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  • corepressor
  • In the absence of activating ligand (or with antagonist present, as shown here) helix 12 (yellow) is disordered and the corepressor (blue) binds to the surface of the receptor (left). (els.net)
  • coactivator
  • In the absence of PB, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to EGFR, thereby activating the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (Src1), which in turn phosphorylates RACK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of activating ligand (middle), helix 12 adopts an active conformation and coactivator (red) is recruited to the receptor (right). (els.net)
  • localization
  • J:83625 Kawajiri K, Ikuta T, Suzuki T, Kusaka M, Muramatsu M, Fujieda K, Tachibana M, Morohashi K, Role of the LXXLL-Motif and Activation Function 2 Domain in Subcellular Localization of Dax-1 (Dosage-Sensitive Sex Reversal-Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Critical Region on the X Chromosome, Gene 1). (jax.org)
  • Peroxisome
  • 1998) Ligand binding and co‐activator assembly of the peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ. (els.net)
  • pathways
  • An important gene associated with Teratocarcinoma is TDGF1 (Teratocarcinoma-Derived Growth Factor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and Pathways in cancer . (malacards.org)
  • In transfected cells, the magnitude of NPSR1-induced activation of cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathways and downstream gene expression was dependent on the combination of the NPS and NPSR1 variants with NPS-Val(6)/NPSR1-Ile(107) resulting in strongest and NPS-Leu(6)/NPSR1-Asn(107) in weakest effects, respectively. (plos.org)
  • We have previously shown that several susceptibility alleles of low-to-moderate-effects in NPSR1 may modify the asthma risk and show epistasis depending on the carrier status for variants in genes belonging to common biological pathways [ 17 ]. (plos.org)
  • ligand
  • The protein has an atypical ligand-binding domain that is unlike the classical ligand-binding domain in most nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal ligand-binding domain is conserved to a lesser extent at 60% and the N-terminal AB region is not conserved, differing in each member. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are immediate early genes activated in a ligand-independent manner that bind at the same sites on response elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996) A canonical structure for the ligand‐binding domain of nuclear receptors. (els.net)
  • expression
  • May be involved in the regulation of gene expression in germ cell development during gametogenesis (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (jax.org)
  • Microarray dataset GSE46861, which included six PTHR1 knockdown OS samples and six control OS samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microarray dataset GSE46861, which was sequenced on the platform of GPL6246 [MoGene-1_0-st] Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array [transcript (gene) version], was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/ ) database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • J:122989 Visel A, Thaller C, Eichele G, GenePaint.org: an atlas of gene expression patterns in the mouse embryo. (jax.org)
  • Indicates gene expression was analyzed but not necessarily detected. (jax.org)
  • Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the presence of hepatitis viral infection, which is a cause of liver cancer, has been revealed to cause dysregulation of the expression of circadian genes ( 26 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), a NR6 Germ Cell Nuclear Factor-Like Receptor, has been shown to affect gene expression in embryogenesis and spermatogenesis and is essential for embryonic survival and normal development. (genetex.com)
  • AGEs alter the expression of genes important in steroidogenesis while 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vit D3) in vitro attenuates some of the actions of AGEs on steroidogenic gene expression, possibly by downregulating the expression of the pro-inflammatory cell membrane receptor for AGEs (RAGE). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Intratesticular exposure to doses (100 and 1000 pmol/testis) of BPA from post-EDS day 14-28 stimulated Leydig cell developmental regeneration process by increasing serum testosterone level and Leydig cell-specific gene (Lhcgr, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, and Hsd11b1) and their protein expression levels. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • During this period the expression of sex-determining genes is initiated. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in gene expression that occur on invasion and expansion of CRC cells when forming metastases in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA sequencing performed on the Illumina platform was employed to evaluate the expression profiles of more than 14,000 genes, utilizing the RNA of the cell line cells and liver metastases as well as from corresponding tumour-free liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hierarchical clustering on heat maps demonstrated the clear changes in gene expression of CMT-93 cells on propagation in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we identified a gene expression signature correlating strongly with invasiveness and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is further confirmed by studies showing that when forcing NURR1 expression in naïve precursor cells, there is complete dopamine phenotype gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • While NURR1 is a key protein, there are other factors required as research shows that solely expressing NURR1 fails to stimulate this phenotypic gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that Nurr1 protects dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced inflammation, by reducing inflammatory gene expression in microglia and astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein controls the expression of several genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several hepatic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentially expressed genes
  • The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and then performed with enrichment analysis separately using the limma package and DAVID online tool. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and performed with enrichment analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 3329 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified when cultured CMT-93 cells propagated as metastases in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • homologous
  • NR4A1 has homologous genes in a range of species including neuronal growth factor-induced clone B in rats, Nur77 in mice and TR3 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NR3C1 gene expresses mainly two mRNAs through alternative use of exons 9alpha and 9beta, producing two highly homologous receptor isoforms, termed alpha and beta(N. Z. Lu and Cidlowski, 2005). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Mutations
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
  • Mutations in this gene result in both X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by mutations in the NR0B1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these mutations delete all or part of the NR0B1 gene, preventing the production of DAX1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with disorders related to dopaminergic dysfunction, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and manic depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the HNF4A gene are associated with a form of diabetes called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors including aneuploidies and single-gene mutations are also contributed to the male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large percentage of human male infertility is estimated to be caused by mutations in genes involved in primary or secondary spermatogenesis and sperm quality and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010) conducted a study on the nonobstructive infertile men (a non-Caucasian mixed ancestry n = 315), which resulted in the report of all missense mutations in the NR5A1 gene with 4% frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • transactivation
