• mRNA
  • As you can see, both the top DNA strand and the mRNA are complementary to the bottom DNA strand (in reality either top or bottom may be read, but for simplicity we only look at the top strand whenever it's given - we assume that is the gene of interest). (thealevelbiologist.co.uk)
  • The difference between CRISPRi and RNAi, though, is that CRISPRi regulates gene expression primarily on the transcriptional level, while RNAi controls genes on the mRNA level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant miRNAs usually have near-perfect pairing with their mRNA targets, which induces gene repression through cleavage of the target transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once miR-155-5p/-3p is assembled into the RISC, these molecules subsequently recognize their target messenger RNA (mRNA) by base pairing interactions between nucleotides 2 and 8 of miR-155-5p/-3p (the seed region) and complementary nucleotides predominantly in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mRNAs (see Figure 4 and 5 below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • To address this issue, the scientists developed a lentiviral-based gene delivery method to incorporate the Uaas into proteins expressed in neural stem cells. (photonics.com)
  • Azacitidine's incorporation into RNA leads to the dissembly of polyribosomes, defective methylation and acceptor function of transfer RNA, and inhibition of the production of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the genes (MT-ND1, MT-ND5) affected in MELAS encode proteins that are part of NADH dehydrogenase (also called complex I) in mitochondria, that helps convert oxygen and simple sugars to energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that inteins could prove useful for achieving allotopic expression of certain highly hydrophobic proteins normally encoded by the mitochondrial genome, for example in gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and contain the genes responsible for producing a group of major surface proteins, or antigens, on the bacteria that allow it to evade the immune response of its infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • MT-ND4L is a subunit of the respiratory chain Complex I that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly of core proteins required to catalyze NADH dehydrogenation and electron transfer to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional phylogenetics relies on morphological data obtained by measuring and quantifying the phenotypic properties of representative organisms, while the more recent field of molecular phylogenetics uses nucleotide sequences encoding genes or amino acid sequences encoding proteins as the basis for classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many forms of molecular phylogenetics are closely related to and make extensive use of sequence alignment in constructing and refining phylogenetic trees, which are used to classify the evolutionary relationships between homologous genes represented in the genomes of divergent species. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • The evolutionary relationship determined between the five orders (Caryophyllidea, Diphyllobothriidea, Bothriocephalidea, Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea) is consistent with that expected from morphology and the large fragments of mtDNA when reconstructed using all 36 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This pattern of inheritance applies to genes contained in mtDNA. (nih.gov)
  • regulate
  • Although the CRP/FNR-type TFs recognize very similar consensus DNA target sequences, they can regulate different sets of genes in response to environmental signals. (jove.com)
  • The let-7 RNA was found to be conserved in many species, leading to the suggestion that let-7 RNA and additional "small temporal RNAs" might regulate the timing of development in diverse animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • interference
  • The gene was active in the overweight mice, but as they lost weight the gene expression was essentially 'dialed down,' using a novel RNA interference approach, thus stopping the weight from continuing to decrease and allowing a stable target weight to be reached," she says. (innovations-report.com)
  • CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is a genetic perturbation technique that allows for sequence-specific repression or activation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the bacterial genetic immune system - CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) pathway, the technique provides a complementary approach to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CRISPR interference (CRISPRI) technique was first reported by Lei S. Qi and researchers at the University of California at San Francisco in early 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the term CRISPRi was initially coined to describe transcriptional interference for gene silencing, it can also be used to describe activation of transcription and epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNAs resemble the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, except miRNAs derive from regions of RNA transcripts that fold back on themselves to form short hairpins, whereas siRNAs derive from longer regions of double-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The mitochondrial transcription termination factor (MTERF) binds to a 13 bp termination sequence located within the MTTL1 gene. (cags.org.ae)
  • Typically, these receptors are used to graft the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell, with transfer of their coding sequence facilitated by retroviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa , sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first intein was discovered in 1988 through sequence comparison between the Neurospora crassa and carrot vacuolar ATPase (without intein) and the homologous gene in yeast (with intein) that was first described as a putative calcium ion transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular studies, a primary problem is in producing a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) between the genes or amino acid sequences of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA
  • Estimates of the average number of unique messenger RNAs that are targets for repression by a typical miRNA vary, depending on the estimation method, but multiple approaches show that mammalian miRNAs can have many unique targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, experiments show that a single miRNA species can reduce the stability of hundreds of unique messenger RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is now defined as a primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicer
