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  • genomic
  • To this end, we longitudinally assessed the gene expression profiles of blood- and lymph node-derived CD4+ cells from AGMs and RMs in response to SIVagm and SIVmac infection, respectively, using a genomic microarray platform. (jci.org)
  • There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. (hindawi.com)
  • ISGs
  • Type I interferons (IFNs) are produced in response to acute virus infection and evoke an antiviral state in susceptible cells through the expression of a diverse array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The molecular signature of acute infection was characterized, in both species, by strong upregulation of type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). (jci.org)
  • We found that acute SIV infection of SMs was consistently associated with a robust innate immune response, including widespread upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in blood and lymph nodes. (jci.org)
  • vesicular stoma
  • Following tetracycline induction, the cultures were challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV G)-pseudotyped green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing stocks of an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector (HIV-1/GFP) ( 19 ), and infection efficiency was enumerated in EasiLV-transduced cell populations by flow cytometry at 48 h as the percentage of GFP-positive cells ( 7 ) ( Fig. 1A ). (asm.org)
  • chr21
  • Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-localization detection using a set of organelle markers was carried out for each Chr21 protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We optimized this platform for high-throughput protein co-localization studies and applied it to the characterization of human chromosome 21 (Chr21) encoded proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mononuclear cells
  • Flow cytometry was used to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cells for IL-7-induced proliferation, CD25 expression, and signaling (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation) in CD4 T cells. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • genetic
  • We have employed molecular genetic approaches to understand the domain organization of the HIV-1 resistance factor myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2). (asm.org)
  • To understand the host genetic factors of different mouse strains in response to ECTV infection, we carried out a microarray analysis using Affymetrix Gene-Chip Mouse Genome Arrays of spleen tissues from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice at 3 and 10 days post-ECTV infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • immune
  • IL-7-induced proliferation and CD25 expression were decreased in CD4 T cells from immune failure patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • CD127 expressing CD4 T cells were decreased, whereas expression of 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-1, myxovirus resistance A protein, and IFN-α mRNA were increased in total CD3 T cells from immune failure patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • CD127 expression correlated with CD25 induction but not proliferation, whereas T-cell IFN-α mRNA was associated with reduced proliferation in CD4 T cells from immune failure patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • IL-7 responsiveness is impaired in immune failure patients and may be related to expression of CD127 and IFN-α. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Notably, human populations from distinct geographic areas have different frequencies of immune gene variants. (asmscience.org)
  • While SMs exhibited a rapid resolution of ISG expression and immune activation, both responses were observed chronically in RMs. (jci.org)
  • Systems biology analysis indicated that expression of the lymphocyte inhibitory receptor LAG3, a marker of T cell exhaustion, correlated with immune activation in SIV-infected RMs but not SMs. (jci.org)
  • Other transcript expressions, such as the master regulator of type I interferon-dependent immune responses, STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and IRF-7 (interferon regulatory factor 7), IFN-β and the inflammassome NALP3, had increased levels in LP, when compared to HC group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. (hindawi.com)
  • However, understanding the gene expression variation during body growth and immune capacity development at young ages is in its primitive stage. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, immune status and metabolic changes in other tissues may manifest through whole blood gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • RNA-seq has been used to identify genes associated with economically important quantitative traits, such as body growth, immune, disease resistance, and meat quality [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunity Related Guanosine Triphosphatases or IRGs are proteins activated as part of an early immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Certain host gene variants correlate with the prognosis of infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) blood levels in children 1 to 24 months of age according to virus detection and the presence of respiratory tract infection symptoms and in asymptomatic adults ( n of subjects per group in parentheses). (asmscience.org)
  • The aim of the study was to phenotypically characterize two strains of mice with differential Chagas infection susceptibility and correlate strain myocarditis phenotypes with heart tissue gene expression. (omicsdi.org)
