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  • tRNA gene
  • KplE1, HK620 and numerous (pro)phages that integrate at the same site in enterobacteria genomes (such as the argW tRNA gene) all share a highly conserved recombination module. (mdpi.com)
  • mutants
  • I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)
  • To uncover other genes with a role in this response, or simply genes with roles in adapting to LatA-induced stress, we carried out a genome-wide screen and identified a group of 38 gene deletion mutants that are hyper-sensitive to the drug. (g3journal.org)
  • Importantly, while the identified gene deletion mutants are prone to cytokinesis failure in the presence of LatA, they are nevertheless fully capable of cell division in the absence of the drug. (g3journal.org)
  • Insertion mutants that are still able to survive or grow are not in essential genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • This gene is located in the RH gene locus, between the RHD and RHCE genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 4.7 million nucleotides in length and ~300 genes the locus had resisted the effects of recombination, either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire haplotype, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes known to be deleted are CHM and POU3F4, both located on the Xq21 locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • NPM1 deletion, hypermethylation, or mutations were not found in any of the 23 patients with isolated 5q- while loss of one copy of NPM1 was found in 7/30 patients with 5q- associated with complex karyotype. (haematologica.org)
  • We suggest that large NF1 deletions (1) are not always associated with unusual clinical features, (2) tend to occur more frequently on maternal alleles, and (3) are an important mechanism for constitutional and somatic mutations in NF1 patients. (bmj.com)
  • Mutations in this gene or its regulatory regions cause ahaptoglobinemia or hypohaptoglobinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a computational analysis of genetic variation and mutations in 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse, Georgi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 8,041 individuals with complete knock-outs, 6,885 were estimated to be homozygotes, 1,249 were estimated to be compound heterozygotes (i.e. they had both alleles of a gene knocked out but the two alleles had different mutations). (wikipedia.org)
  • When mutations in the FBN-1 or FBN-2 genes occur, significant deformations can result from the damage to the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the FBN1 gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and its variant Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome, autosomal dominant Weill-Marchesani syndrome, isolated ectopia lentis, MASS phenotype, and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • haplotypes
  • Its position between the RH genes suggests that polymorphisms in this gene may be tightly linked to RH haplotypes and may contribute to selective pressure for or against certain RH haplotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance between genes of about 200,000 nts, which means that over 250 generations (~5000 years) one expects 1/2 of adjacent genes to have new gene-alleles, unless the genes are small and very close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • These essential genes encode proteins to maintain a central metabolism, replicate DNA, translate genes into proteins, maintain a basic cellular structure, and mediate transport processes into and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • FBN1 is a 230-kb gene with 65 coding exons that encode a 2,871-amino-acid long proprotein called profibrillin which is proteolytically cleaved near its C-terminus by the enzyme furin convertase to give fibrillin-1, a member of the fibrillin family, and the 140-amino-acid long protein hormone asprosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • They found that a protein called stathmin, produced by the stathmin gene, was highly concentrated in the amygdala but hard to detect elsewhere in the brain. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Gene expression profiling was performed using a Taqman Gene Expression Assay (Cat#4331182, SEC16A-Hs00389570_m1, GAPDH-Hs99999905_M1) and protein expression was assessed using Western analysis using a commercial SEC16A antibody. (bmj.com)
  • The in-frame deletion had no significant impact on gene or protein expression. (bmj.com)
  • Although this in-frame deletion had no significant impact on gene or protein expression, a detrimental impact on protein structure of SEC16A remains a possibility and is currently under investigation. (bmj.com)
  • The association of this deletion within the SEC16A gene with AxSpA is particularly interesting given that the gene product plays a role in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and mediates COPII vesicle formation at the transitional ER. (bmj.com)
  • The Green Monster method enables the rapid assembly of multiple deletions marked with a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein. (jove.com)
  • Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane protein 50A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM50A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKG2-C type II integral membrane protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLRC2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement component 4B (Chido blood group) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probable DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC3B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ig gamma-3 chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHG3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • partial
