• extracellular
  • It is composed of two extracellular Ig-like domains, and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • With one Ig-like domain in its extracellular portion, this Fc receptor is also a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The ligand/receptor complex stimulate the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway leading to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), which contribute to the antiviral state. (genecards.org)
  • CD25 (IL2Ralpha, Tac) is a ligand-binding alpha subunit of interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R). (exbio.cz)
  • The IL-2 Receptor (IL-2R) α subunit has low affinity for its ligand but has the ability (when bound to the β and ϒ subunit) to increase the IL-2R affinity 100-fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four alpha-helices (αC, αE, αG, and αI) form an amphipathic groove that serves as the ligand binding site, which can recognize three types of consensus binding motifs: RXX(pS/pT)XP, RXXX(pS/pT)XP, and (pS/pT)X1-2-COOH (where pS/pT represents phosphorylated serine/threonine). (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK1 functions as the major kinase phosphorylating serine 536 under different stimuli, such as the ligand activation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • This receptor is reported to promote survival of progenitor myeloid cells through the insulin receptor substrate-2/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha (IKK-α) also known as IKK1 or conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK) is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CHUK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-kappa-B essential modulator (NEMO) also known as inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma (IKK-γ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IKBKG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEMO is a subunit of the IκB kinase complex that activates NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEMO (IKK-γ) is the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-κB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of IKK-γ to IKK-α and IKK-β subunits activates the IKK complex leading to phosphorylation of IκB kinase, IκBα, and release of NF-κB dimers p105 and RELA to translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription of NF-κB responsive genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase CK2 is composed of two catalytic subunits (α and/or α′) and two β regulatory subunits. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IKK-β also known as inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IKBKB (inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK-β is an enzyme that serves as a protein subunit of IκB kinase, which is a component of the cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in triggering immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to DNA damage, ribosomal subunit kinase-1 (RSK1) also has the ability to phosphorylate RELA at serine 536 in a p53-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • IL-10 signals through a receptor complex consisting of two IL-10 receptor-1 and two IL-10 receptor-2 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, the present study investigated the genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in RA using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. (medsci.org)
  • We performed gene microarray and proteome array analyses using blood samples from the mice and found that 50 genes and 24 proteins were upregulated and 48 genes were downregulated by more than 2-fold in the CIA model relative to the control. (medsci.org)
  • The gene microarray and proteome array results were validated by evaluating the expression levels of select genes and proteins by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. (medsci.org)
  • UBC gene transcription is induced during stress and provides extra ubiquitin necessary to remove damaged/unfolded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • approximately 10
  • Plaques of psoriasis A person's arm covered with plaque psoriasis Psoriasis of the palms Additional types of psoriasis comprise approximately 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following approximately 10 days help the patient to recover between treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Extensive IL-10 locus remodeling is observed in monocytes upon stimulation of TLR or Fc receptor pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • Inhibition of CK2 activity by CX-4945, a selective CK2 inhibitor, or CK2 knockdown by siRNA suppresses activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and AKT pathways and downstream gene expression in human glioblastoma xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the 14-3-3 protein family and a central hub protein for many signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • IL-10 can be produced by monocytes upon PD-1 triggering in these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheibenbogen C, Keilholz U, Richter M, Andreesen R, Hunstein W: The interleukin-2 receptor in human monocytes and macrophages: regulation of expression and release of the alpha and beta chains (p55 and p75). (exbio.cz)
  • Fc receptors are found on a number of cells in the immune system including phagocytes like macrophages and monocytes, granulocytes like neutrophils and eosinophils, and lymphocytes of the innate immune system (natural killer cells) or adaptive immune system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, IKK2 is found to be mainly responsible for phosphorylating serine 536 in monocytes and macrophages, or in CD40 receptor binding in hepatic stellate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The expression of IL-10 is minimal in unstimulated tissues and seems to require triggering by commensal or pathogenic flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 expression is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 may autoregulate its expression via a negative feed-back loop involving autocrine stimulation of the IL-10 receptor and inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, IL-10 expression is extensively regulated at the post-transcriptional level, which may involve control of mRNA stability via AU-rich elements and by microRNAs such as let-7 or miR-106. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of IL-10 from transfected tumor cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. (cancerindex.org)
  • The turning point was the sharp division of bronchial asthma into two large groups based on the expression of the type 2 helper T lymphocyte (T H 2) genes underlying the disease, namely, T H 2-high and T H 2-low asthma ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Baudouin-Legros M, Hamdaoui N, Borot F, Fritsch J, Ollero M, Planelles G, Edelman A (2008) Control of basal CFTR gene expression by bicarbonate-sensitive adenylyl cyclase in human pulmonary cells. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the expression level of PDGF ligands and receptors in PTC we measured the relative mRNA expression of all members of the PDGF family by qRT-PCR in 10 classical PTC, eight clinically aggressive PTC, and five non-neoplastic thyroid specimens, and integrated qRT-PCR data with microarray data to enable us to link PDGF-associated gene expression profiles into networks based on recognized interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Semiquantitative assessment of lymphocytes correlated well with quantitation of lymphocyte-specific gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, further investigation showed that PDGFC expression level correlated inversely to the expression of several lymphocyte specific genes, and to the presence of lymphocytes in the biopsies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • No other PDGF family member could be linked to lymphocyte specific gene expression in our collection of PTCs biopsies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Gene expression regulation for IL-2 can be on multiple levels or by different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its localization to both the cytoplasm and nucleus also suggests a role in gene expression, possibly through regulation of transcription factor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • IL-10 can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylated IκB is degraded via the ubiquitination pathway, freeing NF-κB, and allowing its entry into the nucleus of the cell where it activates various genes involved in inflammation and other immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is similar to the sem-5 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which is involved in the signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • IL9R also denotes its human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, PEGylated recombinant human IL-10 (PEG-rHuIL-10) has been shown to enhance CD8+ T cell secretion of the cytotoxic molecules Granzyme B and Perforin and potentiate T cell receptor dependent IFNγ secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphisms in this gene are also associated with resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. (cancerindex.org)
  • The reagent is designed for Flow Cytometry analysis of human blood cells using 4 μl reagent / 100 μl of whole blood or 10 6 cells in a suspension. (exbio.cz)
  • We demonstrate for the first time that CSNK2A1 , the gene encoding CK2α, shows frequent gene dosage gains in human glioblastoma tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb 3 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Inflammatory bowel disease 28 (IBD28): A chronic, relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with a complex etiology. (nih.gov)
  • IL-13Rα2 is closely related to IL-13Rα1, a subunit of the interleukin-13 receptor complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • NBD is a peptide that acts by binding to regulatory subunit NEMO (IKK-γ) thereby preventing it from binding subunits IKK-α and IKK-β and activating the IKK complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of regulatory subunit IKK-γ the IKK complex is inactive, preventing the downstream signal transduction cascade leading to NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of the NBD peptide, the IKK complex remains inactive and IκBα sequesters NF-κB dimers in the cytoplasm inhibiting transcription of NF-κB responsive genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 signals through the IL-2 receptor, a complex consisting of three chains, termed alpha, beta and gamma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property allows FcγRI to bind a sole IgG molecule (or monomer), but all Fcγ receptors must bind multiple IgG molecules within an immune complex to be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone via the intermediate electron carriers FAD and three 2Fe-2S clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Since IKBKG helps activate NF-κB, which protects cells against TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, a lack of IKBKG (and hence a lack of active NF-κB) makes cells more prone to apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)