• lipid
  • The eventual degradation of lipid hydroperoxides releases a wide variety of aldehydes, which, owing to their stability and ability to react cellular nucleophiles, are both cytotoxic and genotoxic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinaldehyde dehydrogenase
  • a company harnessing breakthroughs in brown fat biology and insulin sensitization to revolutionize the treatment of metabolic disease, today announced that it has secured exclusive option rights to intellectual property for three key small molecule targets - retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1), and TRPV4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • allele
  • This allele is known as the ALDH*2 form, and individuals possessing either one or two copies of it show alcohol-related sensitivity responses including facial flushing, and severe hangovers (and hence they are usually not regular drinkers). (snpedia.com)
  • Those with the variant allele have little tolerance for alcohol, thus lowering chance of dependence and abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative stress
  • One study elucidates that ALDH3A1 not only indirectly protects the cornea from UVR induced oxidative stress by metabolizing aldehydes, but also protects the tissue directly, by competitively absorbing UVR in a "suicide response" that reduces damage to other proteins of the cornea In fact, 50% percent of the UVR that the cornea is exposed to is absorbed by ADLH3A1. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Glycerol dehydrogenase is a homooctamer composed of eight identical monomer subunits made up of a single polypeptide chain of 370 amino acids (molecular weight 42,000 Da). (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • The major metabolic product of ethanol, which is generated by ethanol dehydrogenase and subsequently metabolised to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption-due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages-range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol found in nature and in alcoholic drinks, is metabolized through a complex catabolic metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also important to note that step 1 on this reaction is endothermic, requiring 47.2 kJ/mol of alcohol, or about 3 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) per molecule of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Studies in which rabbits were transfected with genes that allow them to overexpress human ALDH3A1 in their corneal stromal fibroblasts document ALDH3A1's most critical function is to protect the cornea from oxidative stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ALDH1B1 genome location and ALDH1B1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers. (mdpi.com)
  • Human ALDH3B1 genome location and ALDH3B1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Human ADH1C genome location and ADH1C gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on the subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcoholism
  • This SNP may be related to alcohol consumption with the atypical genotype having reduced risk of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, alcohol dependence (i.e., alcoholism) is a major health problem, affecting 4 to 5 percent of the population at any given time, with a lifetime prevalence of 12.5 percent (Hasin et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded 40 years ago to further understanding of the biological underpinnings of alcohol dependence. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The study methods used to identify genes that affect the risk for alcohol dependence assume that the presence of certain alleles increases the risk of alcoholism. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The results of increased alcohol availability led to alcoholism and abuse by those able to acquire it, resulting in lower reproductive fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • The alternative transcript differs by an additional exon and anchors differently to the endoplasmic reticulum vs. the peroxisome Mutations and deletions of in the ALDH3A2 gene have been widely associated with the autosomal recessive Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene cause pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, which involves a combination of various seizure types that do not respond to standard anticonvulsants, but are treatable via administration of pyridoxine hydrochloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the AKR1A1 gene has been found associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the gene cause Sjogren-Larsson syndrome. (abnova.com)
  • Gene duplication of ADH-3, followed by series of mutations, the other ADHs evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • aliphatic
  • It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols and catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • In humans and many other animals, they serve to break down alcohols that otherwise are toxic, and they also participate in generation of useful aldehyde, ketone, or alcohol groups during biosynthesis of various metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The study has provided a novel route for 1-propanol production in E. coli , which is subjected to further improvement by identifying limiting conversion steps, shifting major carbon flux to the productive pathway, and optimizing gene expression and culture conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • homozygous
  • In the overall Japanese population, about 57% of individuals are homozygous for the normal gene, 40% are heterozygous for the variant gene, and 3% are homozygous for the variant gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Furthermore, antiquitin functions as an aldehyde dehydrogenase for α-AASA in the pipecolic acid pathway of lysine catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gene target within a pathway was assigned a score based on the frequency of differential expression and its research significance. (bio-rad.com)
  • 2 ] devised a synthetic approach to convert 2-ketobutyrate to produce 1-propanol in a genetically engineered E. coli strain through a non-fermentative biosynthetic pathway mediated by a promiscuous 2-ketoacid decarboxylase and an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7 ] demonstrated the production of 1-propanol by grafting a pathway containing several key genes for further conversion of l -threonine into 1-propanol in an engineered l -threonine overproducing E. coli strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolic
  • The ALDH1A1 gene may be involved in regulating the metabolic responses to a high-fat diet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If the reaction stops part way through the metabolic pathways, which happens because acetic acid is excreted in the urine after drinking, then not nearly as much energy can be derived from alcohol, indeed, only 215.1 kJ/mol. (wikipedia.org)