoding (GnRH) in cold-blooded vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Representational fragment amplification: Exponential amplification of fragmented cDNA enables multimillion-fold expression testing Sgarlato, G. D., Sussman, H. H. AMER ASSOC CLINICAL CHEMISTRY. (stanford.edu)
  • Linearly amplified cDNA from normal and diseased tissues of the original patient and seven others were hybridized to DNA macroarrays containing the candidate gene transcript fragments. (stanford.edu)
  • bHLH genes
  • Most highly related to twist-like bHLH genes in amino acid identity and embryonic expression, HAND1 can form homo- and heterodimer combinations with multiple bHLH partners, mediating transcriptional activity in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grouped in distinct families on the basis of closer sequence similarities in the bHLH domain: Genes of the ASC and Ngn families, and possibly members of the family of ato homologues, have a similar proneural function in vertebrates to that of their Drosophila counterparts, whereas other neural bHLH genes are involved in specifying neuronal fates or in neuronal differentiation, but have no proneural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • The GnRH is a decapeptidic hormone produced by hypothalamic neurons that controls reproduction in vertebrates through the hypothalamic "pituitary " gonadal axis by stimulating LH and FSH secretion (Stojilkovic et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • My research in this area examines the intracellular signal transduction cascades induced by GnRH and the mechanisms of gene activation that results from these signaling cascades. (cornell.edu)
  • He also found a previously unknown second GnRH gene in humans and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • In these studies we examine the effects of steroid hormones and cholcalciferol analogs on the expression of ectopically produced placental alkaline phosphatase and the eutopic breast-class isoenzyme in human breast cancer cell lines in which embryonic genes are ectopically (non-phenotype) expressed. (stanford.edu)
  • In 1993, the first miRNA, lin-4, was discovered as a 22-nucleotide non-coding RNA that regulated the timing of post-embryonic development by repressing lin-14 protein expression in Caenorhabditis elegans [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • superfamily
  • Interestingly, epigenetic modification of PGC-1α has been reported in granulosa cells from women with PCOS and a genome-wide methylation array of adipose tissue from prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys showed changes in methylation of genes in the TGF-β superfamily. (ki.se)
  • For example, it has been shown that the gene coding for the ancestral relaxin peptide existed independently from the other genes of the insulin superfamily, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplications
  • Further gene duplications have given rise to expanded growth hormone or PRL clusters in a species-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While many of the genes in the mouse and rat PRL family are orthologues, some are specific to either species indicating gene duplications since the divergence of mice and rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of peptides and their receptors is varied among vertebrates due to lineage specific gene loss and duplications For example, teleost fish have almost twice as many relaxin family peptide receptors compared to humans, which is attributable to the Fish-Specific Whole Genome Duplication and teleost-specific gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Here, we examined the sequence of the 5′-flanking region of the BCRP gene and found a putative estrogen response element (ERE). (aacrjournals.org)
  • pregnancy
  • Mechanistically, stress early in pregnancy produced a significant sex-dependent effect on placental gene expression supportive of altered fetal transport of key growth factors and nutrients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These studies were designed to test the hypotheses that expression of serotonergic genes and responsiveness to serotonin are increased in pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of aquaporins early in human pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Figure 1.7 Factors regulating the release of activin and inhibin from human placental cells in culture and activin A assay may be of value in diagnosis and short-term follow-up of molar pregnancy, as levels are highest in molar pregnancies (Florio et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. (mdpi.com)
  • More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. (mdpi.com)
  • and to produce hormones which support pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it plays a role in regulating the transcriptional profile of fetal and placental tissues associated with the early stages of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This project aims to investigate differences in genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation pattern in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with and without PCOS. (ki.se)
  • There are 31 different families of HERVs and together they make up about 8% of the human genome, which is about four times more DNA than is devoted to protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5B orthologs have been identified in most placentals for which complete genome data are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • these genes can mutate and instead of moving to another location in the genome they can become exogenous or pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general retrovirus genome consists of three genes vital for the invasion, replication, escape, and spreading of its viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have distinct expression patterns and bind the two forms of adiponectin with different affinity ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In humans and many other tetrapods, the RLN/INSL-encoding genes exist in 4 distinct clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional
