• Chem
  • de Waard A, Hickman S, Kornfeld S, Isolation and properties of beta-galactoside binding lectins of calf heart and lung, J Biol Chem 251 , 7581-7 (1976). (springer.com)
  • Galectins require fulfillment of two criteria: affinity for β-galactosides and significant sequence similarity in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) (Hirabayashi J & Kasai K 1991 J Biol Chem 266:23648-23653). (google.com)
  • mediate
  • May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. (uniprot.org)
  • Of particular relevance are the receptors for Fc portion of IgG (FcγR), which mediate phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-1 expression in Hodgkin Lymphoma has also been shown to mediate immunosuppression of CD8+ T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gal-3 is also one of the pattern recognition receptors that bind and mediate the degradation of modified lipoproteins and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • integrins
  • Integrins, expressed on cell surface, change membrane distribution upon interaction with an ECM receptor and this clustering induces signaling involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and actin binding ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • novel
  • In the present study, we report a novel role for galectin-1 in the regulation of monocyte and macrophage physiology. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our results provide evidence of a novel unrecognized role for galectin-1 in the control of monocyte/macrophage physiology with potential implications at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our findings show that galectin-1 is a novel endogenous activator of human MDDCs that up-regulates a significant subset of genes distinct from those regulated by a model exogenous stimulus (LPS). (jimmunol.org)
  • It further provides compositions and methods for modulating the expression of galectin-8, and galectin-8-like proteins, particularly to novel antisense oligonucleotides. (google.com)
  • inflammation
  • Given galectin-3's broad biological functionality, it has been demonstrated to be involved in cancer, inflammation and fibrosis, heart disease, and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have also shown that the expression of galectin-3 is implicated in a variety of processes associated with heart failure, including myofibroblast proliferation, fibrogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, and ventricular remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral blood monocytes (Mn) 3 represent the early mononuclear phagocyte component of the leukocyte infiltrate at sites of inflammation, infection, and tumor growth, where they differentiate into inflammatory and tumor-associated macrophages (Mf) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Good evidence suggest roles of galectins in cancer, immunity and inflammation, and development, but a unifying picture of their biological function is lacking. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-1 induces the differentiation of Dendritic cells towards a phenotype which dampens T helper 1 cells and T helper 17 cells and dampens inflammation via interleukin-10 and interleukin-27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obtained results suggest important protective roles for Gal-3 in obesity-induced inflammation and diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolic inflammation, "metaflammation," is a chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation triggered by various metabolic "danger" signals during obesity that precedes the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipose tissue-associated regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 2 T helper cells, and alternatively activated M2 macrophages protect from the instigation of nutrient excess-induced inflammation ( 2 ), whereas the recruitment of type 1 T helper lymphocytes and M1 macrophages and decreased Tregs in adipose tissue precede metabolic disorders ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α impair insulin sensitivity, but molecular pathways that associate inflammation, diet, and type 2 diabetes are not fully understood ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Most recently, the crucial role for the NLRP3 inflammasome, which consists of NLRP3 molecules, adaptor protein ASC, and procaspase-1 that catalytically activates caspase-1, causing the release of IL-1β and IL-18, was demonstrated in studies in which the ablation of the NLRP3 inflammasome prevented obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance ( 7 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NF-κB controls several genes involved in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • AGE in diabetes or amyloid-β-protein in Alzheimer's disease) this establishes a positive feed-back cycle, which leads to chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Treatment with galectin-1 in vitro differentially regulates constitutive and inducible FcγRI expression on human monocytes and FcγRI-dependent phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The rev-responsive element negatively regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env mRNA expression in primate cells. (atcc.org)
  • Galectin-1 may act as an autocrine negative growth factor that regulates cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • also known as Mac-2), a 30-kDa β-galactoside-binding lectin, mainly located in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus, is expressed by a variety of cell types and regulates various T-cell functions and innate immune responses ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • recombinant
  • These regulatory effects were also evident in mouse macrophages recruited in response to inflammatory stimuli following treatment with recombinant galectin-1 and further confirmed in galectin-1-deficient mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • In an in vitro assay, recombinant galectin-1 increased melanoma cell attachment to laminin in a dose-dependent manner. (ac.be)