  • However, two patients showed partial LOH, consistent with somatic mosaicism for the deletion, suggesting that mosaicism may be more frequent in NF1 than previously recognised (and may have bearing on clinical severity). (bmj.com)
  • Hp exists in two allelic forms in the human population, so-called Hp1 and Hp2, the latter one having arisen due to the partial duplication of Hp1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF
  • Researchers found five individuals with BDNF deletions, all of whom were obese, had a mild-moderate intellectual impairment, and had a mood disorder. (psychcentral.com)
  • The results of the new study, published in the Archives of General Psychiatry , reveal for the first time the link between BDNF deletion, cognition, and weight gain in humans. (psychcentral.com)
  • Linking a deletion in BDNF conclusively to mood and anxiety really tells us that it is possible to dissect the biological pathways involved in determining how we feel and act. (psychcentral.com)
  • All of the participants in our study had mild-moderate intellectual disability, but most people with these cognitive problems do not have psychiatric problems - so what is it about deletion of BDNF that affects mood? (psychcentral.com)
  • mice
  • Scientists working with mice have found that by removing a single gene they can turn normally cautious animals into daring ones, mice that are more willing to explore unknown territory and less intimidated by sights and sounds that they have learned can be dangerous. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Using genetic engineering, the scientists removed the gene from mice and bred a line of the animals, all missing the same gene. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • To be sure that it was the gene change and not some other quality that explained the differences, the researchers tested hearing and pain sensitivity in the altered mice. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In the current study, the researchers deleted the leucine zipper-bearing kinase ( LZK ) gene in astrocytes of one group of injured mice, which decreased the cells' injury response and resulted in a larger wound on the spinal cord. (genengnews.com)
  • Conversely, the scientists overexpressed the gene in other injured mice, which stimulated the cells' injury response and resulted in a smaller scar. (genengnews.com)
  • Overexpressing the gene in uninjured mice also activated the astrocytes, confirming LZK as a trigger for astrogliosis. (genengnews.com)
  • Inducible LZK gene deletion in astrocytes of adult mice reduced astrogliosis and impaired glial scar formation, resulting in increased lesion size after spinal cord injury. (genengnews.com)
  • genetic
  • The genetic operation wherein a gene from the parent's DNA is removed from the offspring's DNA . (everything2.com)
  • We performed genetic analysis of PROP1 gene in a Turkish pedigree with three siblings who presented with short stature. (hindawi.com)
  • In genetic analysis, we found a gross deletion involving PROP1 coding region. (hindawi.com)
  • In this research, the colleagues found that a smaller deletion of genetic material was associated with similar problems in 10 members of four families. (elementsbehavioralhealth.com)
  • deficiency
  • Interestingly, although little boy with combined pituitary hormone deficiency has adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, his elder sisters with the same gross PROP1 deletion have no ACTH deficiency. (hindawi.com)
  • Alteration
  • Alteration of the gene encoding the PROP1 may affect somatotropes, thyrotropes, and lactotropes, as well as gonadotropes and corticotropes. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate haploinsufficiency of NPM1 in myeloid malignancies with 5q- aberration, we analyzed the NPM1 gene in terms of mutational and methylation status and presence of deletions in 53 patients with MDS or secondary AML (sAML) carrying the 5q- abnormality as a sole chromosomal alteration or associated with additional chromosome defects. (haematologica.org)
  • The alteration of the CD20 gene is reported as infrequent in CD20-negative relapse in B-cell lymphoma. (wiley.com)
  • Genomic alteration of the PTEN gene in SD07. (wiley.com)
  • defects
  • In familial or sporadic CPHD cases, the most common causes are PIT1 and PROP1 gene defects [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • h) Counting genes with essential domains and those that lead to growth-defects when disrupted as essential, and those who lead to growth-advantage when disrupted as non-essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The researchers found the fear-related gene by analyzing brain tissue, in particular the tiny prune-shaped region called the amygdala, which previous studies had shown to be especially active when animals and humans were afraid or anxious. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • As expected, we found genes affecting cytokinesis and/or the actin cytoskeleton within this set ( ain1 , acp2 , imp2 ). (g3journal.org)
  • found strong, purifying selection and comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, indicating that these human genes are essential too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the osteoblastic lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene along with APOBEC3A have been in recent years found associated with mutagenesis of several cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
  • We have now created a triple gene deleted GAP by additionally removing the SAP1 gene (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-) GAP) and employed flippase (FLP)/flippase recognition target (FRT) recombination for drug selectable marker cassette removal. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Schematic of strategy for deleting the SAP1 gene in a Pf p52 - /p36 - KO clone lacking the HsDHFR marker. (nih.gov)
