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  • proteins
  • We hypothesized that genes that are up-regulated in the uterine endometrium at the initiation of conceptus elongation in cattle, and that encode for secreted proteins, contribute to the composition of the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) and ultimately, drive conceptus elongation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of the expression profiles of these genes to proteins detected in ULF during conceptus elongation (i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the strategies employed to identify molecules that regulate conceptus elongation in ruminants has been to characterize the temporal changes in endometrial gene expression during the period when conceptus elongation occurs, and to infer from the localization of transcripts whether the proteins for which they encode contribute to the composition of the ULF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ectopic synthesis of placental proteins by non-trophoblastic neoplasms is of special interest because of the frequent association of similar characteristics in neoplastic cells and embryonic cells. (stanford.edu)
  • 2. Studies on a set of nuclear proteins which bind to the regulating sequences controlling the transcription of the placental alkaline phosphatase in response to 1,25,(OH)2D3, which down-regulates the gene and down-regulates cell division. (stanford.edu)
  • These three genes are gag (encodes for structural proteins for the viral core), pol(encodes for reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease), and env (encodes for coat proteins for the virus's exterior). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial roles in controlling cell fate in a variety of tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that each of these proteins is capable of regulating both common target genes for neurogenesis and unique target genes for neuronal subtype characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • bHLH genes
  • Most highly related to twist-like bHLH genes in amino acid identity and embryonic expression, HAND1 can form homo- and heterodimer combinations with multiple bHLH partners, mediating transcriptional activity in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grouped in distinct families on the basis of closer sequence similarities in the bHLH domain: Genes of the ASC and Ngn families, and possibly members of the family of ato homologues, have a similar proneural function in vertebrates to that of their Drosophila counterparts, whereas other neural bHLH genes are involved in specifying neuronal fates or in neuronal differentiation, but have no proneural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • Performing multiple-tissue Northern Blots on a variety of human tissues lead to the discovery of 8-, 3.1- and 1.3-kb transcripts in placental tissue not expressed in heart, brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney or pancreas cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performing a BLASTn query search with the ESTs (expressed sequence tags) database for the cDNA clones derived from the probes, revealed that 53% of related transcripts were found in placental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1980
  • 1980). The total placental concentration of immunoreactive GnRH, as measured by RIA, progressively increases during the ¬ rst 24 weeks of gestation and remains relatively constant in the third trimester (Siler-Khodr and Khodr, 1978) whilst, on the contrary, the mRNA expression remains constant throughout gestation (Kelly et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • receptor
  • Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is a protein, also known as CRF1, with the latter (CRF1) now being the IUPHAR-recommended name. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the signal can be transmitted along multiple signal transduction cascades, according to the structure of the receptor and the region of its expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor binds corticotropin-releasing hormone, a potent mediator of endocrine, autonomic, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRF1 triggers cells to release hormones that are linked to stress and anxiety [original reference missing].Hence CRF1 receptor antagonists are being actively studied as possible treatments for depression and anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 has been shown to interact with Corticotropin-releasing hormone and Urocortin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERV insertions have also been shown to generate alternative splice sites either by direct integration into the gene, as with the human leptin hormone receptor, or driven by the expression of an upstream LTR, as with the phospholipase A-2 like protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene was found to fuse to retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARA) gene in a small subset of acute promyelocytic leukemias (APML). (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptor 64 also known as HE6 is a protein encoded by the ADGRG2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unchanged hormone expression in knockout males indicates that the receptor functions immediately in the male genital tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of INSL5 this hypothesis is based on its expression (and also co-expression with its receptor) in the central nervous system (CNS), intestine and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, cortisol does not need an extracellular receptor in order to enter the nucleus of cells and affect their gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • With such an overactive HPA axis, glucocorticoid receptor expression in the brain increases, making it so that the release of minimal levels of cortisol elicit a substantial response at developing synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplications
  • Further gene duplications have given rise to expanded growth hormone or PRL clusters in a species-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While many of the genes in the mouse and rat PRL family are orthologues, some are specific to either species indicating gene duplications since the divergence of mice and rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of peptides and their receptors is varied among vertebrates due to lineage specific gene loss and duplications For example, teleost fish have almost twice as many relaxin family peptide receptors compared to humans, which is attributable to the Fish-Specific Whole Genome Duplication and teleost-specific gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • There are 31 different families of HERVs and together they make up about 8% of the human genome, which is about four times more DNA than is devoted to protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • these genes can mutate and instead of moving to another location in the genome they can become exogenous or pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general retrovirus genome consists of three genes vital for the invasion, replication, escape, and spreading of its viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5B orthologs have been identified in most placentals for which complete genome data are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • So, if life evolves according to Cosmic Ancestry, we would not be surprised to find that genes are older than the resulting phenotypes. (panspermia.org)