  • differentiation
  • This protein has been shown to be involved in the following biological processes: cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell growth and differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster of Differentiation 107a), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The wide variety of effects of galectin-3 on cancerous cells are due to the unique structure and various interaction properties of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The many interaction and binding properties of galectin-3 influence various cell activities based on its location. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that LGALS3BP may regulate cell adhesion through interaction with Galectin-3. (clontech.com)
  • This galectin is strongly overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and it might participate in the interaction between the H&RS cells with their surrounding cells and might thus play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its consistently associated immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between RAGE and its ligands is thought to result in pro-inflammatory gene activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, it was reported that interaction with Yariv was not detected for β-1,6-galacto-oligosaccharides of any length. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • For example, galectin-9 binds to polylactosamine chains with stronger affinity than to an N-acetyllactosamine monomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-3 has an affinity for beta-galactosides and exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6Rb gp130 component mediates high affinity binding of IL-6 to the IL-6Ra subunit, and constitutes the functional component of other IL-6 cytokine family members receptor complexes, such as Oncostatin M, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and IL-11, through a wide array of inflammatory and immune responses [ 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Intracellular
  • As knockout experiments of galectin-8 leads to more successful cytosolic replication by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, it is thought that galectin-8 acts as a danger receptor in defence against intracellular pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • In immune regulation, galectin-3 can regulate immune cell activities and helps contribute to the tumour cell's evasion of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas compelling evidence has been accumulated regarding the effects of galectin-1 on T cell fate, limited information is available on how galectin-1 may impact other immune cell types. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD6 encodes a protein found on the outer membrane of T-lymphocytes as well as some other immune cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Galectin-1 is known to play a role in immune regulation via action on multiple immune cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • One unique effect of galectin-1 is to increase DC migration through the ECM, suggesting that galectin-1 may be an important component in initiating an immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-1 is thought to play a role in creating immune tolerance in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • To reveal whether the immune mediator and lipopolysaccharide binding galectin-3 is present in tears, tear samples were collected from eyes in healthy and pathological states. (bmj.com)
  • 11 In the immune system they modulate different steps of the inflammatory cascade, 12 13 The only chimera-type galectin, galectin-3, deserves special attention in this context. (bmj.com)
  • acquired immunity
  • The ability to recognize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous ligands and to respond appropriately has placed monocytes and macrophages as central cells able to influence homeostasis as well as host defenses in innate and acquired immunity ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • vitro
  • Abcam's Galectin 3 Mouse ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Mouse Galectin 3 in serum, plasma and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • However, neither galectin-1 nor anti-galectin-1 antibody affected melanoma cell spreading on laminin in vitro. (ac.be)
  • Indeed, compared with LPS, galectin-1-treated human MDDCs exhibited significantly better chemotactic migration through Matrigel, an in vitro ECM model. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro stimulation of LGALS3 −/− peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saturated fatty acid palmitate caused increased caspase-1-dependent IL-1β production and increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 compared with WT cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lgals3
  • Galectin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-3 is encoded by a single gene, LGALS3, located on chromosome 14, locus q21-q22. (wikipedia.org)
  • VAT of obese LGALS3 −/− mice exhibited increased incidence of type 1 T and NKT lymphocytes and proinflammatory CD11c + CD11b + macrophages and decreased CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells and M2 macrophages. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pronounced mononuclear cell infiltrate, increased expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in macrophages, and increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGE (RAGE) expression were present in pancreatic islets of obese LGALS3 −/− animals accompanied with elevated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and mature caspase-1 protein expression in pancreatic tissue and VAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transfection of LGALS3 −/− macrophages with NLRP3 small interfering RNA attenuated IL-1β production in response to palmitate and LPS plus palmitate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • inflammatory