  • therapy
  • Gene therapy to create daredevil warriors is likely to remain the province of screenwriters, but the new findings may help researchers design novel drugs to treat a wide array of conditions, from disabling anxiety in social settings to the sudden flights of poisoned memory that can persist in the wake of a disaster, an attack or the horror of combat. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In an e-mail message, Dr. Joseph LeDoux, a neuroscientist at New York University wrote: "While we are a long ways away, it is possible in the future that we will be able to identify amygdala-specific genes that can be used to play a role in amygdala-specific drug therapy. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • These results have implications for treating several brain conditions through gene therapy targeting astrocytes. (genengnews.com)
  • patients
  • GSTT1 Gene Deletion Is Associated with Lung Cancer in Mexican Patients," Disease Markers , vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 259-261, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • The deletion of 5q is a frequent chromosomal abnormality in patients with MDS. (haematologica.org)
  • Of 67 patient/parent sets (47 new mutation patients and 20 familial cases), five (7.5%) showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH), indicative of NF1 gene deletion. (bmj.com)
  • These five patients did not have severe NF1 manifestations, mental retardation, or dysmorphic features, in contrast to previous reports of large NF1 deletions. (bmj.com)
  • human
  • The new study helps provide a better understanding of human behavior and mood by clearly identifying genes associated with mental disorders. (psychcentral.com)
  • This research goes about 95 percent of the way to pinning these problems in a specific group of individuals to this gene," said Dr. Arthur L. Beaudet, chair of molecular and human genetics at BCM. (elementsbehavioralhealth.com)
  • In addition, the haptoglobin gene is expressed in murine and human adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these individuals, a total of 1,171 of the 19,135 human (RefSeq) genes (6.1%) were completely knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAO1
  • Now both my vector (pFS100) as well as PAO1 has no sacB gene. (protocol-online.org)
  • f) Deduced by comparison of the two gene essentiality datasets obtained independently in the P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and PAO1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically
  • A next-generation genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum parasite created by triple gene deletion. (nih.gov)
  • We previously generated a genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) by deleting the P52 and P36 genes in the NF54 wild-type (WT) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP). (nih.gov)
  • humans
  • Note that many genes in humans are not absolutely essential for survival but can cause severe disease when mutated. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it may be difficult to prove that a gene is essential in humans, it can be demonstrated that a gene is not essential or not even causing disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Transcription factor genes playing a role in the development of hypothalamus and pituitary are pituitary transcription factor 1 (PIT1), Prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1), LIM Homeobox 3 (LHX3), LIM Homeobox 4 (LHX4), and HESX Homeobox 1 (HESX1) which all are known to be important for organ commitment and embryonic pituitary cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • The FBN-1 gene is involved in a variety of embryonic developmental programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • A new mouse study shows that triggering a gene inside astrocytes activates the star-shaped cells and may improve the brain's ability to heal from a range of debilitating conditions, from stroke to concussions and spine injuries. (genengnews.com)
  • The KLRC (NKG2) gene family is located within the NK complex, a region that contains several C-type lectin genes preferentially expressed on NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hairy cells are nearly mature B cells, which are activated clonal cells with signs of VH gene differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • If the original gene was beneficial, the result might be lethal to the offspring. (everything2.com)
  • SD07 is the first case in which it is proven that the loss of CD20 expression in relapsed DLBCL is the result of deletion of the CD20 gene. (wiley.com)
  • g) The original result of 271 essential genes has been corrected to 261, with 31 genes that were thought to be essential being in fact non-essential whereas 20 novel essential genes have been described since then. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Such experiments have led to the conclusion that the absolutely required number of genes for bacteria is on the order of about 250-300. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Although not contained within any common deleted region on 5q, NPM1 can be deleted in 5q- cases with large chromosomal deletions. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions Full exome sequencing of a large multigenerational AxSpA family revealed a 9-bp deletion in SEC16A segregating in the majority of affected family members. (bmj.com)
  • Constitutional and mosaic large NF1 gene deletions in neurofibromatosis type 1. (bmj.com)
  • identify