  • This pre-miR-21 is then cut into a short RNA duplex by Dicer in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following export from the nucleus by exportin-5, pre-mir-155 molecules are cleaved near the terminal loop by Dicer resulting in RNA duplexes of ~22nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • Mature microRNA is then loaded into microRNA ribonucleoprotein complex RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) and guided to target mRNAs with near perfect complimentarily at 3'UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • There also exists virulence plasmids that contain the genetic elements necessary for bacteria to become pathogenic as well as degradative plasmids that harbor the genes that allow bacteria to degrade a variety of substances such as aromatic compounds and xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • deafness
  • The gene has been implicated in several mitochondrial disorders including MELAS Syndrome, Leigh Syndrome, Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD), Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS), Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency, Age Related Macular Degeneration 1 (ARMD1) and Myoclonic Epilepsy associated with Ragged-Red Fibers (MERRF). (cags.org.ae)
  • Archaea
  • Many bacteria and most archaea have an adaptive immune system which incorporates CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • Pubmed ID: 21043133 To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-N containing the N gene of Rabies Virus, the N gene of RV CVS-11 strain was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). (jove.com)
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • intronic
  • Despite being located in intronic regions of a coding gene in the direction of transcription, it has its own promoter regions and forms a ~3433-nt long primary transcript of miR-21 (known as pri-miR-21) which is independently transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Targeting specificity is determined by complementary base-pairing of a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to the genomic loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • microRNA 21 also known as hsa-mir-21 or miRNA21 is a mammalian microRNA that is encoded by the MIR21 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • An unusual feature of the human MT-ND4L gene is the 7-nucleotide gene overlap of its last three codons (5'-CAA TGC TAA-3' coding for Gln, Cys and Stop) with the first three codons of the MT-ND4 gene (5'-ATG CTA AAA-3' coding for amino acids Met-Leu-Lys). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Initially, NADH binds to Complex I and transfers two electrons to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) prosthetic arm to form FMNH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • How are genetic conditions and genes named? (nih.gov)
  • For these and other reasons, inteins (or more properly, the gene segments coding for inteins) are sometimes called selfish genetic elements, but it may be more accurate to call them parasitic. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dawkins' gene centered view of evolution, most genes are "selfish" only insofar as to compete with other genes or alleles but usually they fulfill a function for the organisms, whereas "parasitic genetic elements", at least initially, do not make a positive contribution to the fitness of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The MIR155HG RNA transcript does not contain a long open reading frame (ORF), however, it does include an imperfectly base-paired stem loop that is conserved across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal is to assemble a phylogenetic tree representing a hypothesis about the evolutionary ancestry of a set of genes, species, or other taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, these techniques have been used to explore the family tree of hominid species and the relationships between specific genes shared by many types of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • The gene is also required for transcription termination of the mitochondrial genome. (cags.org.ae)
  • For example, the well-studied Kr├╝ppel associated box (KRAB) domain can be fused to dCas9 to repress transcription of the target gene up to 99% in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPRi can be used to activate transcription of the target gene by fusing a transcriptional activator to dCas9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the transcription start site of a target gene and considering the preferences of sgRNA improves efficiency, as does the presence of accessible chromatin at the target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • Nicotinamide has been used because complex l accepts electrons from NADH and ultimately transfers electrons to CoQ10. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Except two trnP and trnT , all genes are located on the same strand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One hypothesis to explain this effect is from the activity of helicase, which unwinds the RNA:DNA heteroduplex ahead of RNA pol II when the sgRNA is complementary to exons of the template strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogenetic
  • We have therefore sequenced the complete mitogenomes of three caryophyllideans, as well as the polyzoic Schyzocotyle acheilognathi , explored the phylogenetic relationships of eucestodes and compared the gene arrangements between unsegmented and segmented cestodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, a phylogenetic profiling analysis showed that combinations of TFs and their target genes have fluctuated dynamically during bacterial evolution. (jove.com)
  • Both rooted and unrooted phylogenetic trees can be further generalized to rooted or unrooted phylogenetic networks, which allow for the modeling of evolutionary phenomena such as hybridization or horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • According to first author Lei Cao, assistant professor in the department of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics, the study involved injecting the BDNF gene in normal mice, diabetic mice and mice fed with a high fat diet, to determine how the gene transfer would affect their weight. (innovations-report.com)
  • different
  • They used the virus to deliver different components needed in the Uaas technology, such as synthetic transfer RNA and enzymatic synthetase. (photonics.com)
  • In fact, many genes have unrelated intein-coding segments inserted at different positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Taken together sgRNA and dCas9 provide a minimum system for gene-specific regulation in any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • miRNAs are well conserved in both plants and animals, and are thought to be a vital and evolutionarily ancient component of gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)