  • This detailed analysis uncovered several new markers for some trophoblast cell types that will be useful for future analysis of placental structure in mutant mice with placental phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Axis
  • The GnRH is a decapeptidic hormone produced by hypothalamic neurons that controls reproduction in vertebrates through the hypothalamic "pituitary " gonadal axis by stimulating LH and FSH secretion (Stojilkovic et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • Moreover, it has been shown that RLN3 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hence affects levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, excessive cortisol crossing the placental barrier causes the hypothalamus and amygdala to increase transcription of CRH, which in turn stimulates HPA axis activity early in postnatal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth hormones
  • Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein mediates the signal transduction triggered by various cell ligands, such as IL2, IL4, CSF1, and different growth hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoid
  • There is evidence that some relaxin hormones may also be able to interact with glucocorticoid-type nuclear receptors, which are found floating freely between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol is type of hormone called a glucocorticoid, which glucose usage in the body and tends to be activated during a fight-or-flight response. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Growth hormone 2 (GH2), also known more commonly as placental growth hormone (PGH) or as growth hormone variant (GH-V), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GH2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, CRF1 is encoded by the CRHR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAND1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, evidence of a frameshift mutation in the bHLH domain of HAND1 has been correlated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (a serious form of congenital heart disease where the left side of the heart is severely underdeveloped), aiding in the implication that HAND1 expression is a factor to patients suffering from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAT5B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin family peptide hormones in humans are represented by 7 members: three relaxin-like (RLN) and four insulin-like (INSL) peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans and many other tetrapods, the RLN/INSL-encoding genes exist in 4 distinct clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans there are 4 RXFP receptors: RXFP1 and RXFP2 are evolutionarily related to the receptors of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (FSH and LH, respectively), and are the cognate receptors for RLN and INSL3 respectively in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Thus, our aim in writing this review has been to integrate data gleaned from studies of the effects of various growth factors on fetal tissues and cells in vitro with those aimed to analyzing their expression in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Athanassakis I, Bleackley RC, Peatkau V, Guilbert L, Barr PJ, Wegmann TG (1987) The immunostimulatory effect of T cell and T cell lymphokines on murine fetally derived placental cells. (springer.com)
  • Since ethanol inhibits PI3 Kinase-Akt and increases GSK-3β activity in brain, we examined the effects of ethanol and GSK-3β on AAH expression and directional motility in neuronal cells. (springer.com)
  • Control and ethanol-exposed (100 mM × 48 h) human PNET2 cerebellar neuronal cells were stimulated with IGF-1 and used to measure AAH expression and directional motility. (springer.com)
  • Their purpose appears to be to work with other placental cells to control the expression of histocompatibility genes so that the developing fetus is not destroyed by the mare's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, expression of GPR64 has been found in fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from osteoarthritis but not from rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adrenocortical cells the trophic hormone ACTH induces expression of TIMP-1 and the increase in TIMP expression is also associated with decreased collagenase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells within a cluster that express a proneural gene (called a proneural cluster) can be thought of as cells of an equivalence group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroectoderm, neurogenic genes are required to single out cells from within proneural clusters to form neuronal precursors, leaving the remaining cells of proneural clusters to develop into epidermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Fourth, further diversification of gene products from the PRL/PL locus occurs through alternative splice isoforms for several genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give rise to an ERV, which can later become fixed in the gene pool of the host population. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete luteo-placental shift occurs by day 120-150. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • The January, 1998, report says, "A published analysis of seven gene loci that concludes that the corresponding divergence times are 1,200 and 1,000 million years ago is shown to be flawed because it extrapolates from slow-evolving vertebrates to faster-evolving invertebrates, as well as in other ways" (2) . (panspermia.org)
  • In vertebrates this gene was duplicated leading to the extant CRH1 and CRH2 forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of the gene family in primitive vertebrates is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes may function in analogous fashions in vertebrates and invertebrates, specifically they were implicated in early neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Bioinformatic analysis of upstream regulatory regions identified conserved combinations (modules) of putative transcription factor binding sites shared by genes expressed in the same trophoblast subtype, supporting the notion that local regulatory elements, rather than locus control regions, specify subtype-specific expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progesterone
  • 3) determine if expression of these genes is affected by altered concentrations of progesterone (P4) in vivo and 4) determine if the protein products of these genes are detectable in ULF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, activin A stimulates, whilst inhibin A inhibits, the placental secretion of hCG, 17 -estradiol and progesterone (Petraglia et al. (nanobukva.ru)
  • In the sheep and human, progesterone is the major placental progestogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progestogens, including both progestins and progesterone, are used medically in hormonal contraception, hormone therapy, in the treatment of gynecological disorders, and for other indications. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH
  • In the pituitary, CRF1 stimulation triggers the activation of the POMC gene, which in turn causes the release of ACTH and β-endorphins from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portal system carries the CRH to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, where it stimulates corticotropes to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and other biologically-active substances (β-endorphin). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that not one family member has the same expression pattern as another when both temporal and spatial data were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased expression of TIMP1 has been found to be associated with worse prognosis of various tumors, such as laryngeal carcinoma or melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Representational fragment amplification: Exponential amplification of fragmented cDNA enables multimillion-fold expression testing Sgarlato, G. D., Sussman, H. H. AMER ASSOC CLINICAL CHEMISTRY. (stanford.edu)