  • We investigated the transcriptional activities of the 5′-flanking region of the BCRP gene and confirmed that the BCRP gene is a direct target of the E 2 /ER complex through the identified ERE. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Solo LTRs and LTRs associated with complete retroviral sequences have been shown to act as transcriptional elements on host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • The majority of these elements are inserted in the sense direction to their corresponding genes, but there has been evidence of LTRs acting in the antisense direction and as a bidirectional promoter for neighboring genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few cases, the LTR functions as the major promoter for the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Cortisol is a steroid hormone, and, like all steroid hormones, the receptors for cortisol are located intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans there are 4 RXFP receptors: RXFP1 and RXFP2 are evolutionarily related to the receptors of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (FSH and LH, respectively), and are the cognate receptors for RLN and INSL3 respectively in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that some relaxin hormones may also be able to interact with glucocorticoid-type nuclear receptors, which are found floating freely between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • In vertebrates this gene was duplicated leading to the extant CRH1 and CRH2 forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of the gene family in primitive vertebrates is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes may function in analogous fashions in vertebrates and invertebrates, specifically they were implicated in early neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth hormones
  • Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein mediates the signal transduction triggered by various cell ligands, such as IL2, IL4, CSF1, and different growth hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Growth hormone 2 (GH2), also known more commonly as placental growth hormone (PGH) or as growth hormone variant (GH-V), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GH2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAND1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, evidence of a frameshift mutation in the bHLH domain of HAND1 has been correlated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (a serious form of congenital heart disease where the left side of the heart is severely underdeveloped), aiding in the implication that HAND1 expression is a factor to patients suffering from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, CRF1 is encoded by the CRHR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin family peptide hormones in humans are represented by 7 members: three relaxin-like (RLN) and four insulin-like (INSL) peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • To characterize the MSRV-related HERV family and to test the hypothesis of a replication-competent HERV, we have investigated the expression of MSRV-related sequences in healthy tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, expression of related mRNA sequences ( 8 ) was found in both MS and control brain tissues ( 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recombination between homologous retroviral sequences has also contributed to gene shuffling and the generation of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in the instance of potentially antagonistic effects of retroviral sequences, repressor genes have co-evolved to combat them. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • Their purpose appears to be to work with other placental cells to control the expression of histocompatibility genes so that the developing fetus is not destroyed by the mare's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Control and ethanol-exposed (100 mM × 48 h) human PNET2 cerebellar neuronal cells were stimulated with IGF-1 and used to measure AAH expression and directional motility. (springer.com)
  • Cantarini MC, de la Monte SM, Pang M, Tong M, D'Errico A, Trevisani F, Wands JR (2006) Aspartyl-asparagyl beta hydroxylase over-expression in human hepatoma is linked to activation of insulin-like growth factor and notch signaling mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression patterns associated with human placental trophoblast differentiation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Its structure and function are similar to those of human growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insertion of a solo ERV-9 LTR may have produced a functional open reading frame (ORF), causing the rebirth of the human immunity related GTPase gene (IRGM). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the sheep and human, progesterone is the major placental progestogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Since ethanol inhibits PI3 Kinase-Akt and increases GSK-3β activity in brain, we examined the effects of ethanol and GSK-3β on AAH expression and directional motility in neuronal cells. (springer.com)
  • The combined action of the PKA and EGF pathways results in a remarkable synergistic activation of the a subunit gene in choriocarcinoma cells. (cornell.edu)
  • It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, expression of GPR64 has been found in fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from osteoarthritis but not from rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells within a cluster that express a proneural gene (called a proneural cluster) can be thought of as cells of an equivalence group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroectoderm, neurogenic genes are required to single out cells from within proneural clusters to form neuronal precursors, leaving the remaining cells of proneural clusters to develop into epidermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocrinol
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab - PubMed CrossRef Baker J, Hardy MP et al Effects of an Igf1 gene null mutation on mouse reproduction. (varizen247.de)
  • Cortisol
  • Cortisol is type of hormone called a glucocorticoid, which glucose usage in the body and tends to be activated during a fight-or-flight response. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of fetal cortisol induce higher CRH expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central nucleus of the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways including the functional importance of the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)