  • Our discovery that mast cells produce little virus and express antiviral proteins suggest that mast cells have antiviral mechanisms to restrict FluA infection. (ualberta.ca)
  • susceptibility
  • Although translocated X chromosome segment in Yaa may contain as many as 16 genes, the major gene for causation of the autoimmune phenotypes was identified to be TLR7 ( 7 ), making it a potential susceptibility gene for SLE. (pnas.org)
  • species
  • The paradox remains that these IRGs function without induction by IFN activation pathways, since B. japonicum and other amphioxus species do not possess IFN and IFN receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • However, all the four IFN-λ protein subtypes are clustered on chromosome 19 and are grouped in a new IFN family, called type III IFN, distinct from type I and type II IFNs, respectively, representing the classical IFN-α/β family and IFN-γ. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is a related gene located adjacent to this gene on chromosome 21, and there are multiple pseudogenes located in a cluster on chromosome 4. (genecards.org)
  • disease resistance
  • Geese are capable of rapid growth, disease resistance, and high liver lipid storage capacity, and can be easily fed coarse fodder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has many desirable idioplasmatic traits such as high prolificacy, strong disease resistance, good meat flavor, and good adaptability to crude feed [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Landrace pigs have a better growth rate and higher lean content than DPL pigs but are weaker in disease resistance compared to DPL [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cellular
  • Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a high degree of compartmentalization and most protein activities can be assigned to particular cellular compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • resistant
  • Pubmed ID: 15771557 The gene expression of the myxovirus-resistant protein A (MxA) gene is a sensitive measure of the biological response of therapeutically applied interferon-beta (IFNbeta) and of its reduced bioavailability due to inhibiting factors such as IFNbeta-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). (jove.com)
  • marker
  • Another strategy in differentiating viral and bacterial infections from each other could be the determination of a single marker, such as myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), which is generally induced by viruses but not by bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • host
  • Host response pattern determination by expression analysis of a predefined set of genes is a novel strategy in the diagnosis of virus infections. (asmscience.org)
  • analyses
  • Methods In a cohort of 35 pSS patients, myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) was assessed as a potential biomarker for type I IFN activity, using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on whole-blood and flow cytometric analyses (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS) of isolated CD14 monocytes. (bmj.com)
  • GTPases
  • The GSK class (Irga6, Irgb6, and Irgd) are considered the canonical grouping of GTPases, whereas a second grouping of GMS proteins, which have a lysine to methionine mutation in the active site, function to prevent premature activation by associating with the nucleotide binding motif in a manner similar to Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDI's). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Remarkably, the binding of MxB to the HIV-1 core inhibits the uncoating process of HIV-1 defining MxB as an endogenously expressed protein that prevents HIV-1 uncoating. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Molluscum contagiosum fusion protein inhibits CCL1-induced chemotaxis of cells expressing CCR8 and. (biomedsearch.com)
  • viruses
  • The encoded protein is induced by type I and type II interferons and antagonizes the replication process of several different RNA and DNA viruses. (genecards.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The results of this study show that deletion of the goose lep gene might be the result of positive selection, thus allowing the liver to adopt energy storage mechanisms for long-distance migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the molecular mechanisms by which IFN-beta exerts its beneficial effect in multiple sclerosis is reduction of MMP-9 expression and increase of its endogenous tissue inhibitor, TIMP-1. (jove.com)
  • These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences. (hindawi.com)
  • human
  • Although the sex effect has often been attributed to sex hormones, the fact that XXY male subjects have approximately a 14-fold higher risk of developing SLE than 46 XY men indicates that X-linked genes may be risk factors for human SLE ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • cytokine
  • They recognize endogenous RNA-containing autoantigens and induce the expression of type I IFN, a pivotal cytokine in the pathogenesis of SLE ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • receptor
  • [ 8 ] Moreover, an analysis of antigen receptor H chain gene transcripts of B and plasma cells isolated from s-IBM muscle showed evidence of clonal expansion and variation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation, indicative of a local antigen-driven humoral response. (medscape.com)
