• cells
  • Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc. (jci.org)
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries sparked extensive debate in the United States Congress, with opponents of the use of embryonic stem cells from fetuses arguing that these or similar methods of creating stem cells from skin might be eventually used instead to satisfy the conflicting demands of medical research and morals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's technique provides a window into exactly what happens to turn back the clock in cells during cloning--and, indeed, in the normal process of creating sperm, eggs and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microscope's images can reveal the divisions and intricate rearrangements of individual cells as biological structures emerge in a developing embryo. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cells in a developing embryo have different shapes and behaviors and can be densely packed, making it difficult for a computer to identify and track individual cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The scientists found that the cells derived from these two methods resulted in cells with highly similar gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast, scientists create iPS cells by expressing a few key genes in adult cells, like a skin or blood cell, causing the cells to revert to an embryonic-like state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our work will also be welcome news for the many scientists performing basic research on iPS cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • It shows that they are likely working with cells that are very similar to human embryonic stem cells, at least with regard to gene expression and DNA methylation. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is important to note that both types of techniques led to cells that had more of these aberrations than embryonic stem cells derived from an unfertilized human oocyte, or than embryonic stem cells derived from leftover IVF embryos. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the somatic, or adult cell nucleus, the egg begins to develop into a blastocyst, essentially a sphere containing a cluster of unspecialized stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this video article, we describe our technique for targeted laser ablation of kidney nephron cells in the zebrafish embryo kidney, or pronephros. (jove.com)
  • Originating from the lateral ganglionic eminence, one of the three embryonic structures that eventually become specific parts of the brain, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) is a group of cells that develop along the surface of the ventricular layer of the brain, following the creation of the cortical plate in embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further differentiate to form four structures: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • For animals, the gene must be inserted into embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have four sets of Hox genes, numbering 39 genes altogether, all of which aid in the differentiation of cells by location. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in global repression and allows housekeeping genes to be expressed in all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is carried out by the transfection of stem-cell associated genes into mature cells using viral vectors such as retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeats in the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein results in an abnormal protein, which gradually damages cells in the brain, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • According to the definitions included in the bill, Clone a human being or cloning a human being, shall mean the creation of a human being by any means other than by the fertilization of a naturally intact oocyte of a human female by a naturally intact sperm of a human male. (natcath.org)
  • mRNA
  • From this discovery, cloning was born and he has extended his research to the understanding of mRNA translation and gene regulation. (biologists.org)
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of stages where gene expression is regulated, the most extensively utilised point is Transcription Initiation: Chromatin domains Transcription Post-transcriptional modification RNA transport Translation mRNA degradation In eukaryotes, the accessibility of large regions of DNA can depend on its chromatin structure, which can be altered as a result of histone modifications directed by DNA methylation, ncRNA, or DNA-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • However, plakoglobin is a very weak transactivator when bound to DNA - this is probably caused by the divergence of their C-terminal sequences (plakoglobin appears to lack the transactivator motifs, and thus inhibits the Wnt pathway target genes instead of activating them). (wikipedia.org)
  • One important example is the stabilization of β catenin, which increases the expression of target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Epigenetic modifications such as methylation of CpGs (a dinucleotide composed of a 2'-deoxycytosine and a 2' deoxyguanosine) and histone tail modifications allow activation or repression of certain genes within a cell, in order to create cell memory either in favor of using a gene or not using a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes that alter the epigenetic profile of a gene include production of activating or repressing protein complexes, usage of non-coding RNAs to guide proteins capable of modification, and the proliferation of a signal by having protein complexes attract either another protein complex or more DNA in order to modify other locations in the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these modifications that regulate gene expression are inheritable and are referred to as epigenetic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Flat Mount Preparation for Observation and Analysis of Zebrafish Embryo Specimens Stained by Whole Mount In situ Hybridization Christina N. Cheng 1 , Yue Li 1 , Amanda N. Marra 1 , Valerie Verdun 1 , Rebecca A. Wingert 1 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame The zebrafish embryo is an excellent model for developmental biology research. (jove.com)
  • Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning
  • This is followed by a consideration of another area of administration policy criticized by the Union of Concerned Scientists: stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. (vt.edu)
  • Along the way we must reduce the emotional valence of phrases such as "therapeutic cloning" and "destruction of embryos. (jci.org)
  • Kevin Eggan (born 1974 in Normal, Illinois) is a Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University, known for his work in stem cell research (also known as "therapeutic cloning"), and as a spokesperson for stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are once again demethylated and remethylated (except for differentially methylated regions associated with imprinted genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • However, the idea defied dogma at the time when John Gurdon, then a graduate student, first proved that an entire tadpole could be made from combining a denucleated embryonic cell with a somatic cell nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Was there a specific reason for thinking that this cell nucleus would be totipotent and work well in this experiment? (biologists.org)
  • Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm). (pearltrees.com)