  • For instance, galectin-3 levels could be used in early detection of failure-prone hearts and lead to intervention strategies including broad spectrum anti-inflammatory agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1, an endogenous lectin found at peripheral lymphoid organs and inflammatory sites, has shown immunoregulatory activity in vivo in experimental models of autoimmunity and cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gal-3 plays an important disease-exacerbating role in autoimmune/inflammatory and malignant diseases ( 11 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thyroiditis includes a complex spectrum of pathologies in which inflammatory and autoimmune processes may be detected in coexistence with benign and malignant proliferative lesions [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inflammatory leucocytes and goblet cells found in galectin-3 containing tear fluid also expressed galectin-3. (bmj.com)
  • family
  • Galectins are a family of proteins defined by their binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars, such as N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-3GlcNAc or Galβ1-4GlcNAc), which can be bound to proteins by either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein that belongs to the SNRNP core protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • ST2 is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we will give a brief introduction to the galectins as a protein family with some comments on nomenclature. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-8 is a protein of the galectin family that in humans is encoded by the LGALS8 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the galectin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been postulated that the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of proinflammatory genes upon cell stimulation with various factors including hyperglycemia and free fatty acids, is a molecular mechanism involved in insulin resistance ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Gal 4 belongs to the family of galectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 is a glycoprotein from a family of Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioinformatics analysis using mammalian β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) sequences as templates suggested involvement of the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZy) glycosyltransferase (GT) 31 family in the synthesis of the galactan chains of the AG backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the GT31 family have been grouped into 11 clades, with four clades being plant-specific: Clades 1, 7, 10, and 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • In contrast, monocytes and macrophages express other key molecules such as MHC class II (MHC-II), 4 which enables these cells to present Ags linking innate and adaptive immunity ( 5 ), and CD14, which is involved in the signaling pathway of bacterial LPS ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-3 is a protein of M r of 29 000-35 000 depending on the animal species, which is expressed and secreted by various types of cells, especially monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and epithelial cells including corneal epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • tissue
  • The type of galectin-8 that is expressed is dependent on the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different galectins have distinct binding specificities for binding oligosaccharides depending on the tissue in which they are expressed and the function that they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Teichberg VI, Silman I, Beitsch DD, Resheff G, A beta-Dgalactoside binding protein from electric organ tissue of Electrophorus electricus, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72 , 1383-7 (1975). (springer.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression in tissue specimens was detected by immunocytochemistry employing A1D6 mouse monoclonal antibody, and galectin-3 reactive glycoligands were visualised by lectin histochemistry using labelled galectin-3. (bmj.com)
  • The LAMP-1 glycoprotein is a type I transmembrane protein which is expressed at high or medium levels in at least 76 different normal tissue cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The product of this gene is part of the SMN protein complex localized to the cytoplasm, nucleoli, and to discrete nuclear bodies called Gemini bodies (gems). (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Immature human MDDCs exposed to galectin-1 up-regulated cell surface markers characteristic of DC maturation (CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), secreted high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, stimulated T cell proliferation, and showed reduced endocytic capacity, similar to LPS-matured MDDCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The galectin-3 inhibitor, TD139 has the potential to treat fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vTv Therapeutics (formerly TransTech Pharma) is sponsoring a Phase 3 clinical trial of their RAGE inhibitor Azeliragon (TTP488) for mild Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • This allows galectin-3 to bridge effectively between different ligands and form adhesive networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include "classical" ECM proteins like fibronectin and laminin that act as anti adhesive ligands under certain experimental conditions. (google.com)
  • The full receptor consists of 5 domains: The cytosolic domain, which is responsible for signal transduction, the transmembrane domain which anchors the receptor in the cell membrane, the variable domain which binds the RAGE ligands, and two constant domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands which have so far been found to bind RAGE are: AGE HMGB1 (Amphoterin) S100A12 (EN-RAGE) S100B S100A7 (psoriasin) but not highly homologous S100A15 (koebnerisin) S100P S100A8/A9 complex referred to as calprotectin Amyloid-β-protein Mac-1 Phosphatidylserine. (wikipedia.org)
  • homodimers
