• C5aR
  • The C5a receptor is expressed on: Granulocytes Monocytes Dendritic cells Hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 Astrocytes Microglia Potent and selective agonist and antagonists for C5aR have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that C5a signaling through C5aR may in part play a pivotal role in recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells to the wound environment, which in turn could delay the early stages of cutaneous wound healing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Biol
  • 301. Osband M., McCaffrey R. Solubilization, separation and partial characterization of histamine Ht and H2 receptors from calf thymocyte membranes, J. Biol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • ligands
  • The ligands of this receptor include CCL3 (or MIP-1 alpha), CCL5 (or RANTES), CCL7 (or MCP-3), and CCL23 (or MPIF-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that FPR3 rapidly internalizes after binding its ligands and thereby may serve as a "decoy" receptor to reduce the binding of its ligands to FRP1 and FRP2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are not believed to possess other ligands than proteases, but tissue kallikrein does not activate PAR-1 or PAR-2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotactic factor
  • Since these oligopeptides were produced by bacteria or synthetic analogs of such products, it was suggested that the N-formyl oligopeptides are important chemotatic factors and their receptors are important chemotactic factor receptors that act respectively as signaling and signal-recognizing elements to initiate Inflammation responses in order to defend against bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 309. Left-Brown M. A., Boetchr N. A., Leonard E. J. Chemotactic response of normal human basophils to C5a and to lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Expression
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • 303. Polmar S. H., Birch R. E. Regulation of Fc receptor expression on T-lymphocyte subsets mediated by adenosine and histamine receptors. (bio-cat.ru)
  • 1 The classic human tissue kallikrein KLK1 (hK1), notably present in renal tissue and released into urine, has been used as a pharmacological agent in animals, lately under the form of DNA expression vectors used in gene therapy strategies or transgenic animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • amino acid seq
  • Two receptors where thereafter discovered and named FPR2 and FPR3 based on the similarity of their genes' predicted amino acid sequence to that of FPR1 rather than on any ability to bind or be activated by the formyl oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the active mouse FPR receptors have ≥50% amino acid sequence identity with each other as well as with the three human FPR receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, phosphorylation-deficient chemoattractant receptors expressed in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells couple more efficiently to G proteins and stimulate a more sustained Ca 2+ mobilization and enhanced degranulation when compared with wild-type receptors ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The complement system is composed of several plasma proteins, including pattern-recognition molecules, enzymes and enzymatic complexes, regulators, and receptors, interacting with numerous immune mediators ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Rhodopsin-like receptors are a family of proteins that comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormones, neurotransmitters, and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 30 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins, and cell membrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • 1995). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the major phosphorylation sites in human C5a anaphylatoxin receptor in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human anaphylatoxin C5a receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of the human C5a receptor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • C5a and its receptors in human anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. (abcam.com)
  • Mice express no less than 7 Fpr receptors and encoding genes that are homologous to FPR1 although no single one of these FPRs appears to perform exactly the same functions as any one of the human FPRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary structural analysis of the polypeptide portion of human C5a anaphylatoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 304. Birch R. E., Polmar S. H. Induction of Fey receptors on a subpopulation of human T lymphocytes by adenosine and impromide, an H,-histamine agonist, Cell. (bio-cat.ru)
  • However, the large number of mouse compared to human FPR receptors makes it difficult to extrapolate human FPR functions based on genetic (e.g. gene knockout or forced overexpression) or other experimental manipulations of the FPR receptors in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some models involving direct tissue injury, the kinin B 1 receptor (selective for a class of kinin metabolites) was also involved in the effect of human tissue kallikrein. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 The human B 2 R has been proposed to be a specific binding site for serine proteases like human or porcine tissue kallikrein and trypsin, with pharmacological activation of these receptors on binding. (ahajournals.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but nearly 800 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • An activation peptide, C5a, which is an anaphylatoxin that possesses potent spasmogenic and chemotactic activity, is derived from the alpha polypeptide via cleavage with a C5-convertase. (wikipedia.org)
  • C3a receptor modulates immunity, arthritis, diet-induced obesity and cancers Potent and selective agonists and antagonists for C3aR have been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • FPR receptors are widely distributed throughout mammalian species with the FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3 paralogs, based on phylogenetic analysis, originating from a common ancestor and early duplication of FPR1 and FPR2/FPR3 splitting with FPR3 originating from the latest duplication event near the origin of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It has been implicated in extending the known immune system functions of P2Y receptors by participating in the regulation of the stem cell compartment, and it may also play a role in neuroimmune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • basophils
  • Although some drugs (morphine, codeine, synthetic ACTH) and some neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, substance P) are important mediators of degranulation of mast cells or basophils, they are generally not called anaphylatoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • 294. Rocklin R. E. Modulation of cellular-immune responses in vivo and in vitro by histamine receptor-bearing lymphocytes, J. Clin. (bio-cat.ru)
  • molecular
  • Purified C3a was obtained from Advanced Research Technologies (San Diego, CA). BAPTA-AM, indo-1 AM, and pluoronic F127 were purchased from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). (jimmunol.org)
  • immune system
  • This suggests that inhibiting C5a might provide a therapeutic tool in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis, as well as other diseases with immune system participation such as arthritis. (healthcanal.com)
  • According to this theory, the immune system consists of cells that have specific receptors on their surface to recognize antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • C3a works with C5a to activate mast cells, recruit antibody, complement and phagocytic cells and increase fluid in the tissue, all of which contribute to the initiation of the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)