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  • PMID
  • PMID 18317873 ] Statistical analysis of the associations between polymorphisms within aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and quantitative and qualitative traits extracted from a large-scale database of Japanese single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (snpedia.com)
  • retinaldehyde dehydrogenase
  • a company harnessing breakthroughs in brown fat biology and insulin sensitization to revolutionize the treatment of metabolic disease, today announced that it has secured exclusive option rights to intellectual property for three key small molecule targets - retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1), and TRPV4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lipid
  • The eventual degradation of lipid hydroperoxides releases a wide variety of aldehydes, which, owing to their stability and ability to react cellular nucleophiles, are both cytotoxic and genotoxic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allele
  • The rs671 (A) allele of the ALDH2 gene is the culprit, in that it encodes a form of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 protein that is defective at metabolizing alcohol. (snpedia.com)
  • This allele is known as the ALDH*2 form, and individuals possessing either one or two copies of it show alcohol-related sensitivity responses including facial flushing, and severe hangovers (and hence they are usually not regular drinkers). (snpedia.com)
  • Those with the variant allele have little tolerance for alcohol, thus lowering chance of dependence and abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • These DNA primer pairs were designed by prioritizing the gene regions most commonly found in transcript variants. (bio-rad.com)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures of three human beta alcohol dehydrogenase variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tertiary structure consists of a beta/alpha-barrel, with the coenzyme-binding site located at the carboxy-terminus end of the strands of the barrel.Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • The encoded protein is able to oxidize long-chain fatty aldehydes in vitro, and may play a role in protection from oxidative stress. (genecards.org)
  • Studies in which rabbits were transfected with genes that allow them to overexpress human ALDH3A1 in their corneal stromal fibroblasts document ALDH3A1's most critical function is to protect the cornea from oxidative stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study elucidates that ALDH3A1 not only indirectly protects the cornea from UVR induced oxidative stress by metabolizing aldehydes, but also protects the tissue directly, by competitively absorbing UVR in a "suicide response" that reduces damage to other proteins of the cornea In fact, 50% percent of the UVR that the cornea is exposed to is absorbed by ADLH3A1. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers. (mdpi.com)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Human ALDH1B1 genome location and ALDH1B1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ALDH3B1 genome location and ALDH3B1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ADH1C genome location and ADH1C gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on the subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALDH2
  • The ALDH2 gene is about 44 kbp in length and contains at least 13 exons which encode 517 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In native Japanese, this variant ALDH2 gene encodes lysine instead of glutamic acid at amino acid 487 and therefore encodes a product protein that is completely inactive in metabolizing acetaldehyde to acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • aliphatic
  • ALDH3A2 catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes into fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols and catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is monomorphic and predominant in fetal and infant livers, whereas the genes encoding beta and gamma subunits are polymorphic and strongly expressed in adult livers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism
  • This SNP may be related to alcohol consumption with the atypical genotype having reduced risk of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of increased alcohol availability led to alcoholism and abuse by those able to acquire it, resulting in lower reproductive fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Each gene target within a pathway was assigned a score based on the frequency of differential expression and its research significance. (bio-rad.com)
  • Furthermore, antiquitin functions as an aldehyde dehydrogenase for α-AASA in the pipecolic acid pathway of lysine catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol found in nature and in alcoholic drinks, is metabolized through a complex catabolic metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Genome analyses indicated that soil isolates like strains TC1 and FB24 have a large number of genes encoding stress-related proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deleting the GSNOR gene from both yeast and mice increased the cellular levels of GSNO and nitrosylated proteins, and the yeast cells showed increased susceptibility to nitrosative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • Strain SolRH( pTAAD ), carrying a plasmid - encoded copy of thebifunctional alcohol / aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ( aad ) used in butanol production, produced even higherconcentrations of solvents ( by 21%, 45%, and 62%, respectively, for butanol, acetone, and ethanol ) than strain SolRH. (pdftreatment.com)
  • The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption-due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages-range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also important to note that step 1 on this reaction is endothermic, requiring 47.2 kJ/mol of alcohol, or about 3 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) per molecule of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • We have identified a gene cluster responsible for anaerobic choline degradation within the genome of a sulfate-reducing bacterium and verified its function using both a genetic knockout strategy and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli . (pnas.org)
  • The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction study for serum triglycerides levels in a healthy Chinese male population. (snpedia.com)
  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a histidinol dehydrogenase (HIS4) (HDH) (EC 1.1.1.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-histidinol + 2 NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-histidine + 2 NADH + 2 H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-histidinol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are L-histidine, NADH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a formaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.46) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction formaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } formate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are formaldehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, NADH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Here, we engineered longer lifespan by expressing genes from zebrafish encoding molecular functions not normally present in worms. (isharonline.org)
  • The evolution of aerobic fermentation likely involved multiple successive molecular steps, which included the expansion of hexose transporter genes, copy number variation (CNV) and differential expression in metabolic genes, and regulatory reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • retinol
  • In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an ester, primarily retinyl palmitate, which is converted to retinol (chemically an alcohol) in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the most important RDH, 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase catalyzes the 11-cis retinaldehyde (the most common visual pigments in higher animals) formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase is also mainly associated to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of RPE cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). (frontiersin.org)
  • The functional significance of this gene and the cellular localization of its product are presently unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • consumption
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • for example, eating a heavy meal before alcohol consumption causes alcohol to absorb more slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extreme levels of consumption can lead to alcohol poisoning and death (a concentration in the blood stream of 0.40% will kill half of those affected). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, also termed alcohol-induced asthma and alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms, are increasingly recognized as a pathological bronchoconstriction response to the consumption of alcohol that afflicts many people with a "classical" form of asthma, the airway constriction disease evoked by the inhalation of allergens. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyses
  • AKR1A1 is shown to demonstrate characteristically high specific activity towards many aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, and preferentially catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of aliphatic aldehydes, aromatic aldehydes and biogenic amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • A remarkably higher frequency of acute alcohol intoxication among East Asians than among Caucasians could be related to the absence of the mitochondrial isozyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2), catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and concomitantly transfers two electrons from FAD to the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible redox conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a.k.a. glycerone phosphate, outdated) to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols and catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • This allele is known as the ALDH*2 form, and individuals possessing either one or two copies of it show alcohol-related sensitivity responses including facial flushing, and severe hangovers (and hence they are usually not regular drinkers). (snpedia.com)
  • expression
  • Alcohol preference may be associated with strain differences in mesolimbic enkephalin gene expression (Ng et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Alcohol preference is due to at least two recessive quantitative trait loci that are sex-restricted in expression (Melo et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • As a result, lifespan can be lengthened rationally using bioengineering to modulate gene expression or to add exogenous components. (isharonline.org)
  • Assessing the gene expression of the ADHs in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients has shown elevated levels of all ADHs, but primarily ADH1 and ADH4 (up to 40-fold increased). (wikipedia.org)
  • ADH5 showed an ~4-fold increase in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome-wide
  • A genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction study for serum triglycerides levels in a healthy Chinese male population. (snpedia.com)
  • METHODS: To determine if alterations in gene-specific methylation were associated with alcohol dependence, a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from alcohol-dependent patients and siblings without alcohol dependence as controls. (isharonline.org)