  • It was found that antigen receptor stimulation-induced NF-AT/AP-1 activity is regulated through the nuclear receptor NR2F6 (NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of NF-AT/AP-1 transactivation) and that by preventing NR2F6 function, transcriptional activation of NF-AT/AP-1 is enhanced in immune cells which leads to an augmented immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Alternatively, PP2A might be activated through another pathway including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique migration pathway of chicken PGCs (through the circulation) is unlike that of mammalian PGCs (which migrate through the dorsal mesentery [ 6 ]), and makes it possible to isolate, manipulate, and re-transplant such cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Metabolism
  • A model presented for the evolutionary history of plant terpene synthases suggests that this superfamily of genes responsible for natural products biosynthesis derived from terpene synthase genes involved in primary metabolism by duplication and divergence in structural and functional specialization. (genetics.org)
  • This novel molecular evolutionary approach focused on genes of secondary metabolism may have broad implications for the origins of natural products and for plant phylogenetics in general. (genetics.org)
  • The GR is expressed in almost every cell in the body and regulates genes controlling the development, metabolism, and immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many types of ERβ receptors exist in order to help regulate gene expression and subsequent health in the body, but binding of 17βE2 (a naturally occurring estrogen) specifically improves cardiac metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low and high throughput gene expression analysis have allowed the creation of comprehensive maps illustrating the role of PPAR-alpha as master regulator of lipid metabolism via regulation of numerous genes involved in various aspects of lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAR-regulated genes are involved in drug metabolism and bilirubin clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen receptors
  • Furthermore, studies in models of psychopathology and neurodegenerative disease states suggest that estrogen receptors mediate the neuroprotective role of estrogen in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • When the GR binds to glucocorticoids, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • BPA as well as its nitrated and chlorinated metabolites seems to binds strongly to ERR-γ (dissociation constant = 5.5 nM), but not to the estrogen receptor (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, endogenous siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are produced by the cleavage of dsRNA precursors by DICER1 already contain a 5-phosphate group, so this protein may be dispensible for normal RNA-mediated gene silencing. (genecards.org)
  • Ligands that bind to and activate nuclear receptors include lipophilic substances such as endogenous hormones, vitamins A and D, and xenobiotic endocrine disruptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of nuclear receptors, referred to as orphan receptors, have no known (or at least generally agreed upon) endogenous ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous ligands include fatty acids such as arachidonic acid as well as other polyunsaturated fatty acids and various fatty acid-derived compounds such as certain members of the 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of arachidonic acid metabolites, e.g. 15(S)-HETE, 15(R)-HETE, and 15(S)-HpETE and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androstenol and several isomers of androstanol, androstanes, are endogenous antagonists of the CAR, and despite acting as antagonists, were the basis for the naming of this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Comparison of our results with published circadian gene profiles in mice identified 44 putative genes that were regulated in a circadian fashion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epidermal
  • The SP receptor promoter contains regions that are sensitive to cAMP , AP-1 , AP-4 , CEBPB , and epidermal growth factor . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that estrogen stimulation of ERα may trigger the release of growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-1, which in turn regulate bone development and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, PP2A might be activated through another pathway including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Mobilization en bloc of large gene regions can efficiently transfer entire arsenals of functional modules that promote survival and infection activities. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most T4SSs comprise three functional substructures: cell surface pili or adhesins that mediate contact between cells, a transport channel that conducts substrates across the bacterial cell envelope, and a type IV coupling protein (T4CP) that acts as substrate receptor at the cytoplasmic entrance of the secretion channel. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • healthy compact May functional 1. (pd19.org)
  • tissues
  • Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia, endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development and function of these tissues is disrupted in animal models lacking active ERα genes, such as the ERα knockout mouse (ERKO), providing a preliminary understanding of ERα function at specific target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In central nervous system structures, the glucocorticoid receptor is gaining interest as a novel representative of neuroendocrine integration, functioning as a major component of endocrine influence - specifically the stress response - upon the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • It functions as a co-receptor for B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), regulating signal transduction. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C (CD45) regulates signal transduction and lymphocyte activation by specific association with receptor molecules on T and B cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Migratory cells must regulate molecules involved in cell motility, such as cell-surface receptors and signal transduction molecules, to ensure that cells or growth cones migrate at the proper time, in the appropriate direction, and along the correct path. (genetics.org)
  • Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines , it has been proposed that cytokines and neurotropic factors can induce NK-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • We used DNA microarrays to determine the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on gene regulation in biopsy samples of human quadriceps muscle obtained 6 and 18 hours after an acute bout of isotonic exercise with one leg. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also profiled diurnal gene regulation at the same time points (2000 and 0800 hours) in the non-exercised leg. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The coordinated regulation of the circadian clock genes Cry1 , Per2 , and Bmal1 6 hours after RE and diurnal genes 18 hours after RE in the exercised leg suggest that RE may directly modulate circadian rhythms in human skeletal muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors generally only happens when a ligand - a molecule that affects the receptor's behavior - is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, ligand binding to a nuclear receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor, which, in turn, activates the receptor, resulting in up- or down-regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCPOBOP) or indirect regulation by phenobarbital (PB), a common seizure medication, facilitating the dephosphorylation of CAR through protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A protein that is a translation product of the human CD19 gene or a 1:1 ortholog thereof. (githubusercontent.com)
  • An integrin alpha with A domain that is a translation product of the human ITGA2 gene or a 1:1 ortholog thereof. (githubusercontent.com)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of human liver X receptor β(LXRβ) forming heterodimer with its partner retinoid X receptor α(RXRα) on its cognate element, an AGGTCA direct repeat spaced by 4 nt shows an extended X-shaped arrangement, with DNA- and ligand-binding domains crossed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CAR can be activated by CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo(2,1-b)(1,3)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime). (wikipedia.org)