  • Linearly amplified cDNA from normal and diseased tissues of the original patient and seven others were hybridized to DNA macroarrays containing the candidate gene transcript fragments. (stanford.edu)
  • superfamily
  • For example, it has been shown that the gene coding for the ancestral relaxin peptide existed independently from the other genes of the insulin superfamily, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Recombination between homologous retroviral sequences has also contributed to gene shuffling and the generation of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in the instance of potentially antagonistic effects of retroviral sequences, repressor genes have co-evolved to combat them. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • In addition, since several factors regulating the release of GnRH from hypothalamus also regulate the secretion of placental GnRH, they may also have a local role in modulating indirectly the placental hCG release. (nanobukva.ru)
  • High levels of fetal cortisol induce higher CRH expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central nucleus of the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factor
  • Third, bioinformatic comparisons of upstream regulatory regions identified predicted transcription factor binding site modules that are shared by genes expressed in the same trophoblast subtype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conjunction with HAND2 (a fellow bHLH transcription factor), complementary and overlapping expression patterns are thought to play a role in interpreting asymmetrical signals in the developing heart which leads to the characteristic looping. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Our results demonstrated the contrasting effects of STC1 and STC2 (show STC2 Antibodies )-derived peptides on human macrophage foam cell formation associated with ACAT1 (show ACAT1 Antibodies ) expression and on HASMC migration. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cantarini MC, de la Monte SM, Pang M, Tong M, D'Errico A, Trevisani F, Wands JR (2006) Aspartyl-asparagyl beta hydroxylase over-expression in human hepatoma is linked to activation of insulin-like growth factor and notch signaling mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Its structure and function are similar to those of human growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insertion of a solo ERV-9 LTR may have produced a functional open reading frame (ORF), causing the rebirth of the human immunity related GTPase gene (IRGM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythroid potentiating activity (EPA) Human collagenase inhibitor (HCI) Transcription of this gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose
  • To obtain insights into roles of epigenetic changes in the delayed toxic effects of endocrine disruption, we determined effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression in gonadal white adipose tissues by deep sequencing (MBD-seq and RNA-seq), bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time qPCR. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • development
  • The Human Pre-Eclampsia RT 2 Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. (qiagen.com)
  • Sex chromosomes promote the development and the differentiation of the primary gonad but the decisive influences are the presence or absence of testosterone and of antimüllerian hormone production by the testis. (gfmer.ch)
  • However, testis development must only be possible through the interaction of Sry gene with other genes, located on autosomal chromosomes, some of which being involved in the regulation of Sry expression, others possibly being downstream targets of Sry (27). (gfmer.ch)
  • Studies in mice have shown that interfering with the HOX15 gene can cause parathyroid gland aplasia, which suggests the gene plays an important role in the development of the parathyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue, while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of the breasts during the prenatal stage of life is independent of biological sex and sex hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • For that reason, studies have shown that removal of the SOCS gene prevents against insulin resistance in obesity Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested the roles of this gene in the negative regulation of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and placental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placentas are a defining characteristic of placental mammals, but are also found in marsupials and some non-mammals with varying levels of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • exerts
  • M-CSF released by osteoblasts (as a result of endocrine stimulation by parathyroid hormone) exerts paracrine effects on osteoclasts[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • RESULTS- Both SAT and VAT expressed angiogenic factors without significant difference for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The major role of IGF-2 is as a growth promoting hormone during gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as amphiregulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth and maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • parathyroid
  • The genes, TBX1, CRKL, GATA3, GCM2, and SOX3 have also been shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the parathyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Mice whose paternally inherited Grb10 gene is inactivated are more aggressive while those whose maternally inherited allele is inactivated exhibit foetal overgrowth and are significantly bigger than wild-type litter-mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • disrupt
  • As the endocrine system is implicated in both the expression and perception of odours, hormone manipulation, through the administration of contraceptives, could disrupt critical olfactory-mediated processes, including partner choice [ 15 , 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • sequence
  • They developed ExPecto (named after the Patronus charm from the Harry Potter series) as a program that can read a raw sequence of DNA and predict the corresponding effect on gene expression. (medicalnewser.com)
  • Another example of structural variability is seen in vertebrates, in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinase module have evolved by 3 independent gene duplication events followed by sequence divergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • ExPecto can examine any genetic variant and predict its effect on gene expression," says principal investigator Olga Troyanskaya, deputy director of genomics at CCB and a professor at Princeton. (medicalnewser.com)
  • tissues
  • Using a single reference genome, the researchers trained the program to understand how DNA controls gene expression across more than 200 different tissues and cell types. (medicalnewser.com)
  • enzymes
  • Sulfotransferase enzymes catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs, and xenobiotic compounds. (wikipedia.org)