  • Recently, systematic attempts have been made to identify those genes that are absolutely required to maintain life, provided that all nutrients are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Finding from the new study, published recently in Cell Reports (" Leucine Zipper-Bearing Kinase Is a Critical Regulator of Astrocyte Reactivity in the Adult Mammalian CNS "), shows that turning on a gene inside astrocytes results in a smaller scar and, potentially, more effective recovery from injury. (genengnews.com)
  • method
  • Multiplex-PCR was first described in 1988 as a method to detect deletions in the dystrophin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • b) direct essentiality screening method (e.g. via antisense RNA) that does not provide information about nonessential genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have several, highly different, genes that attribute risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • We will start from the FASTQ files, show how these were aligned to the reference genome, prepare gene expression values as a count matrix by counting the sequenced fragments, perform exploratory data analysis (EDA), perform differential gene expression analysis with DESeq2 , and visually explore the results. (bioconductor.org)
  • In this context, "genome size" was being used in the sense of genotype to mean the number of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 1970s, "genome size" was in common usage with its present definition, probably as a result of its inclusion in Susumu Ohno's influential book Evolution by Gene Duplication, published in 1970. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, but not prokaryotes, variation in genome size is not proportional to the number of genes, an observation that was deemed wholly counterintuitive before the discovery of non-coding DNA and which became known as the C-value paradox as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although there is no longer any paradoxical aspect to the discrepancy between genome size and gene number, this term remains in common usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many mitochondria have less than 20 genes in their entire genome, whereas a free-living bacterium generally has at least 1000 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • c-Abl is sometimes used to refer to the version of the gene found within the mammalian genome, while v-Abl refers to the viral gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, and transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silene recently evolved sex chromosomes 5-10 million years ago and are widely used by geneticists and biologists to study the mechanisms of sex determination since they are one of only 39 species across 14 families of angiosperm that possess sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can develop uni-sexual reproductive structures because of the loss and gain of sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, Y chromosomes carrying both female suppression and male fertility genes creates an asexual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, incomplete clonal deletion allows for a balance between the host's ability to recognize foreign antigens and self antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, this gene is also called CCM3. (wikipedia.org)
  • They therefore suggest that RAD51 might be a gene that, when haploinsufficient, causes CMM disorder in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoter
  • Lower methylation of a promoter CpG site at the TSP50 gene was detected in women with higher BPA exposure ( P = 0.005), and again an inverse correlation was identified ( r = − 0.51, P = 0.001). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • proteins
  • Here, we describe a technique that consists of a combination of biochemistry approaches, quantitative proteomics and computational methods using wild‐type and deletion strains to investigate the organization of proteins within macromolecular protein complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Clonal deletion provides an incentive for microorganisms to develop epitopes similar to proteins found within the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • alternatively
  • The ABL1 gene is expressed as either a 6- or a 7-kb mRNA transcript, with alternatively spliced first exons spliced to the common exons 2-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Complementation test results indicate that sy(fp) and sy(fp-2J) are alleles of the same gene, but that sy(ns) is an allele of a different gene. (jax.org)
  • expression
  • We note that a number of other Bioconductor packages can also be used for statistical inference of differential expression at the gene level including edgeR , BaySeq , DSS and limma . (bioconductor.org)
  • The importance of microRNAs for fetal reprogramming of gene expression in heart failure was demonstrated, as well as the treatment using a so-called Antagomir in a mouse model of heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • includes
  • Another possible combination includes the presence of all three sex-linked genes (male suppressing, female suppressing, and male promoting) which produce virile male offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The flower is hermaphrodite when both male promoting and male fertility genes are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and ABL1 genes, leading to a fusion gene present in many cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • FUNCTION
  • In addition to effects during embryogenesis, this particular gene may also play a role in adult urogenital tract function. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Caspase cleavage of gene products associated with triplet expansion disorders generates truncated fragments containing the polyglutamine tract. (springer.com)
  • common
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)