• candidate genes
  • Results from numerous studies have identified several genomic regions known to be subject to imprinting, candidate genes, and gene-environment interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • See Table 1) Table 1 Table 1- Modified from Schanen (2006) Genes on 15q11-13 can be classified into three main categories: GABAA receptor genes: Members of the GABA receptor family, especially GABRB3, are attractive candidate genes for Autism because of their function in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • FMR1
  • An expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the promoter of the gene FMR1 in boys causes fragile X syndrome, and at least 20% of boys with this mutation have behaviors consistent with autism spectrum disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • Autism
  • In 1999, the MeCP2 gene was discovered to be altered in many cases of the autism spectrum disorder Rett syndrome. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The heritability of autism, however, is complex, and it is typically unclear which genes are responsible. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, individuals with autism have significantly reduced fecundity, they are 20 times less likely to have children than average, thus curtailing the persistence of mutations in ASD genes over multiple generations in a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first genes to be definitively shown to contribute to risk for autism were found in the early 1990s by researchers looking at gender-specific forms of autism caused by mutations on the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • The primary function of this superfamily is to protect the organism from environmental stress such as exposure to UV light, which may induce genes containing the USP domain in order to protect the DNA and more generally the cell from further damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • upregulation
  • Several gene families are involved in the processes of hyperaccumulation including upregulation of absorption and sequestration of heavy metal metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although experiments have shown that the hyperaccumulation is partially dependent on environmental exposure (i.e. only plants exposed to a metal are observed with high concentrations of that metal), hyperaccumulation is ultimately dependent on the presence and upregulation of genes involved with that process. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollutants
  • Application of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) provided protein expression signatures (PES) for exposure to these different pollutants.Furthermore, several individual protein components of these PES could be putatively identified. (diva-portal.org)
  • Environmental health scientists have long established that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to environmental pollutants. (ccceh.org)
  • The Center's research focuses on how early exposure to environmental pollutants could alter gene expression, thereby affecting brain development, asthma, and even metabolic disorders and obesity. (ccceh.org)
  • At the request of the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department the company developed a comprehensive air quality model system to address air quality concerns, including ozone, particulate matter, and other pollutants due to local sources, as well as transport from China and other areas in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • stressors
  • The mechanism by which heat-shock (or other environmental stressors) activates the heat shock factor has been determined in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • UspA is especially implicated in the resistance of a huge number of stressors most notably tetracycline exposure and high temperatures, with the exception of not forming a response to cold shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • ALL emerges when a single lymphoblast gains many mutations to genes that affect blood cell development and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes, in turn, increase the risk that more mutations will occur in developing lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal development
  • In addition, environmental chemicals can interfere with fetal development by disrupting the growth of the placenta and affecting the transfer of nutrients from the placenta to the fetus. (ccceh.org)
  • mediate
  • When this gene cluster is activated, these enzymes mediate the production of gliotoxin from serine and phenylalanine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASTHMA
  • Although research is lacking in this area, the exposure-response relationship is reported commonly for agricultural workers and may represent an important point of intervention for childhood asthma. (aappublications.org)
  • risks
  • Infectivity data are important for assessing public health risks from exposure to human pathogenic viruses in the environment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Health tips developed by the Center and our community board to protect you and your family from environmental health risks. (ccceh.org)
  • Ramboll Environ provides assistance in assessing and mitigating potential environmental risks so that companies can operate more efficiently, address legal and regulatory challenges and reduce or eliminate future liabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The firm provides assistance so that industrial facilities are regulatory compliant, manage potential liabilities, and can assess environmental, health, and safety risks when making an acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries high risks of environmental contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Changes in how genes in the immune system function may result in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of visual impairment in older adults, based on preliminary research conducted by National Institutes of Health (NIH) investigators. (nih.gov)
  • occur
  • KMT2A (formerly MLL) gene rearrangements are most common and occur in the embryo or fetus before birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • NCoR), resulting in an altered chromatin structure and inactive genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered gene expression within the limbic brain regions that may contribute to depression, stress, and anxiety-related disorders in future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Also, genes on the X chromosome may play an important role, as in Rett Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The commonly duplicated region of chromosome 15 also includes paternally imprinted genes that can be considered candidates for ASD. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • 15q11-13 in humans contains a cluster of genetically imprinted genes important for normal neurodevelopment. (wikipedia.org)
  • cluster
  • In Aspergillus fumigatus, the enzymes needed for gliotoxin biosynthesis are encoded in 13 genes within the gli gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Rett syndrome and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are single gene disorders related to ASD with overlapping symptoms that include deficient neurological development, impaired language and communication, difficulties in social interactions, and stereotyped hand gestures. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • A comparison of urban and rural children suggests that the pathogenesis of airway disease is multifactorial and unique exposures may contribute to the development of disease in both settings. (aappublications.org)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • species
  • In diurnal (day-active) species, exposure to light soon after wakening advances the circadian rhythm, whereas exposure before sleeping delays the rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hyperaccumulation genes (HA genes) are found in over 450 plant species, including the model organisms Arabidopsis and Brassicaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of such genes is used to determine whether a species is capable of hyperaccumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As there is wide variety among hyperaccumulating species that span across different plant families, it is likely that HA genes were ecotypically selected for. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Exposure Exposure to fungal species that secrete gliotoxin is common because airborne Aspergillus fungal spores are ubiquitous in many environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Table 1) Like other genetically imprinted genes, the parent of origin determines the phenotypes associated with 15q11-13 duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The firm offers various environmental, health and safety, sustainability and health sciences services, including air quality and climate change management, regulatory compliance assistance, due diligence, remedial design and engineering, ecology and sediment management, and risk and exposure assessment and management. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the bifunctional form), and finally the coding sequence for homoserine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)