  • This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • A stem cell is defined by two properties (see A stem cell research lexicon ). (jci.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • It suggests that ultimately, treatment of serious illnesses and understanding of stem cell development may be possible to obtain without recourse to human embryos - a highly desirable state of affairs politically, given the concurrent controversy over stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan himself is cautious about his team's work, with an early stage 2005 profile in Nature noting there was still much work to do: The hybrids still contain two nuclei: one from a skin cell and one from an embryonic stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell dilemma: do potential benefits of research outweigh ethical risks? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Somatic cell gene therapy is very difficult to do. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He and his colleagues, including Janelia postdoc Fernando Amat, Janelia group leader Kristin Branson and former Janelia lab head Eugene Myers, who is now at the Max Plank Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, have used the method to reconstruct cell lineage during development of the early nervous system in a fruit fly. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Next, the program searches for ellipsoid shapes among groups of connected supervoxels, which it recognizes as cell nuclei. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Revisions to canonical name assignment allow for the free orientation of embryos in 3-dimensional space and an entirely new 3-dimensional viewing window provides a new suite of methods for exploring cell positions. (springer.com)
  • The scientists showed that both methods resulted in cell types that were similar with regard to gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. (eurekalert.org)
  • results of Metals on Cell Signaling Pathways and Gene ExpressionChapter 10. (prigsbee.com)
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dolly was the first mammal created using the nucleus from a cell of a mature adult mammal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That nucleus is then replaced with the nucleus from a donor s skin, liver, brain or any other cell in the body. (natcath.org)
  • Some Catholic leaders, activists in the pro-life movement, and legislators oppose embryonic stem cell research, while others believe certain forms of the research present morally acceptable means of achieving long-sought medical gains. (natcath.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate a detailed dissection procedure that enables the researcher to identify and surgically remove the adult zebrafish kidney, which can be used for applications such as cell isolation, transplantation, and expression studies of kidney and/or blood cell populations. (jove.com)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any given cell type, these RNA and protein markers reflect the genes characteristically active in that cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research directions include determining the exact mechanism of the disease, improving animal models to aid with research, testing of medications to treat symptoms or slow the progression of the disease, and studying procedures such as stem cell therapy with the goal of repairing damage caused by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • But right now, the only way to solve that problem is to clone embryos, which is a difficult and expensive process. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Catenin beta-1, also known as β-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the CTNNB1 protein is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is regulated and destroyed by the beta-catenin destruction complex, and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression refers to the transcription of a gene but the RNA produced does not necessarily have to encode a protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repression may refer to the decrease in transcription of a gene or inhibition of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • By making these alterations, proteins, like transcription factors, may bind DNA less or some protein may be inhibited so that it becomes a block in a signaling cascade and certain genes will then not be induced to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to post-translational modification of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances
  • Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. (fightaging.org)
  • Advances in understanding genes and inheritance continued throughout the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • The plasmid used usually carries a gene for antibiotic resistance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Processes that look at a phenotype and then try and identify the gene responsible for it are called forward genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • GMO Human Embryos Have Already Been Created. (pearltrees.com)
  • Should blastocysts be protected under the same laws that govern research on human subjects? (jci.org)
  • To find which of the colonies includes the human insulin gene, use a probe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If his view prevails, one of the most ambitious research efforts in the Midwest may be forced to move elsewhere, and university work on human genetics could be in jeopardy. (natcath.org)
  • By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • for this reason, the involvement of all three of these genes is thought to be responsible for determining the final destination of the neurons in the islands of Calleja. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviors
  • Each rhombomere expresses its own unique set of genes, which has been shown to influence postnatal rhythmic behaviors, such as respiration, mastication, and walking. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • These modifications can either originate from the parental DNA, or can be added to the gene by various proteins and can contribute to differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Today, the US Food and Drug Administration held day one of a public meeting outlining the creation of genetically modified humans. (pearltrees.com)
  • regulation
  • Repressors bind to the Operator, coding sequences on the DNA strand that are close to or overlapping the promoter region, impeding RNA polymerase's progress along the strand, thus impeding the expression of the gene.The image to the right demonstrates regulation by a repressor in the lac operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Sign up as a monthly donor to the SENS Research Foundation before December 31st, and Josh Triplett, Christophe and Dominique Cornuejols, and Fight Aging! (fightaging.org)
  • typically
  • This is typically a radioactive segment of DNA whose sequence is complementary to part of the insulin gene, allowing it to bind. (encyclopedia.com)
  • organisms
  • Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have also been raised as potential issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • A region of the brain !It's a tiny region of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which governs the body's biological clocks. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene-environment interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • This review summarizes research to develop and evaluate VZV vectors as recombinant vaccines against other diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • interactions
  • Many of the interactions between blastomeres are dependent on cadherin expression, particularly E-cadherin in mammals and EP-cadherin in amphibians. (wikipedia.org)