  • Tat expression in cells deleted of the type I IFN locus or receptor resulted in a gene modulation pattern similar to that induced in primary immature dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, excluding the involvement of type I IFNs in Tat-mediated gene modulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The paradox remains that these IRGs function without induction by IFN activation pathways, since B. japonicum and other amphioxus species do not possess IFN and IFN receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Comparison of data obtained in meningeal and white matter infiltrates revealed higher expression of genes related to interferonγ production, B cell differentiation, cell proliferation, lipid antigen presentation, and T cell and myeloid cell recruitment, as well as more widespread EBV infection in the meningeal samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abnormal protein
  • Theoretically, the possibilities include (1) a primary T-cell mediated autoimmune response causing muscle damage, (2) a primary degenerative process involving abnormal protein processing leading to a secondary inflammatory response, and (3) separate and independent immune and degenerative processes caused by an external trigger. (medscape.com)
  • transfection
  • Seventy-two hours after the transfection of eight expression plasmids into cocultured 293T and MDCK cells, the virus yield in the supernatant of the transfected cells was between 2 × 10 5 and 2 × 10 7 infectious viruses per milliliter. (pnas.org)
  • enzymes
  • Based on this hypothesis, we determined the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the minimal erythema dose (MED) of 6 male human volunteers before and after consumption [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] One consequence of this is the synthesis of different proteins and enzymes. (symptoma.com)
  • significantly greater
  • The first exon Tat SF2 1-72 and the minimal transactivator Tat SF2 1-58, all modulated genes to a significantly greater extent than full-length wild type, two-exon Tat, indicating that Tat second exon is critical in reducing the innate response triggered by HIV-1 in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mRNAs
  • After the ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) penetrate the cell nucleus, the associated proteins begin to transcribe the (−)vRNAs into mRNAs and (+)cRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • strains
  • Its genetic composition allows this virus to evolve by reassortment of gene segments from different strains. (pnas.org)
  • promoter
  • ISG activation depends on Tat interaction with MAP2K3, MAP2K6, and IRF7 promoters and a single exon Tat protein more strongly modulated the luciferase activity mediated by MAP2K3, MAP2K6, and IRF7 promoter sequences located 5′ of the RNA start site than the wild type two-exon Tat, while a cysteine and lysine Tat mutants, reduced in LTR transactivation, had negligible effects on these promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecular
  • Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • interaction
  • Moreover, the accurate functions of protein interaction networks rely greatly on the proper localization of each protein component. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have shown that HIV-1 Tat interaction with MAP2K3, MAP2K6, and IRF7 promoters is key to IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) activation in immature dendritic cells and macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bioactivity
  • The IFNscore, a measure for total type I IFN bioactivity, was calculated using expression values of the IFN type I signature genes-IFI44, IFI44L, IFIT3, LY6E and MX1-in CD14 monocytes, determined by real-time quantitative PCR. (bmj.com)
  • type
  • Methods In a cohort of 35 pSS patients, myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) was assessed as a potential biomarker for type I IFN activity, using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on whole-blood and flow cytometric analyses (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS) of isolated CD14 monocytes. (bmj.com)
  • function
  • The GSK class (Irga6, Irgb6, and Irgd) are considered the canonical grouping of GTPases, whereas a second grouping of GMS proteins, which have a lysine to methionine mutation in the active site, function to prevent premature activation by associating with the nucleotide binding motif in a manner similar to Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDI's). (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • We chose 89 genes that were distributed over the majority of 21q, ranging from RBM11 (14.5 Mb) to MCM3AP (46.6 Mb), with part of them expressed aberrantly in the Down's syndrome mouse model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • major
  • Thus, with HCV-GT 1 and GT4 and the IFN resistance is a major issue. (springer.com)
  • Although translocated X chromosome segment in Yaa may contain as many as 16 genes, the major gene for causation of the autoimmune phenotypes was identified to be TLR7 ( 7 ), making it a potential susceptibility gene for SLE. (pnas.org)
  • multiple
  • Multiple IRG genes have been identified in canines and zebrafish but few in the model organism Tetraodontidae (the pufferfish). (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment
  • Expression of s-IBM is variable, but all cases eventually evolve into a syndrome of diffuse, progressive, asymmetric, proximal, and distal weakness that is generally refractory to immunosuppressive treatment. (medscape.com)