  • Dimeric galectins, also called prototypical galectins, are homodimers, consisting of two identical galectin subunits that have associated with one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1 and -2 are homodimers with subunit molecular weight of ˜14 kDa, that are not subjected to post-translational modifications (Tracey B M et al. (google.com)
  • differentially
  • Chemokines are classified into CXC, CC, C, and CX3C families, which bind to and activate members of a superfamily of 7-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors differentially expressed and regulated in leukocytes ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cell
  • Galectin-1 Modulates Human Melanoma Cell Adhesion to Laminin van den Brule, F. A. (ac.be)
  • We demonstrated that A375 and A2058 cell lines express galectin-1 both intracellularly and on the cell surface. (ac.be)
  • If the transgene was incorporated into a gene with a signal sequence, β-gal activity would remain in the cytosol of the cell and therefore be active. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa and the THEMIS gene are both deleted in the rat Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) strain, and are both required for the CD4+ T-cell deficiency observed in this strain of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of short interfering RNA (siRNA) of PTPkappa to reduce PTPkappa protein expression in the mammary epithelial cell line, MCF10A, resulted in increased cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCs are the most potent APCs and are highly efficient at initiating T cell responses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Do not allow the cell density to exceed 3 X 10 6 cells/mL. (atcc.org)
  • Maintain cultures at a cell concentraion between between 1 x 10 5 and 1 X 10 6 viable cells/mL. (atcc.org)
  • 1. A method for inhibiting cell adhesion, comprising exposing the cells to a pharmaceutical composition comprising as an active ingredient anti-galectin-8 antibodies. (google.com)
  • Many proteins that inhibit cell adhesion were classified as matricellular proteins. (google.com)
  • This group embodies proteins such as thrombospondin, tenascin, and hevin that do not serve as integral components of matrix elements but rather function through binding to matrix proteins as well as to cell surface receptors. (google.com)
  • Cell membrane expression of LAMP-1 observed in the following cancer types: Human fibrosarcoma, Colon adenocarcinoma, Melanoma, Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and Astrocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) are members of the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich cell wall glycoprotein superfamily and are extensively glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • Overexpression and changes in the localization of galectin-3 molecules affects the prognosis of the patient and targeting the actions of galectin-3 poses a promising therapeutic strategy for the development of effective therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression and changes in sub- and inter-cellular localization of galectin-3 are commonly seen in cancerous conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-3 can be either an inhibitory or a promoting apoptotic depending on its sub-cellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • AGPs contains a protein backbone of varied length (5-30 kDa) with N-terminal secretory peptide followed by AGP, fasciclin (FAS) domains, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor site There are 85 predicted AGPs in Arabidopsis, with most of them containing a GPI plasma membrane anchor sequence that ties the extracellular AGPs to the plasma membrane and positions them to function as potential signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • A correlation between galectin-3 expression levels and various types of fibrosis has been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, galectin-1 inhibits IFN-γ-induced MHC class II (MHC-II) expression and MHC-II-dependent Ag presentation in a dose-dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • Initial Assessment of Human Gene Diversity and Expression Patterns Based Upon 83 Million Nucleotides of cDNA Sequence" The Genome Directory: Supplement to Nature Sep. (patentgenius.com)
  • Profound changes in the gene expression pattern were detected following 16 h exposure to 1% O 2 , with 536 and 677 sequences showing at least a 1.5-fold increase and decrease, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • Validation of this analysis was provided by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation of expression differences of selected genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • A common denominator of many pathological processes and an important regulator of gene expression is represented by low partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) (reviewed in Ref. 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of expression of galectin-3 and galectin-3 reactive glycoligands in normal human conjunctival and corneal epithelia was also initiated as a step to understand the role of galectin-3 in ocular surface pathology. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS This study revealed expression of galectin-3 in tear fluid obtained from patients with eye diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Of the 5600 genes represented on the expression arrays, 90 displayed significant (4-fold or more) changes in mRNA levels in NF90-expressing cells. (jove.com)
  • The microarray expression data were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of six representative interferon-inducible genes. (jove.com)
  • 2013). Till now, in spite of a number of published data regarding galectin-4 expression in cancer, the available information has remained very much limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of LAMP1 and LAMP2 glycoproteins are linked, as deficiencies in LAMP1 gene will lead to increased expression of LAMP2 glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)